BCMB Notes 02/11/10 CREATEDATE 2/11/10 8:10 AM ADDIN AudioData ADDIN AudioMarker 0 Nervous System ADDIN AudioMarker 96 overview: ADDIN AudioMarker 101 our main system of communication and coordination ADDIN AudioMarker 140 Effecter: muscles, glands; things that do something? several pieces of nervous system: ADDIN AudioMarker 175 Central Nervous System: integrating, decision making part of N.S: Brain and Spinal cord ADDIN AudioMarker 242 mostly going to be sensory organs and pathways; whats carrying the info ADDIN AudioMarker 276 some integration ADDIN AudioMarker 357 Efferent pathways carry motor actions to muscles and glands. Going out Somatic Motor: controls skeletal muscle and is typically ?voluntary? (can be under conscious control, may be controlled by subconscious but can also be control by thought. ADDIN AudioMarker 916 Visceral Motor: (a.k.a. Autonomic) controls smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands and is going to be ?involuntary?: not under our conscious control. (may be some exceptions) Sympathetic: are activated in times of physical stress?.?fight or flight? response: getting your body ready to respond to the stress?getting more energy out to muscles, getting more oxygen out?.etc ADDIN AudioMarker 1299 when we get jittery because of a test this is our sympathetics working: increase heart rate, muscles using energy when not needed?. ADDIN AudioMarker 1080 Parasympathetic: (rest/ repair) activate digestive processes, storage of energy, and inhibit other things like heart rate (slow it down) * ADDIN AudioMarker 1432 the biggest misconception is that sympathetic is excitatory and parasympathetics are inhibitory?NOT true. They are each both of these? ADDIN AudioMarker 1070 ADDIN AudioMarker 897 ADDIN AudioMarker 197 Peripheral Nervous System: Afferent (sensory) pathways that carry sensory info to sensory portions of the central NS. ADDIN AudioMarker 465 Special Senses: way more than 5 senses?All associated with a cranial nerve ADDIN AudioMarker 501 1. Vision: ADDIN AudioMarker 505 2. Hearing: ADDIN AudioMarker 509 3. Olfaction: ADDIN AudioMarker 513 4. Taste (gustatory) ADDIN AudioMarker 520 5. Equilibrium: Somatosensory: coming from your skin, lots of different kinds of sensory receptors, light touch and heavier touch, temperature, pain, pressure?all different kinds of touch receptors. ADDIN AudioMarker 687 Visceral sensory: organ (gut) stretch in the bladder, stretch in the stomach, and also give us chemical information, oxygen content in blood?blood pressure, plasma pH, internal organ stretch. ADDIN AudioMarker 783 Propriosensory: coming from joints, tendons, and ligaments?very important in pressure and stretch and tell you about position and tension of limbs?critical for controlling muscle activity?all of these have different properties as to which part of the anatomy they go to etc? Nerve tissue (cell): ADDIN AudioMarker 1587 Neurons: cannot undergo cell division?basically we are born with all that we will have? ADDIN AudioMarker 2211 carry information two ways: ADDIN AudioMarker 1630 dendrite down the body to the axon: by membrane potentials (very fast) ADDIN AudioMarker 1653 from the cell to things like muscles: Neuroglial cells: (glial) helper cells, don?t carry info but assist neurons in some way?can undergo mitosis and produce more? ADDIN AudioMarker 1848 PNS: we have cells called ADDIN AudioMarker 2331 Neuralemmacytes (Schwann cells): produce myelin; in their phospholipids they contain myelin and insulate, contain a myelin sheath?allows the action potential to move faster and more efficiently. Nodes of Ranvier in between these sheaths ADDIN AudioMarker 1856 CNS: ADDIN AudioMarker 2319 Oligodendricyte: produces myelin much like the Schwann cells?its going to be arranged differently?touch many axons unlike the Schwanns ADDIN AudioMarker 2111 Astrocytes: (not carrying info) but play big role in physical: physically connect blood vessels and neurons?also control blood vessels and neuron permeability we can adjust how much goes through vessel?can control neuron growth Neurotransmitters: chemical messengers across the gaps ADDIN AudioMarker 1714 gap between two neurons is called a synapse. (slower) cell that releases neurotransmitter is presynaptic ADDIN AudioMarker 3157 cell that receives the neurotransmitter would be Postsynaptic ADDIN AudioMarker 3173 Release of Neurotransmitter steps: 1. when you have an action potential get down to the synaptic bulb: ADDIN AudioMarker 2662 2. this will open voltage gated calcium channels? ADDIN AudioMarker 2609 3. calcium will move in because less inside ADDIN AudioMarker 2626 4. this calcium moving in causes neurotransmitter release? now the neurotransmitter in in what is called the synaptic cleft: the gap between two neurons? ADDIN AudioMarker 2716 ADDIN AudioMarker 2716 Fate of Neurotransmitter: 1. They could Diffuse away from area: not do anything ADDIN AudioMarker 2775 2. could bind to a transporter: called reuptake transporters on presynaptic membrane: (which moves them back into the cell that released them.) ADDIN AudioMarker 2866 3. bind to enzyme that destroys the neurotransmitter ADDIN AudioMarker 2889 4. to get a response we have to bind it to a receptor and these are usually on the Postsynaptic membrane?but can be on the presynaptic because neurotransmitters can talk to themselves?(negative feedback) : this receptor will change the membrane potential of the postsynaptic membrane: our response will depend on the amount of receptors we have available? ADDIN AudioMarker 3047 ADDIN AudioMarker 2728 PNS: ADDIN AudioMarker 3347 cell bodies are only found in ganglia (ganglion) ADDIN AudioMarker 3240 Axons are in the nerves (a big bundle of axons) CNS: ADDIN AudioMarker 3353 cell bodies are in structures called nucleus (collection of cell bodies), or spinal horns (masses of cell bodies inside the spinal cord) (Gray Matter) ADDIN AudioMarker 3311 axons are in structures called tracts: (White Matter) Monosynaptic: one synapse?example the patellar reflex: initiating stretch receptor then causes an action potential which will end in the kick of you leg ;) we use this clinically to test the integrity of the nerve going in and the spinal?will tell us in general how our nervous system is functioning? *too much sodium causes a depolarization ADDIN AudioMarker 3829 * too much potassium causes a (re)polarization?
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