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What is behavior, generally and technically? Give three synonyms for behavior
Distinguish between Overt and covert behaviors. Give two examples of each that are not in this chapter.
What is a behavioral deficit? Give two examples that are not in this chapter.
What is behavioral excess? Give two examples that are not in this chapter.
List four myths or misconceptions about behavior modification
List five areas in which behavior modification is being applied
Describe five areas of application within health psychology
Define organizational behavioral management
List four general areas of sport psychology in which behavior modification has been applied
Natural environment is a setting in which anindividual carrier sout normal, everyday functions. Natural reinforcers arereinforcers that follow behavior in the course of everyday living. Programmedreinforcers are reinforcers that are arranged systematically by psychologists,teachers, and others in behavior modification programs.
Consider, for example, childrenwho exhibit extreme social withdrawal. One behavioral characteristic of suchchildren is that they avoid looking at someone who is talking to them.Frequently, they move away from adults. We might conclude that they don’t wantour attention, actually, the withdrawn child’s behavior probably evokes moresocial attention than would have been obtained by looking at the adult. In suchcases, it is only natural for adults to persist in attempting to get a child tolook at them when they speak. Unfortunately, this behavior is likely to reinforcethe child’s withdrawal behavior.
With a Variable-ratio schedule, a reinforceroccurs after a certain number of a particular response, and the number ofresponses required for each reinforcer changes unpredictably from onereinforcer to the next. THe number of responses required for each reinforcement in a VR schedule varies aroundsome mean value, and this value is specified in the designation of thatparticular VR schedule. Suppose for example, that over a period of severmonths, a door-to-door sales person averages on sale for every 10 houses calledon. This does not mean that the salesperson makes a sole at exactly every 10thhouse. Sometimes a sale might have been made after calling on five houses in arow. Sometimes sales might cover at two houses in a row. The salesperson cannever predict exactly when a sale will occur and is likely to continue makinghouse calls right after a sale.
1. Limited-responding DRL specifies a maximumallowable number of responses during a certain time interval in order for areinforcer to occur. An example would be for Tommy, an interval (50 minutes)was specified and reinforcement occurred at the end of the interval if itcontained fewer than a specified number of responses
b. Is the stimulus one that can be presented onlyor at least mainly on occasions when the desired response should occur to avoidconfusion with the occurrence of the stimulus on other occasions?
c. Is the stimulus of the type that the probabilityof the person attending to it when it is presented is high?
d. Are there any undesirable responses that mightbe controlled by the chosen stimulus? (if some undesirable response follows thestimulus, it will interfere with the development of new stimulus control of thedesired response.
b. Gestural prompts: certain motions that a teachermakes, such as pointing hand to be helpful. Gestural prompts are certainmotions that a teacher makes, such as pointing to the correct cue or making signalsdirected to the learner without touching him or her.
c. Modeling prompts: occur when the correctbehavior is demonstrated. A swimming coach might model the correct armmovements for a the freestyle stroke for young swimmers.
d. Verbal prompts: verbal hints or cues. A drivinginstructor might use verbal prompts by telling a student driver to “check overyour left shoulder before pulling out”
b. Identify a response that could be used as astarting point in working toward the final desired behavior. (frank decidedthat he would put on his sneakers and walk around the outside of the houseonce. Ahtough this was a long way from a quarter of a mile, it was a start)
c. Reinforce the starting response; then reinforcecloser and closer approximations until eventually the desired response occurs.(Frankdecided to use the opportunity to drink a beer as a reinforcer. He explainedhis program to his wife and asked her to remind him that he had to complete hisexercise before he could have a beer. After the first approximation hadoccurred on several afternoons, frank increased the requirement to walkingaround his house twice)
b. Frequency (the number of instances that occur in a givenperiod of time)
d. latency (time between the occurrence of a stimulus and theresponse evoked by that stimulus)
e. intensity (or force. Refers to the physicaleffect the response has or potentially has on the environment)
Backward chaining method is when the last stepis tought first, then the next o last step is taught and linked to the laststep, then so on progressing backward toward the beginning of the chain. Itgradually contructs the chain in revers ordre from which the chain isperformed.
a. shaping: new behavior along some physicaldimension such as topography, amount, or intensity.
b. Fading: New stimlus control of a particularbehavior
c. Chaining: new consistent sequence of stimuli andresponses
General Training Environment:
a. Shaping: often involves an unstructuredenvironment in which the learning has the opportunity to emit a variety ofbehaviors
b. Fading: typically involves a structuredevironment because the stimuli must be controlled precisely
c. Chaining: typically involves a semistructured orstructured envoronment because the stimuli and responses must be sequencedprecisely
Other procedural considerations
a. Shaping: involves successibe application ofreinforcement and extinction
b. Fading: involves successive applications ofreinforcement; if extinction has to be used, fading has not proceeded optimally
c. Chaining: requently involves verbal and physicalprompts and/or physical guidance combined with fading and/or shaping at some ofthe steps
Individuals can use prompts independentlytoguide the mastery of a chin of behaviors.
a. Written task analysis: might effectively promptthem to appropriately complete behavior chains
b. Picture Prompts might guide individuals who areunable to read.
c. Self-instructions are another strategy thatinvolves independent use of prompts to guide completion of behavioral chains
a. Pain inducing punisher: a stimulus immediatelyfollowing a behavior that activates pain receptors or other sense receptorsthat typically evoke feelings of discomfort. (example pinches or spanks)
b. Reprimand: a strong negative verbal stimulusimmediately contingent on behavior. (example a parent saying, “no? that wasbad?” immediately after a child emits an undesirable behavior. Often includes afixed stare and sometimes, a firm grasp.
c. Timeout: a period of time immediately following a particular behavior duringwhich an individual loses the opportunity to earn reinforcers.
d. Response Cost: involves the removal of aspecified amount of a reinforcer immediately following a behavior. Usuallyearning tokens as reinforcers.Definition
Response cost: the removal of aspecified amount of reinforcer immediately following a particular behavior.
Exclusionary timeout: removal ofan individual briefly from a reinforcing situation contingent on a response.
a. Aggressive behavior
b. Emotional behavior
c. Escape and avoidance behavior
d. No new behavior
e. Modeling of punishment
f. Overuse of punishment
Unconditioned response: a response elicited by an unconditionedstimulus. (anxious feelings to theshock)
Conditioned stimulus: a stimulus that elicits a response because thatstimulus has been paired with another stimulus that elicits that response.(opeining motif of beethoven’s fifth symphony became a CS)
Conditionedresponse: the response in a conditioned reflex. Response elicited by aconditioned reflex. (salviation to the fifth symphony)
a. The more the number of pairing of a CS with aUS, the more likely it is the ability of the CS to elicit the CR until amaximum strength of the conditioned reflex has been reached.
b. Stronger conditioning occurs if the CS precedesthe US by about half a second rather than by a longer time or rather followingthe US.
c. A CS acquires a more likely ability to elicit aCR if the CS is always paired with the US than if it is only occasionallypaired with the US.
d. When several neutral stimuli precede a US, thestimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one mostlikely to become a strong CS
e. Respondent conditioning will develop more quicklyand strongly when the CS or US or both are intense rather than weak.Higher order conditioning is the procedure in which a neutral
Basically, aversion therapy involves therepeated pairing of a troublesomereinforcer with an aversive event. The rationale of aversion therapy iscounterconditioning; that is, it is assumed that the undesirable reinforcershould then become less reinforcing because it will come to elicit a responsesimilar to that elicited by the aversive stimulus.
a. The autonomic reaction that you feel during theexperience of an emotion
b. The way you learn to express an emotion overtly
c. The way you become ware of and describe youremotions
1. Behavior modifiers assume that in other respectsprivate behaviors is the same as public behaviors; that is that the principlesand procedures of operant and respondent conditioning apply to privatebehavior.
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