The total energy required to extract, produce, fabricate and deliver a material to a job site, including the collection of raw materials, the energy used to extract and process the raw materials.
The wall studs are continuous for the full height of the building, usually two stories, from the foundation to the top plates under the roof rafters.
Almost pure iron with a very low carbon content. It is soft but strong, extremely ductile, easily worked and relatively resistant to corrosion.
It is used mainly for ornamental ironwork, grilles, plumbing pipes and outdoor furniture.
Produced by remelting pig iron with steel scraps. It has a relativerly high carbon content (2 percent or more).
Has a high compressive but low tensile strength. It is easily cast into almost any shape, but it is generally too hard and brittle to be shaped by hammering, rolling or pressing.
measures the consistency and workability of the concrete mix and is usually performed in the field.
In this test, concrete is placed in a 12 in high truncated cone, 8 in at the base and 4 in at the top. it is compacted by hand with a rod, and then the mold is removed from the concrete and placed next to it. The distance the concrete slumps from the orginal 12 in height is then measured. The amount of slump desired depends on how the concrete is going to be used, but is typically in the range of 2 in to 6 in. Too great a slump indicates excessive water in the mix, and a very small slump indicates the mixture will be too dificult to place properly.
Measures the compressive strength of concrete and utilizes standard test cylinders 6 inches in diameter and 12 inches long. From each batch of concrete, at least two cylinders are cast, laboratory-cured for 7 and 28 days, respectively and tested in a crusing machine.