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1. What does DNA code for?
2. What are possible external causes of mutations?(3)
Chemicals, radiation, heat
3. Name two different results of a mutation.
Protected doesn’t work properly; affects organisms physical features/processes
4. What is the shape of a DNA molecule?
5. How many nitrogenous bases are found in a DNA molecule?
6. Where does RNA go to after leaving the nucleus?
Goes to the ribosomes where proteins are made (translation)
7. The sequences of nitrogenous bases are responsible for gathering ___________to form a
Amino acids, based on the codon sequence
8. Proteins are made of what?
9. What is the equation for cellular respiration?
10. What are the reactants for cellular respiration?
Glucose (sugar) and oxygen
11. What are the products for cellular respiration?
Carbon dioxide, water, and energy in the form of ATP
12. What is the equation for photosynthesis?
13. What are the reactants for photosynthesis?
Carbon dioxide, water, and light energy
5. Name 3 things that affect the rate of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
Temperature, availability of reactants (carbon dioxide and water, amount of light
16. In which organelle does cellular respiration occur?
17. In which organelle does photosynthesis occur?
18. A membrane that will allow some molecules to enter and leave is known as what type of
Selectively permeable membrane
19. What are the 2 main points of osmosis?
Must be water; involves a selectively permeable membrane
20. For a molecule to diffuse across the membrane, the molecule must be __________.
Small and uncharged (i.e. oxygen, carbon dioxide, water)
21. What is the gist of homeostasis?
Maintaining stable internal conditions (i.e. body temperature, fluid level, blood volume, pH, etc)
22. Define a concentration gradient.
A difference in concentration (high in one area, low in another)
23. Active transport requires what 2 factors/points?
Requires cells to use energy; moves substances against the gradient (low to high)
24. What is the direction of the concentration gradient during facilitated diffusion (transport)?
Like regular diffusion high concentration to low concentration, difference is molecules must use
a protein channel (tunnel) to get into or out of the cell; (substances that are large or have a
charge (ions); (i.e. glucose, Na+, Cl-, etc.)
25. What item is needed for both active transport and facilitated transport?
26. What molecule is able to buffer body temperature, serve as a reactant in reactions, provide
hydration, maintain turgidity, and maintains a proteins shape?
27. A cell’s __________ determines its function.
Structure (i.e. structure of nerve cells to carry messages; red blood cells to carry blood, etc.)
28. What is the normal direction of different concentrations?
Normal (passive, no energy required by cell) is high concentration to low concentration
29. What is the function of the cell membrane?
Surrounds and holds the cell together; controls what enters and leaves the cell
30. What is the function of the cell wall?
Support and protect (found in bacteria and plants; animal cells DO NOT have a cell wall)
31. What is the function of the ribosome?
Makes proteins (site of translation)
32. What is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
Rough ER makes proteins; smooth ER lipids and carbohydrates; also serves as a transportation
system inside the cell (like a subway system)
33. What is the function of the golgi body?
Modifies and packages substances
34. What is the function of the lysosome?
Recycles old and worn out organelles; also breaks down larger food molecules into smaller
35. What is the function of the nucleus?
Control cell activity (protein instructions in DNA tell the cell what to do and when); stores DNA
36. What is the function of the vacuole?
Storage; (i.e. the large central vacuole in plants stores water)
37. What is the path of organelles involved in protein synthesis?
1. Nucleus (contains instructions to make the protein); 2. rough ER or ribosomes where
proteins are made; 3. Golgi apparatus (packages the protein); 4. Released from the cell
38. Where is DNA housed?
Nucleus of the cell
39. Explain symbiosis.
Two species have a partnership
40. Explain competition.
Competing for the same resources (i.e. food, mate, space, etc); can be between members of the
same species or between members of different species
41. Name 3 types of symbiosis.
Mutualism; commensalism; parasitism
42. Explain commensalism.
One species benefits the other is neither helped nor harmed; (i.e. barnacles living on a whale,
barnacles get a free ride, whale not helped or harmed
43. Explain mutualism.
both species benefit from the relationship (Nemo the clownfish and a sea anemone; beneficial
bacteria which live in your large intestines)
44. Explain parasitism.
One species benefits (parasite), the other harmed (i.e. lice, tickets, fleas, tapeworm, etc.;
feeding off their warm blooded animal host)
45. Explain the difference between a predator and a prey.
Predator – the animal doing the hunting (i.e. cat hunting a mouse; lion hunting a zebra)
Prey – the animal which is eaten (DINNER!!)
46. Define a limiting factor in an ecosystem.
Something which limits the size of a population (water, food, space (habitat), etc.)[necessities
47. Define carrying capacity.
Maximum number of individual of a species an area can support (number depends on limiting
factors in a given area, how much necessities of life are available)
48. What is an abiotic factor?
Nonliving agent which effects a population (i.e. water availability, temperature, nutrients in the
49. Give an example of 3 abiotic factors.
water availability, temperature, nutrients in the soil
50. What is a biotic factor?
Living agent which effects a population
51. Give 3 examples of biotic factors.
Predators, prey, bacteria (any living thing in an area)
52. What is a producer?
An organism that makes its own food; (i.e. plants doing photosynthesis to transfer energy of
sunlight into sugars for itself)
53. What is a consumer?
An organism that is not able to make its own food, and must eat either producers or consumers
(i.e. ALL animals are producers; some eat plants others eat other animals
54. What type of consumer has the highest amount of energy?
Primary consumer (herbivore, plant eater); (they are only one level up from the bottom level
(producers) less energy is lost since only 10% transfers from one level to the next
55. If a tertiary consumer wanted to increase the energy it gained from eating other consumers,
which type of consumer should it eat?
A primary consumer (a plant eater); lowest consumer level
56. What is at the beginning of each feed web?
A food web ALWAYS starts with the producers (they make the energy from the sun available to
the rest of the food chain; without them, everything would die)
57. How is the diversity of organisms in an ecosystem going to be effected by pollution and
The ecosystem will be less diverse and more fragile, the more diverse an ecosystem the better it
recovers from a disaster
58. What type of reproduction only involves 1 organism?
Asexual reproduction; (i.e. bacteria reproducing; the cells in your body dividing to make your
hair and nails grow, etc.)`
59. What type of reproduction involves 2 organisms?
Sexual reproduction (male dog and female dog make puppies; male flower and female flower
make a seed; husband and wife make a baby)
60. What type of reproduction takes less time?
61. What type of reproduction increase genetic variety?
Sexual reproduction; the offspring a combination (hybrid) of mother and father (not a clone of
parent); brothers and sisters look related but not identical (random assortment of genes from
mother and father)
62. The chromosomes of the daughter cell formed during mitosis are ____________ to the parent cell.
Identical (a clone)
63. The daughter cells formed during ______________ reproduction are identical to the parent cell.
64. During ________________, which is part of sexual reproduction, the ____________ number is restored.
Fertilization; chromosome number is restored (i.e. in humans, sperm contain 23 chromosomes
and the egg 23 chromosomes, sperm cell combines with egg cell to make a human baby with 46
65. The purpose of meiosis is to make _____________.
Sperm and egg for sexual reproduction (produce an offspring)
66. Gametes are ____________ cells.
Sex cells and haploid
67. Haploid chromosomes have __________the number of chromosomes.
Half (i.e. sperm contain 23 chromosomes and egg 23; half the 46 chromosomes of every cell in
the human body except egg and sperm, in the gamete producing organs
68. ____________ happens during asexual reproduction, or growth, development, or cell repair.
Mitosis (i.e. develop from a zygote (fertilized egg) into a baby in 9 months or adult in 18 years;
hair and nail growth; repair of skin after a paper cut; bone cells repairing after breaking your
69. ____________occurs during the formation of gametes, which are haploid sex cells.
Meiosis (in all mammals ONLY occurs in ovaries in females and testes in males)
70. What are the 4 phases of mitosis?
Prophase – chromosomes condense; nuclear envelope disappears
Metaphase – chromosomes lineup in the middle of the cell
Anaphase – chromosomes copies separate and go to opposite sides of the cell
Telophase – new nuclear envelope forms around chromosomes copy at opposite ends of the
cell; cytokinesis is also occuring
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