CHPTR 2.1 Chapter 2: Chapter Outline Introduction Transformations in the Ancient Near East New imperial powers The "international system" Iron and bronze The Indo-European Migrations Language Sir William Jones discovers (1786) connection between Sanskrit, Latin and Greek Shared features with Latin and Greek as well as Gothic and Old Persian Was there a Proto-Indo-European language spoken by a single population? Indo-European linguistic forms appear after 2000 B.C.E. The rise of Anatolia Natural resources The Assyrian presence Urban life (e.g., Cappadocia) Trade networks between Anatolia and Mesopotamia Carried Mesopotamian civilization into Anatolia and northern Syria Hittites and Kassites Indo-European speaking people Hittite rulers establish themselves in cities of central Anatolia Politically independent until 1700 B.C.E. Intensely militaristic culture Under Hattusilis I, Hittites extend power throughout Anatolian plateau Controlling overland trade routes Military conquest Mursilis I (c. 1620-1590 B.C.E.) Sought to control Upper Euphrates Drove east to Babylon (1595 B.C.E.) The Kassites Unknown origins Brought peace and prosperity The Kingdom of Mitanni An Indo-European minority A warrior aristocracy United Upper Euphrates and northern Syria into a single kingdom Innovations Horse-drawn chariots Masters of horse training and cavalry tactics Collapsed in the face of Hittite aggression Egypt in the Second Millennium B.C.E. Transformations Foreigners Middle Kingdom Egypt as anxious, uncertain place The Hyksos (1700 B.C.E.) invasion Legitimized rule in accordance with Egyptian precedents Retained their foreign material culture The Nubian kingdom Hyksos driven out, thus establishing the 18th Dynasty The New Kingdom (1550-1075 B.C.E.) A radical departure in Egyptian history and culture Pharaonic rule in Dynasty 18 New type of nobility -- an aristocracy of military commanders Wealth acquired through war Thutmosis I (c.1504-1491 B.C.E.) Strategy of defense through offense Learned tactics from the Hyksos Queen Hatshepsut and Thutmosis III Hatshepsut served as regent for Thutmosis III Declared herself to be pharaoh in her own right Displayed herself in pictures with a masculine figure and false beard Ruled together with Thutmosis for twenty years Military successes The "Valley of the Kings" (near Thebes) Thutmosis ruled alone after Hatshepsut's death in1458 B.C.E. Removed her name from inscriptions Seventeen military campaigns Amenhotep II (c.1428-1397 B.C.E.) Undermining the strength of the Mitanni Unintended consequences: the Hittites and Assyrians Amenhotep III (c.1387-1350 B.C.E.) Effective administration Exploiting advantages already won
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