Music Appreciation Baroque Period Terms to know: Octave: - interval spanning eight notes of the scale Half Steps: - smallest interval used Whole Steps: - two half steps make a whole steps Chromatic Scale: - made of these twelve half steps Major and Minor Scales are built on patterns of seven whole and half steps. Major Scale: Do Re Mi Fa So La Ti Do http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7EYAUazLI9k Sharp (#) is a symbol that raise a pitch by a half step Flat (b) is a symbol that lowers a tone by a half step http://spider.georgetowncollege.edu/music/larue/music315/315_-_Piano_Keyboard.jpg (keyboard) Composers can shift the pitch level of an entire work (transposition) or change the center or key during a work (modulation), in order to create tension and drama The Baroque and the Arts Baroque Era (1600-1750) This era saw the rise of middle-class culture, with music-making centered in the home, church and at the universities (in a group called the collegium musicum), art portrayed scenes of bourgeois life. Baroque Baroque era started around 1600 and ended with the death of Bach in 1750. The term ?baroque? was probably derived from the Portuguese word barroco an irregular shaped pearl much used in jewelry of the time. The Transition from the classically minded Renaissance to the Baroque was foreshadowed in the art of Michelangelo, reflect the Baroque love of the dramatic. collegium musicium The middle classes, excluded from the salons of the aristocracy created a culture of their own. Their music-making took place in home, church, and the university group known as collegium musicum Main Currents in Baroque Music monody ( one song) featuring solo song with instrumental accompaniment Monody was developed by groups of writers and musicians (such as the Florentine Camerata) to recreate the musical ? dramatic art of ancient Greece. figured bass composer put a numeral above or below that bass note, indicating the chord required (this kind of notation was called figured bass) Figured bass basso continuo One played the bass line on a cello or bassoon, and another filled in the harmonies on a chordal instrument (generally harpsichord, organ, or lute), provides a foundation over which a vocal or instrumental melody could unfold. major-minor tonality simple style based on a single-line melody and less complex harmonies lead to one of the most significant changes in all music history: the establishment of major-minor tonality. Each chord could assume its function in relation to the key center, the movements between keys, governed by tonality, helped shape musical structure. Equal Temperament establishment of a new tuning system that allowed instruments to play in any key, it adjusted the mathematically ?pure? intervals? within the octave to equalize the distance between adjacent tones, making it possible to play in every major and minor key without experiencing unpleasant sounds Johann Sebastian Bach Well-Tempered Clavier a two-volume keyboard collection, is containing twelve major and twelve minor keys preludes and fugues. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZ_PJvAYlX4 Today, our ears are conditioned to the equal tempered system, since this is how pianos are now tuned. Baroque Musical Style Energetic movement, vigorous rhythm based on the regular recurrence of accent. Continuous melody (e.g. in vocal music) Wide leap and chromatic tones Dissonant chords Terraced Dynamics Doctrine of the Affections By the late 17th century, an entire piece or movement was normally built on a single affection, applying what was known as the doctrine of the affections. The opening musical idea established the mood of the piece, which prevailed until the work?s end. This procedure differs markedly from the practice of later eras, when music was based on two or more contrasting emotions. The Rise of the Virtuoso Musicians Domenico Scarlatti (challenging harpsichord sonatas) Antonio Vivaldi (virtuosic violin works) by the castrato, a male singer who was castrated during boyhood in order to preserve the soprano or alto register of his voice for the rest of his life Castrato Baroque audiences associated the voice with heroic male roles. The most famous one is Farinelli (Belgian movie Farinelli 1994) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWMOmBohlTE Castrato This inhumane custom was almost universally abolished after the French Revolution, the castrato roles performed today, are usually sung in lower register by tenor or baritone or in original register by a countertenor or woman singer in male costume. Improvisation realizing the abbreviations of the figured bass musicians added their own embellishments to what was written down (a custom found today in jazz and pop music). Have you ever watched Soap Opera? Let us list some characteristics of Soap Opera! http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JxMTdTnHK6c Baroque Opera Composers Monteverdi Purcell Handel Baroque Opera a large scale music drama that combines poetry, acting, scenery, and costumes with singing and instrumental music Recitative - Sung on note, but speech-like question and answer dialogue that builds tension Followed by ?aria? Two types of Recitatives: Secco ? accompanied by basso continuo instruments and moves with great freedom. Accompagnato ? accompanied by the orchestra and thus moves more evenly Aria Recitative and Aria aria is a song, usually of a highly emotional nature can be sung out of context Da Capo Aria: ternary, or A-B-A form; brings back the first sections with embellishments improvised by the soloist. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BPKBkjamc_s&mode=related&search= Ensemble Numbers An opera may contain ensemble numbers ? duets, trios, quartets, and so on Chorus, used to back up the solo voices or may function independently http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bFdB8Zz8VOo overture Orchestra supports the action of the opera as well, setting the appropriate mood for the different scenes Overture: an instrumental number heard at the beginning of most operas (may introduce melodies from arias) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l25f4YOXg3I Interludes/Sinfornias Each act of the opera normally opens with an orchestral introduction, and between scenes we may find interludes or sinfornias (in Baroque Opera) a librettist who writes the text of the opera using dramatic insight to create characters and the story line, with its main threads and subplots libretto text or script of the opera must be devised to give the composer an opportunity to write music for the diverse numbers Early Opera Early opera often featured lavish spectacles and scenic displays appropriate for royal wedding and similar ceremonial occasions. Example: Monteverdi?s Orfeo (1607) Opera in France Italian opera had gained wide popularity in the rest of Western Europe, except France. tragedie lyrique,- combined colorful, dance scenes and spectacular choruses in tales of courtly love and heroic adventure Composer: Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) Opera in England Engilsh masque, - entertainment that combined vocal and instrumental music with poetry and dance Aristocracy favored ?semi-operas? John Blow Henry Purcell Henry Purcell: His life and music Henry Purcell (1659-1695) Dido and Aeneas 1689 In this opera, discovered the true tone of lyric drama ?British Orpheus? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orpheus You need to know the storyline of Dido and Aeneas! After the Fall of Troy Listening: Dido and Aeneas (CD 34-36) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_50zj7J50U&mode=related&search= Recitative and Aria Ostinato/Ground Bass http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t1Zr61ZFw5E&feature=related Grief ? Descending Chromatic Scale Color Painting ?soft? with sighing effect in Chorus part (check your CD track 36) Handel and late baroque opera George Frederic Handel (1685-1759) Rinaldo in 1711 aria, Molto Voglio, Molto Spero Listen to da capo aria Listen to Melismas contrasted by the mostly syllabic singing style. Barbara Strozzi Barbara Strozzi (1619-1677) Begli oochi (Beautiful Eyes) CD 37-42 Unique figure Italian secular Cantata Italian Cantata Italian Cantata was a vocal genre for solo singers, and instrumental accompaniment based on lyric, dramtic or narrative poetry. 3 poetic genres Lyric: expresses personal emotion and allow the music to dominate the story Dramatic: written for performance in a play: e.g. a comedy or tragedy Narrative: tells a story, following characters through a plot Earlier Cantatas short and intimate usually based on a secular text consisted of several sections set as recitatives and arias Bach and the Sacred Cantata mostly written for the Lutheran church service Johann Sebastian Bach Multi-movement works with solo arias, recitatives, and choruses, all with orchestral accompaniment unified by a chorale, or hymn tune, sung in four-part harmony Just a glimpse wrote many cantatas one Mass orchestral suites Concertos many keyboard music for organ and harpsichord. Something about Bach Bach?s family Bach?s career Bach once said, ?I have to work hard, anyone who works as hard will get just as far.? * Check out his Principal Works * Bach: Cantata No.80 A Mighty Fortress is Our God Overall Structure: 1. Chorale Fugue 2. Aria, Duet 3. Recitative/Arioso 4. Aria 5. Chorus 6. Recitative/Arioso 7. Aria, Duet 8. Chorale Handel and the Oratorio What is Oratorio? It is a large-scale dramatic genre with a religious or biblical text performed by solo voices, chorus and orchestra, not staged or costumed Oratorio (in point form!) It is a large-scale dramatic genre with a religious or biblical text performed by solo voices, chorus and orchestra not staged or costumed Handel?s Bio Handel (1685-1759) In his 20s Opera and Oratorio: Handel was known for his Italian operas, and later with his English-texted oratorio (include Messiah) Why Oratorio? Health and Death Messiah in 3 parts Christmas section Easter section Redemption section Listening (Handel Messiah) Handel Messiah Overture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bnK8V3BZNeM Soprano Aria ?Rejoice Greatly? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y4ZrG-4Kbls ?Hallelujah? Chorus http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNvo3-aRwEc&mode=related&search= Instrumental Music of the Baroque Rise of Instrumental Music - instrumental music as important as vocal music - developed new instruments and perfected the old ones - great virtuosos - instrumentation use (more specific) Great Virtuosos Organ: Bach and Handel Violin: Corelli and Vivaldi Harpsichord: Scarlatti and Couperin Instrumentation Color/Timbre of an instruments Instrument designations became more precise, which leads to art of orchestration Baroque Instruments String Instruments: Workshops of Stradivarus, Guarneri and Amati Made of gut rather than the steel Bows were shorter and lighter American violinist Joshua Bell with his Stradivarius violins Baroque Instruments Composers used more woodwind instruments in late Baroque for its timbre, e.g. flute, oboe and recorder all made of wood and suggesting pastoral scenes. They improve their fingering mechanisms of the instruments, more reliable and easier to play. Baroque Instruments Percussion Instruments Timpani were the only percussion instruments in common use at this time. They were used sparingly in the orchestra Baroque Instruments Keyboard Instruments Organ: church and home Harpsichord: different from Piano Clavichord: home use, with soft and gentle tone Both harpsichord and Clavichord were replaced by piano by the end of 18th C. Sonata Trio Sonata: - favorite ensemble combination in the Baroque was two violins and continuo. - 3 musical parts (2 violin + continuo) - 4 musical players Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) Italian composer + influential violin teacher Published 4 volumes of trio sonatas including ?chamber sonatas? and ?church sonatas?. Op.3 No.2 (4 movement Church sonatas) in the standard slow-fast-slow-fast tempo Listening Example Corelli: Trio Sonata Op.3 No.2 4 Movements: I. Grave *Slow II. Allegro *Fast III. Adagio *Slow IV. Allegro *Fast Domenico Scarlatti Solo Sonata sonatas for single, unaccompanied instruments Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757) wrote more than 550 sonatas for solo harpsichord His Career Typical Scarlatti Sonata is in 1 movement binary form (AB form) Concertos Two types of Concertos: Solo Concerto, one instrument set against the orchestra Concerto Grosso, a small group of soloists and orchestra - small group: concertino - larger group: tutti or ripieno Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Spring from Four Seasons (1725) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJQgt-nKHOU Musical pictorialization of images of spring, based on the poem (birds, babbling brooks, gentle breezes, thunder and lightening) Bach Late Baroque Concerto Brandenburg Concerto No.2 Solo Group (concertino): trumpet, recorder, oboe and violin (in high register) Accompanying Group (tutti/ripieno): first and second violins, violas, double basses. Basso continuo is played by cello and harpsichord. Baroque Orchestra Bach - Brandenburg Concertos No.2 - i: Allegro Moderato http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EC1E4_imS0A Sonata Trio Sonata: - favorite ensemble combination in the Baroque was two violins and continuo. - 3 musical parts (2 violin + continuo) - 4 musical players Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713) Italian composer + influential violin teacher Published 4 volumes of trio sonatas including ?chamber sonatas? and ?church sonatas?. Op.3 No.2 (4 movement Church sonatas) in the standard slow-fast-slow-fast tempo Listening Example Corelli: Trio Sonata Op.3 No.2 4 Movements: I. Grave *Slow II. Allegro *Fast III. Adagio *Slow IV. Allegro *Fast Domenico Scarlatti Solo Sonata sonatas for single, unaccompanied instruments Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757) wrote more than 550 sonatas for solo harpsichord His Career Typical Scarlatti Sonata is in 1 movement binary form (AB form) Concertos Two types of Concertos: Solo Concerto, one instrument set against the orchestra Concerto Grosso, a small group of soloists and orchestra - small group: concertino - larger group: tutti or ripieno Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) Spring from Four Seasons (1725) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJQgt-nKHOU Musical pictorialization of images of spring, based on the poem (birds, babbling brooks, gentle breezes, thunder and lightening) Bach Late Baroque Concerto Brandenburg Concerto No.2 Solo Group (concertino): trumpet, recorder, oboe and violin (in high register) Accompanying Group (tutti/ripieno): first and second violins, violas, double basses. Basso continuo is played by cello and harpsichord. Baroque Orchestra Bach - Brandenburg Concertos No.2 - i: Allegro Moderato http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EC1E4_imS0A Baroque Instrumental Music Sonata (Trio Sonata and Solo Sonata) Concerto (Solo Concerto & Concerto Grosso) The Baroque Suite Keyboard music (Chorale Preludes and Preludes and Fugues) Suite? In Music, Suite is ?? an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting The Baroque Suite a group of dances, usually in the same key with each piece in binary form (A-A-B-B) or Ternary form (A-B-A). The standard dances in the suite are: Allemande Courante Sarabande gigue Standard Order of the Baroque Dance Suite Dance Type Meter Tempo Overture (Optional) German Allemande Quadruple Moderate French Courante Triple Moderate Spanish Sarabande Triple Slow Other Dances (e.g. Minuet/Hornpipe)-optional English Gigue 6/8 or 6/4 Fast (lively) Structure of each piece binary, each repeated (A-A-B-B) Or ternary (A-B-A). usually start with Tonic (I) and change to Dominant (V) key; then in B section, eventually move back to Tonic (I). The 2 sections often use closely related melodic material. Keyboard Suite (instrumental suite) Bach?s French and English suites for harpsichord then French composer Couperin with his keyboard suites; and later developed to be orchestral suite. Handel and the orchestral suite Two orchestral suites The Water Music Music for the Royal Fireworks Thames River ? Water Music Water Music is a collection of orchestral movements, often considered as three suites Premiere: July 17, 1717 (7-17-1717) Royal Party on Thames River in London King George 1 NO HARPSICHORD!!! Listening Example: CD 2 (1-3) Second movement: Alla Hornpipe http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vf6RfR7YHto&feature=related Keyboard forms of Baroque Two categories: 1. free forms based on harmony, with a strong element of improvisation, such as prelude and chorale prelude 2. stricter forms based on counterpoint, such as fugue. Bach is our master of both types. Bach is the master of both preludes and fugues. His collection Well-Tempered Clavier was a collection of preludes and fugues. Prelude and Fugue Prelude: short piece based on the continuous expansion of a melodic or rhythmic figure. Fugue: a contrapuntal composition in which a single theme pervades the entire fabric, entering in one voice and then in another. It is based on principle of imitation. Writing technique: A melody can be presented in longer time values, often twice as slow as the original, using augmentation or in shorter time values that go by faster, diminution Writing Technique (continued) The pitches can also be stated backwards (starting from the last note and preceding to the first) - retrograde Or turned upside down (in mirror image), moving by the same intervals but in the opposite direction, a technique called inversion. Listening Example at home CD 1 (58-61) Can you hear imitation between musical phrases? Baroque Review Power Point Presentation: Listening Part: 1. Lido?s Lament (Purcell) CD1, 34-36 2. Strozzi: Begli occhi CD 1, 37-42 3. Bach Cantata No.80 no.8 CD 1, 50-51 4. Handel Messiah ?Rejoice Greatly? CD1, 52-54 5. Handel Messiah ?Hallelujah? CD1, 55-57 6. Bach: Fugue CD1 58-61 7. Vivaldi: Spring 1st movement CD1, 62-67 8. Handel: Water Music Alla hornpipe CD2, 1-3
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