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School of Veterinary Medicine - St. George's University
School of Veterinary Medicine - St. George's University
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consists of sheets of aggregated cells of similar type that cover or line the external and internal surfaces of the body
Epithelium resting on the basement membrane can be demonstrated with...
PAS technique or silver salt staining
Basement membrane consists of...
1) Lamina lucida 2) Lamina densa 3) Subbasal lamina
What makes up the basal lamina?
1) Lamina lucida 2) Lamina densa
What is the lamina lucida?
A low density, clear area next to the epithelium
What is the lamina densa?
An electron dense layer composed mainly of proteoglycans and a special type of collagen
What is the subbasal lamina composed of?
What does the subbasal lamina connect?
The lamina dense to the sub epithelial connective tissue
What are the functions of the basement membrane
Protection, absorption, secretion, and diffusion
Classification of epithelium is based on...
1) Number of layers present 2) Shape of the cells
single layer of cells resting on the basement membrane
two or more layers of cells with only the basal cell layer resting on the basement membrane
What are the 3 shapes of epithelium?
1) squamous 2) cuboidal 3) columnar
Simple squamous epithelium
a single layer of thin, flat and scale-like cells with a spherical or oval nucleus giving a bulging appearance
Simple squamous epithelium are found...
lining of the blood vessels, pleural and peritoneal cavities, pulmonary alveoli and glomerular capsule
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Single layer of cuboidal cells with centrally placed nucleus
Simple cuboidal epithelium are found...
In thyroid gland, collecting ducts of the kidney
Simple columnar epithelium
Tall, narrow cells with an oval nucleus located near the base of the cell
Simple columnar epithelium cells are found...
In stomach, intestine and gall bladder
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Single layer of cells, but different cell shapes and position of nuclei gives impression of stratified epithelium
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium are found...
In trachea and bronchi (ciliated form)
Stratified squamous epithelium
Several layers of cells with the top most layer having a squamous shape
Stratified squamous epithelium cells are found...
In skin (keratinized) and cornea (non-keratinized)
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
Several layers of cells with the top most having the cubodial shape. NEVER more than 3 layers
Stratified cuboidal epithelium cells are found...
In the lining of excretory ducts of glands
Stratified columnar epithelium
Several layers of cells with the top most layer having the columnar shape. 3-4 layers
Stratified columnar epithelium cells are found...
in parotid and mandibular gland ducts
Line certain hollow organs and is capable of considerable distention
Transitional epithelium cells are found...
In urinary bladder and urethra
Transitional epithelium cells in a relaxed state...
are dome-shaped and bulge into the lumen
Transitional epithelium cells when stretched...
are reduced to only a few layers of flattened cells
consists of glandular or secretory epithelium and duct system ( parenchyma) with a supportive framework of connective tissue (stroma)
ductless gland, secretions are released into intercellular fluid and transported to site of action by blood
with a system of ducts, uses the ducts to transport secretions to action site
Simple tubular gland
Simple tubular glands are found...
In large intestine
Simple coiled tubular
Simple coiled tubular cells are found...
Simple branched tubular
Simple branched tubular cells are found...
Simple alveolar or acinar gland
Simple alveolar or acinar gland cells are found...
Simple branched acinar or alveolar gland
Simple branched acinar or alveolus glands are found...
In large sebaceous gland
Compound tubular exocrine gland
Compound alveolar or acinar
Intralobular, interlobular, lobar ducts and the main ducts
within a lobe
produce a thin, watery secretion. Nucleus are spherical in the center and their apical cytoplasm is filled with small secretory granules (zymogen granules)
An example of the serous gland is...
Parotid salivary gland
produce a think, viscous (mucin) secretion. Forms protective covering
Mucous gland lightly with _____ because of ______.
Mucous gland nuclei have what kind of shape?
flattened and displaced toward basal part of cell
Seromucous or mixed gland
Have both serous and mucous acini
An example of seromucous gland is...
in the mandibular salivary gland
secretory granules enclosed in a membrane, discharged by exocytosis
Membrane-bounded granule, together with a rim of cytoplasm and plasmalemma, released from the apex of the cell
Example of apocrine
sweat and mammary glands
Entire cell is released as the secretory product
Example of holocrine
Secretory material from one cell is transferred from the one cell to the cytoplasm of another cell
Example of cytocrine
transfer of melanin pigment from the melanocytes into the keratinocytes
Interposed between the secretory cells and basement membrane
What happens when myoepithelial cells contract?
Forces secretory product into the duct system
connects other tissue and provides a framework to support the entire body by cartilage and bone
Connective tissue is composed of...
1) Cells 2) Fibers 3) Amorphous ground substance
Connective cell tissue cells are composed of...
mesenchymal, fibroblasts, reticular, adipocytes, pericytes, plasma cells, macrophages, pigment cells
Connective tissue fibers composed of...
collagen, elastic and reticular fibers
Amorphous ground substance is composed of...
proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and interstitial fluid
Irregularly shaped with multiple processes, usually found adjacent to blood vessels
Mesenchymal cells serve as...
a reservoir of cells that can differentiate into any other type of connective tissue cell
Most common cells and responsible for synthesis of fibers and intercellular ground substance (wound repair)
2 stages of activity
1) Fibroblast (active) 2) Fibrocyte (quiescent)
The active fibroblast has/is...
1) long and branched cytoplasm processes 2) ovoid nucleus 3) euchromatic 4) cytoplasm is rich in rough ER and golgi complex
Contain actin filament
Myofibroblast play role in...
contraction during wound healing
Stellate-shaped cells with spherical nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm
Reticular cells produce...
adipose or fat cells
2 types of adipocytes
1) Unilocular 2) Multilocular
Filled with large lipid droplets; nucleus is displaced to periphery
Unilocular adipocytes are also known as...
centrally located nucleus, multiple lipid droplets and high concentration of mitochondria
Another name for multilocular adipocytes
Elongated cells located adjacent to the endothelium lining small blood vessels
actin and myosin
Pericytes have the potential to...
transform into other cells and participate in healing process
Mast cells are common where?
Loose connective tissue and abundant around blood vessels
What are mast cells?
Large polymorphic, spherical or ovoid cells, which contain numerous secretory granules in the cytoplasm
With what are mast cells stained? What color do they turn?
Stained with toluidine blue. Stain red (metachromatic stain)
Mast cells produce...
heparin (anticoagulant) and histamine (vasoconstrictor)
What is heparin?
What is histamine?
Plasma cells are...
Spherical or ovoid cells with spherical, eccentric nucleus
The arrangement of chromatin give plasma cell nucleus a...
The cytoplasm in plasma cells is intensely...
Plasma cells are abundant in...
lymphatic tissues and lamina propria of the GI tract
Plasma cells develop from ______ and produce ________.
Macrophage cells derived from...
monocytes that migrate across the blood vessel walls to connective tissue
Phagocytic cells, large, ovoid or spherical cells that contain cytoplasmic vacuoles and numerous lysosomes
cells containing pigments
What is the pigment in pigment cells
What are examples of pigment cells
dermis, uterine caruncles, choroid and iris
lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes (blood cells) that migrate through the wall of the capillaries to the connective tissues
What are the 3 connective tissue fibers?
Collagen, Reticular and Elastic fibers
Where are collagen fibers present?
In tendon, ligament and organ capsule
What fibers are most abundant in mature connective tissue?
Collagen fibers are composed of what fibrous protein?
Collagen fibers are strong and flexible but ____.
Collagen fibers have what type of arrangement?
What stain is used to stain collagen fibers red? Blue?
Red: Van Gieson's Method
Blue: Mallory's and Masson's Trichrome
Reticular fibers form delicate, _____ networks.
Reticular fibers form networks around...
Capillaries, muscle fibers and nerves
Reticular fibers form the framework of...
Live, endocrine and lymphatic organs
Reticular fibers can be stained with...
Reticular fibers are also called _____ because of their affinity for sliver salts.
Reticular fibers are actually individual collagen fibrils or?
Type 3 collagen
Type 3 collagen is coated with...
proteoglycans and glycoproteins
What fibers are present in structures that require elasticity?
Where are elastic fibers found?
Aorta and muscular arteries, nuchal ligament, Pinna of ear and lungs
Elastic fibers are stained light pink in what stain?
Elastic fibers are selectively stained by what 2 stains?
Orcein and resorcin-fuchsin
Elastic fibers are composed of ____ _____, covered by _____.
elastin protein; glycoprotein
What is a glycoprotein that is essential for formation of elastic fibers?
What is amorphous ground substance composed of?
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and proteoglycans
5 major types of GAGs
1) Hyaluronic acid
2) Chondroitin sulphate
3) Dermatin sulphate
4) Keratin sulphate
5) Heparin sulphate
Where is hyaluronic acid found?
vitreous body of eye and in synovial fluid
Where is chondroitin sulphate found?
Cartilage, bone, and large blood vessels
Where is derma tin sulphate found?
Tendons and ligaments
Where is keratin sulphate found?
Cartilage and bones
Where is heparin sulphate found?
Arteries and lungs
How are proteoglycans formed?
Covalently linking GAGs to a protein core
What are the 2 types of Embryonic CT?
Mesenchymal and Mucous or gelatinous CT
What are mesenchymal CT composed of?
mesenchymal cells and fluid-like ground substance
Mesenchyme CT gives rise to...
various types of adult connective tissue
Mucous (gelationous) CT is found...
In umbilical cord and bovine glans penis
Mucous (gelationous) CT is composed of...
fibroblast, gel-like ground substance and collagen fibers
What are the 5 Adult CT?
1) Loose or Areolar CT
2) Dense CT
3) Elastic CT
4) Reticular CT
5) Adipose CT
Loose (areolar) CT is found...
Beneath epithelium, around blood vessels and nerves, and in serous membranes
Loose (areolar) CT form a loose network of..
collagenous, reticular and elastic fibers
Dense CT is mainly composed of...
thick collagenous fibers and few fibroblast cells
2 types of dense CT
Irregular and regular
Dense irregular CT is in...
capsules of organs, deep layer of dermis
Dense regular CT is in...
tendons, ligaments and aponeurosis
Elastic tissue is characterised by...
numerous regularly or irregularly arranged elastic fibers
Elastic tissue is found...
Nuchal ligament and vocal ligament
Reticular tissue is composed of...
reticular cells and a network of reticular fibers
Adipose tissue consists of...
adipocytes within loose CT
What are the 2 types of adipose tissue?
1) White adipose tissue
2) Brown adipose tissue
Cartilage consists of...
Chondroblasts and chondrocytes and matrix
Cartilage lacks what?
What are chondroblast and where are they found?
Producing (active) cartilage cells; found in growing cartilage
Where are chondrocytes located?
Cartilage matrix shows...
What are the 3 types of cartilage?
Hyaline cartilage is found...
articular surfaces of bones, nose and trachea
What surrounds hyaline cartilage?
Does hyaline cartilage have fibers? If so what?
Where is elastic cartilage found?
Pinna and epiglottis
Does elastic cartilage have fibers? If so what?
Yes. Large amount of elastic fibers
Fibrocartilage is found...
intervertebral discs and menisci
Fibrocartilage is characterised by...
presence of type 1 collagen fibers
Bone is specialised connective tissue composed of...
Intercellular calcified material, osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts
What are osteoblasts?
Bone forming cells
Osteoblasts secrete what?
Osteoid (organic matter of bony matrix)
What are osteocytes?
Mature bone cells
What are osteoclasts?
Bone eating cells
Osteoclast cells are the only bone cells that ...
Organic matter of bone matrix contains...
sulphated GAGs, glycoprotein and type 1 collagen fibers
Inorganic matter of bone matrix contains...
Calcium and phosphorus mainly but bicarbonate, citrate, magnesium, potassium and sodium are also found
Calcium and phosphorus in bone matrix form...
How are hydroxyapatite crystals in bone matrix deposited?
As slender needles within the collagen network
What are the 3 bone structures?
3) Epiphyseal cartilage (Growth plate)
Periosteum consists of...
fibrous and osteogenic layers
Where on the bone is the periosteum not found?
articulating surfaces and where tendons and ligaments insert on the bone
the marrow cavity
Endosteum consists of...
Only osteogenic layer
Compact bone forms...
outer shells of the diaphyses and epiphyses
Spongy bone occurs...
In the interior of the epiphysis
Another name for spongy bone is...
Spongy bone consists of..
delicate bony plates and spicules
Compact bone consists of..
What is another term for osteon?
Each osteon consists of...
Central canal surrounded by concentric lamellae
Central canal contains...
blood vessels, nerves and loose CT
Concentric lamellae are...
collagen fibers arranged concentrically around the central canal
Lacunae containing osteocytes are found...
What are centrals canals connected by?
What is another term for central canal?
Intramembranous ossification is...
Direct bone making
Intramembranous ossification is found...
base of the skull
Intracartilaginous or endochondral ossification is...
cartilage that will ossify to bone
Intracartilaginous ossification is found with what bones?
Appendicular skeleton, Vertebral column and bones of the base of the skull.
NOT facial bones!!!
Property of muscular tissue
Contractibility and produces organized movement
Specialized muscular tissue; muscle fibers or myofibers
Muscular tissue cytoplasm (sarcoplasm) is ______ because of numerous myofilaments.
Cytoplasm of muscular tissue is called?
Is Skeletal muscle striated or non striated and is it voluntary or involuntary?
Striated and voluntary
What are examples of skeletal muscles?
muscles attached to the bones of the skeleton
muscle striated or non striated and is it voluntary or involuntary?
Striated and Involuntary
What are examples of cardiac muscles?
Muscles attached to the walls of the heart
muscle striated or non striated and is it voluntary or involuntary
non-striated and involuntary
What are examples of smooth muscles?
walls of most viscera; wall of the GI tract, uterus, urinary bladder
What is the size in um of skeletal muscle myocytes? diameter and length
Length: up to 50um
Where are the nuclei of skeletal muscles located?
on the peripheral
Skeletal muscle myofibrils are aligned how?
What are myofibrils in skeletal muscle composed of?
Thick and thin myofilaments
What do thick skeletal muscle filaments consist of?
What are thin skeletal muscle filaments composed of?
Actin, troponin and tropomyosin
What are present in the darker A band of skeletal muscle?
Thick and Thin myofilaments overlapping
What is present in the lighter I band?
Only thin myofilaments
What is responsible for striation in skeletal muscle?
Alternating light and dark bands
What bisects each I band
Z line (dark transverse line)
What is the lighter zone in the center of each A band?
What bisects the H band?
Sarcoplasm contains what?
Smooth ER, glycogen, mitochondria and myoglobin
Sarcoplasm is covered by what?
Each skeletal muscle finer is surrounded by a basal lamina and reticular fibers. This is termed...
What is the dense irregular CT that surrounds each bundle of skeletal muscle fibers?
The dense irregular CT that surrounds the skeletal muscle at the cross anatomical level is called...
What skeletal muscle cells represent inactive myoblasts that can be activated upon injury?
Since satellite cells are inactive their nuclei must be...
In skeletal muscles what are red fibers?
In skeletal muscles what are the red fibers rich in?
Myoglobin and mitochondria
In skeletal muscles what are white fibers?
In skeletal muscles the white fibers are _____ the red fibers and have few _____.
Cardiac muscle myocytes _____ and ______.
Cardic muscle cells have a ____ nucleus that is located where?
single; in the center of the cell
In cardiac muscles where are intercalated discs present?
At the junction of the adjacent cells
What is a syncitium?
Cardic muscle intercalated discs that link adjacent cells mechanically and electrically
In cardiac muscle, myofibril arrangement is _____ to that of skeletal muscle.
What are Purkinje fibers?
modified cardiac muscle for impulse conduction
What is the shape of smooth muscle cells?
In smooth muscle cells, thin myofilaments are composed of what?
actin and tropomyosin ONLY
In smooth muscle cells, thick filaments are composed of?
In smooth muscle cells, what are more numerous? Thin or Thick myofilaments
In smooth muscle cells, dense bodies serve as what?
Anchor sites for the myofilaments
In smooth muscle cells, what link the dense bodies?
In skeletal muscle cells what type of regeneration is there?
In cardiac muscle cells what type of regeneration is there?
In smooth muscle what type of regeneration is there?
What muscle cell type has the best regeneration?
Smooth muscle cells
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