Mechanical work is best described as the conversion of a high energy bond, such as that in an ATP bond, to instigate a conformational change in a protein. See figure 19.4
DNP is an uncoupler of the electron transport chain dissipating the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
The lower Km for oxygen allows cytochrome oxidase to ‘pull’ oxygen from myoglobin and hemoglobin, additionally it is bound to copper ions that allows for the collection of 4 electrons required for the reduction of oxygen
CoQ is the only mobile component of the ETC, its ability to accept both electrons and protons is unique to this part of the ETC
The oxidation of double bonds is most commonly coupled to the reduction of FAD because FAD can accept two electrons. NAD+ is usually coupled with the oxidation of alcohols as it can accept one electron.
Complex II or Succinate dehydrogenase is coupled to the TCA cycle and accepts succinate rather than malate as a substrate.
Complex II or Succinate dehydrogenase is coupled to the TCA cycle and accepts succinate rather than malate as a substrate
A negative ΔG0 is indicative of a spontaneous reaction. ΔS is the change in entropy or an increase in disorder, this value is often negligible
Uncoupling of the electron transport chain by thermogenin
See figure 21.12. Thermogenin is an uncoupler of the electron transport chain
DNP is an uncoupler of the electron transport chain dissipating the proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane and increasing oxygen consumption
two electrons as a hydride ion
See figure 19.9
See figure 22.8
A series of reactions have the following ΔG.
A + B --> C ΔG = -1
C + D --> E ΔG = +3
E + F --> G ΔG = -5The over all ΔG for this series of reactions is determine to be which of the following values?
See figure 28.9
See figure 27.12
This process relies on a Na gradient to move glucose from the intestine to the epithelium
Glucose can be used to synthesize fatty acids in the liver. These molecules are packaged into VLDL particles at triacylglycerols where they are delivered to the adipose.
See figure 26.6
See Figure 28.10
This is a key regulatory step in glycolysis review Fig 22.12
phosphoglucomutase, UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, glycogen synthase, amylo-4,6-transferase (branching enzyme)
See figure 28.3
Generation of glucose 1-phosphate to be used for glycogen synthesis
See Figure 28.3 and table 28.2
See table 27.5. GLUT4 is insulin sensitive on and skeletal muscle and adipose
See figure 26.9 The release of ACTH from the pituitary stimulates the adrenal gland to release both cortisol and epinephrine
The second messenger for glucagon is cAMP. Review Module 2 GPCR signaling cascades
The A and B chain are held together thru disulfide bonds. Shown in figure 26.10, the proinsulin form requires cleavage and removal of the C-peptide for activation
See Table 26.1. Insulin is an anabolic hormone, consequently it facilitates the synthesis rather than the degradation of products. Cortisol is responsible for the mobilization of amino acids from muscle.
Epinephrine is a counter regulatory hormone that facilitates catabolic reactions. See Table 26.2
Phosphorylation of glucose by hexokinase or glucokinase is essential for retaining glucose in the cell.
Pyruvate can be aminated directly to alanine
See table 27.5. GLUT2 is insulin insensitive and on the liver.
The phosphorylation and inactivation of E1 subunit of PDC(pyruvate dehydrogenase complex)
Which of the following intermediates is an allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase?
Alternative splicing is a means of generating multiple mRNAs from a single pre-mRNA product. This level of regulation is categorized as which of the following?
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