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What does the term “gross anatomy” mean?
Gross: What you can see with the naked eye
Anatomy: To cut up
A field of science that studies living things
What are the 10 basic processes of life?
What is the hierarchy of organization?
What is feedback regulation? Name the two types and give examples.
The body's mechanism for maintaining homeostasis
RECEPTOR, detects change, sends info to CONTROL CENTER, makes a decision to take action, EFFECTOR carries out the decision, once homeostasis occurs, this repeats to stop the effector.
How many elements exist in nature? How many in the human body?
92 elements in nature.
26 in our bodies.
What are the four main elements in our body and what percentage of the human body mass do they make up?
What are the building blocks of all elements?
What is an ion? Cation? Anion?
Ion: Charged particles, they become charged when they gain or lose an electron.
Cation: + charge
Anion: - charge
What is a molecule? A compound?
Molecule=sharing of electrons
Compound=2 or more DIFFERENT elements bonded together.
A force that attracts one atom to another, such as their opposite charges or the sharing of electrons. Colvalent bond, Ionic Bond, and Hydrogen Bond.
Name the three chemical reactions.
Synthesis, Decomposition and exchange reactions
What is mitosis? Cytokinesis?
Mitosis: A form of cell division in which a cell divides once and produces two genetically identical daughter cells.
Cytokinesis: the subsequent division of the cytoplasm
Prophase: Nuclear Envelope breaks down, Chromatin becomes visible as chromosomes condense, Centrioles duplicate to form a structure called the Mitotic Spindle.
What is homogeneous solution? Heterogeneous?
A substance that is uniform in composition is homogeneous.
Heterogeneous is composed of different substances or the same substance in different phases, as solid ice and liquid water.
Suspension: the state of a substance when its particles are mixed with but undissolved in a fluid or solid
What is an acid? Base? Give examples.
What does it mean when an acid or base is “strong” or “weak”?
Strong means it fully dissociates in water
weak means that it only partially dissociates in water.
What is pH? Define basic and acidic by mean of the pH table.
pH means percent hydrogen, it is a measure of acidity or alkalinity.
Base is anything above 7 on the pH scale, Acid means anything below 7 on the pH scale. 7 is neutral.
Buffers help to regulate the pH within a specific range, made of a weak acid and it's conjugate base. The bicarbonate-carbonic acid system buffers our blood.
(H+) + (HCO3-) = (H2CO3)
Hydrogen ion + Bicarbonate ion = Carbonic Acid
What does organic mean?
Name 5 functional groups and what they make.
How are macromolecules broken apart and put together?
Dehydration synthesis: making of something bigger by removing a H2O group.
Hydrolysis: the splitting of something by adding a water molecule.
What are carbohydrates?
Name the three monosaccharides. What is the chemical formula?
Name the three disaccharides and explain how they are made. What is the chemical formula?
Maltose, Lactose, and Sucrose. Joined by dehydration synthesis.
Name and explain the three polysaccharides.
Glycogen: energy storage in animals
Starch: energy storage in plants
Cellulose: Cell walls of plants are composed of this, indigestible to humans.
What is a lipid? What kind of tissue is it? Name some examples.
A hydrophobic organic molecule. Adipose tissue.
Phospholipids, cholesterol, bile acids, eicosanoids (chemical messangers), fatty acids, triglycerides...
Explain the composition of a fatty acid.
What is a saturated fat? Unsaturated? Monounsaturated? Polyunsaturated?
Saturated only single bonds and Unsaturated 1 or more double bonds.
Monounsaturated: one double bond in a Fatty Acid chain.
Polyunsaturated: Two or more double bonds in a Fatty Acid chain.
Explain the composition of a triglyceride.
What is a phospholipid? Explain the structure and why it’s important for our cell membrane.
Hydrophobic: does not like water, water resisting
Hydrophilic: Water loving.
What are steroids synthesized from?
What is a stress hormone? Sex hormone?
What is a protein?
Enzymes, structure, transport, hormones, receptors, movement, defense, (storage (not really in humans))
What is an enzyme?
Explain the structure of an amino acid.
What is a polypeptide bond? How is it formed?
Name the four levels of structure of a protein, explain the characteristics, and name the bonds that are present.
Primary-simply the order of A.A.'s
Secondary-Alpha Helix or a Beta pleated sheet, stabilized by H+ bonds
Tertiary-folding of 2ndary into a 3-D shape, disulfide bonds, ionic bridges.
Quaternary- Association of multiple tertiary structures.
What is denaturation? Under what circumstances does it occur?
Describe the composition of a nucleotide.
What are the five nitrogenous bases and how are they paired in DNA and RNA?
Name four differences between DNA and RNA.
What is ATP? What does it stand for? Where is the energy stored? Why is it in the same family with nucleic acids? What is ADP?
Name two types of electron microscopy and the characteristics of each.
TEM-transmission electron microscopy, like a cross section
SEM-scanning electron microscopy, 3-D
What are microvilli? What is their purpose?
Endosymbiosis: type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other, the two typically behaving as a single organism.
Endocytosis: bringing things into the cell
Exocytosis: moving things out of the cell
What is the most common protein in your body?
What is cancer? Why does it occur?
What is the function of the plasma membrane? What is the fluid mosaic model?
What is electrochemical gradient?
Explain diffusion and osmosis.
Diffusion: Spontaneous net movement of particles from a place of high concentration to low concentration.
Osmosis: movement of water from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration across a semipermeable membrane.
The amount of "stuff" that is in a solution, solute in a solvent.
Isotonic: Same solute concentration
Hypotonic: less solute concentration
Hypertonic: More solute concentration
What are two types of membrane transport?
Passive transport: no energy is needed
Active transport: ATP is required to move a molecule in or out.
What are the three types of muscle tissue? Name characteristics.
Cardiac: has striations and intercolated discs, makes up the heart muscles, involuntary.
Smooth: lines the hollow organs, involuntary.
Skeletal:attaches to bones and helps with movement, has striations, voluntary.
Epithelial tissue is divided into what two categories?
Name the shapes and layering of the coverage and lining epithelial tissue.
Shapes: Squamous, cuboidal, columnar, and transitional
Layers: simple, stratified and pseudo stratified
Name the two types of glandular tissue.
# of cells: unicellular (ex: goblet cell) & multicellular (the most abundant)(ex: sweat gland, salivary..)
Shape: tubular (tube shaped)or acinar (tear drop shaped)these can be simple, branched or compound.
Merocrine or Holocrine.
How cells are held together and ensures that there are no leaks between the cells. These alos allow for cell communication between cells.
Tight Junctions, Gap Junctions, Desmosomes, and HemiDesmosomes
Name the 6 functions of connective tissue.
What are the two components of connective tissue?
Name the 7 connective tissue cells.
Leukocytes (Remember: we are "connected" by our MOC FAML! Mock family!:) Love our study group!)
Proper: Areolar, Adipose, Reticular, Dense, Elastic.
Specialized: Cartilage, bone and blood
What are the three components of ground substance?
What is elasticity?
The property of returning to an initial form or state following deformation.
What is a membrane? What are the four kinds?
A lining, protective covering in/on the body.
synovial-lines the joints, lacks epithelium.
Cutaneous-skin, epidermis, dermis
Mucosa-lines the organs that open to the exterior.
Serosa-lines the organs that are closed.
What is the cutaneous layer? Subcutaneous?
What are the four cells found in the epidermis?
What are the 5 layers of skin deep to superficial?
Stratum Lucidium (only in areas w/ extra layer, soles of feet, palms)
Lanugo: hair that grows on a fetus in the uterus, usually it is gone by birth
Vellous: thin, fine hair
Terminal: course, think hair
Anagen: growth stage of hair, can last many years
Catagen: resting stage
Telogen: hair falls out at this stage
Ecrine- temperature regulation
Apocrine- axillary and pubic regions, body odor, for pheromones
Sebacious- sebum is released, on skin, hair...oily substance
Ceruminous- ear wax
Mammary- milk, prolactin makes you produce milk
Eumelanin - Darker
Pheomelanin - lighter
jaundice- yellow skin, from excess bilirubin in the liver
Erythema-redding of the skin due to blood coming to the surface, exercise and embarassment
Cyanosis- blue skin, lack of oxygen
Pallor- white, not enough blood to the face
albinism- the gene for melanin is not functioning, Albino
Vitiligo- melanocytes stop making melanin in some areas, for some reason.
Epidermal and Deep
bleeding, clotting, formation of granulation tissue, scar formation and up to 1 year of scar remodeling.
granulation tissue is made of macrophages and fibroblasts.
What are the three types of burns? Describe characteristics of each.
superficial-Just epithelial cells
partial thickness-destructuin of some dermal cells as well, blistering
full thickness-destroys epidermis and dermis, Infection and Dehydration are main concerns
Basal Cell carcinoma- starts at Stratum Basale, slow growing
Squamous Cell Carcinoma-from other keratinocytes-slowgrowing
Melanoma-Cancer, very bad, grows quickly, spreads.
Intramembranous=within membranes, mesenchyme.
Endochondral= the cartilage system turns into bone. from 6 weeks gestation until birth.
Where bone grows in length, at the epiphyseal line on each end of the bone.
Zone of resting cartilage
Zone of proliferating cartilage
zone of hypertrophy
zone of calcified cartilage
zone of bone deposition
calcitonin, made in the C cells of the thyroid lower Ca2+ levels
Parathyroid Hormone, made in the parathyroid increases Ca2+
Vitamin D helps the body absorb Ca2+, SKIN to LIVER to KIDNEYS
greenstick: incomplete fracture
Oblique/spiral: at an angle
Comminuted: lots of fractures/breaks off bone fragments
Open/Compound fracture: bone breaks the skin, open wound, infection risk.
Osteoporosis: Osteoblasts work slower than osteoclasts, bone resorption outpaces bone deposition.
Osteomalacia and Rickets are both lack of Vitamin D, causes a softening of the bone. Rickets on children, osteomalacia in adults.
Structural and functional
Sutures: bones of the skull
Syndesmoses: tibia to fibula
Gomphoses: hold the teeth in the mouth
Synchondroses: epiphyseal plate, epiphysis of the humerous and Femur
Symphysis: pubic symphysis, intervertebral discs
Planar joint-Navicular and Cuneiforms
Hinge Joint-Trochlear notch, Ulna to Humerus
Pivot-head of Radius to the Ulna
Codyloid-Scaphoid/Lunate to the Radius/Ulna
Ball and Socket-shoulder and hip
Saddle joint-opposable thumbs
Scoliosis: abnormal lateral curvature
Kyphosis: hunchback on the exterior of the thoracic curvature
Lordosis: swayback, 'pregnant for a decade'
Cells that send and receive electrical impulses for the nervous system.
What are neuroglial cells?
The nervous system is divided into what two categories?
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Groups of axons are called what in the CNS and PNS? Dendrites/cell bodies are called what in the CNS and PNS?
unipolar- Mostly sensory neurons/incoming
bipolar- rare: eye and ears
multipolar- Most common in CNS
Describe the basic function of how neurons detect change, how it is processed, and change is carried out.
What happens on neurofibrils?
What is anterograde? Retrograde? What protein does each use?
Anterograde: Carries vessicles from the cell body to the synaptic bulbs, Kinesin.
Retrograde: brings the vessicles that are used back up to the soma, Dynein.
Chicken pox can reappear as what later on in life?
What are characteristics of pyramidal and purkinje cells? Where are they located?
Pyramidal: cerebral cortex, axon is very apparent from these from dendrites.
Purkinje: in the cerebellum, tons of dendrites
What is the source of nervous system tumors? Why? What are the tumors called?
Astrocytes-Tell capilarries to stimulate blood brain barrier. Scaffolding
Microglia-Type of macrophage part of the immune system
Ependimal-Cells Line ventricles of corroid plexus. Aid in movement of CSF
Oligodendrocytes-Myelinates axons in CNS.
Schwann cells: Myelinate axons.
Satelite Cells: Flat cells that surround and support the PNS ganglia.
Electricity: Curent or flow of electrons, moving of charged particles.
Voltage: Difference in charge between two locations.
Graded/ Receptor Potential
Resting membrane Potential
Leakage: Open and close randomly
Voltage-gated: Open with change in voltage
Ligand-gated: Open with the binding of molecules
Mecanical gatated: Opens with physical pressure.
Absolute: Keeps a second action potential from firing before the cell can reach resting period.
Relative: Requires larger stimulus to begin another action potential.
Depolarization: Rapid opening of voltage gated sodium channels.
Repolarization: Opening of voltage gated potassium channels, open more slowly.
Saltatory: Occurs in myelinated nerves. Action potentials are at nodes of ranvier only, and they go faster.
Continuous: Occurs in unmyelinated nerves.
What is the purpose of calcium ions in the synaptic bulb?
What do IPSP and EPSP mean? What effect does each have on the neuron?
IPSP-Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential, hyperpolarizes the neuron to move voltage further from the threshold K
EPSP-Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential, depolarizes the neuron to bring voltage closer to the threshold. Makes it less negative Na
What are the eight neurotransmitters? What part of the nervous system are they? What are their functions?
Excitatory at neuromuscular junction, important in autonomic synapses.
Main excitatory neurotransmitter. Binds to sodium channel.
Main inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain.
1/2 inhibitory synapses in spinal cord
1/2 inhibitory synapses in spinal cord
Important and arousal and mood.
Important in Sympathetic Nervous System
Emotional response, pleasure, reward, addiction.
Parkinsons: The substantia nigra degenerates which connects to basal ganglia which tells dopamine neurons to release dopamine. Therefore dopamine is no longer released.
Mood, appetite, sensory perception, sleep onset.
Blocks Pain in PNS
Causes Euphoria in CNS
An Intercellular Junction, holds cells together, like plastic rings around 12 pack.
Describe the reflex arc and name some common reflexes in the human body?
5 parts: 1.) Sensory receptor 2.) Sensory neuron 3.) Integrating Center 4.) Motor Neuron 5.) Effector
The knee/patellar, triceps, biceps, brachioradialis, achilles
Vertebrae and the three meninges
1.) Dura Mater
Subdural space (potential)
2.) Arachnoid Mater
3.) Pia Mater
Cervical enlargement supplies nerves to the arms and hands
Lumbar enlargement supplies nerves to the thighs, legs, and feet
How many pairs of nerves in the spinal cord? How many pairs in the brain?
31 pairs in the Spinal cord
12 pairs in the brain
Dorsal roots only contain sensory fibers
Ventral roots only contain Motor fibers
Many rami mix and combine in complex networks, these are plexuses. Cervical Plexus = Phrenic nerve, Brachial Plexus = Radial nerve, Lumbar Plexus = Femoral nerve, Sacral plexus = Sciatic nerve
What is a dermatome? What is special about it?
What is the circle of Willis? What is so special about it?
Where is the CSF made?
Pros becomes = teleencephalon and diencephalon.
mesencephalon carries over
rhomb becomes = metencephalon and myelencephalon
What is the function of the reticular formation? What neurotransmitter does it release?
What are the three parts of the midbrain? What is the function of the midbrain?
Superior Colliculi, Inferior Colliculi and Cerebral aqueduct. Coordinates eye movement, stimuli and reflexes happen here
What is the pyramidal decussation? Why is it important for the nervous system?
What two sections can the midbrain be divided into? What are they called and what do they contain?
What is the function of the superior colliculus? Inferior colliculus? Red nucleus? Substantia nigra?
superior colliculus- coordinates eye movement
Inferior colliculus-response to hearing
Red nucleus- flexion of the upper limbs
Substantia nigra-connects to the basal ganglia and stimulates dopamine neurons
What is the most important function of the thalamus?
What is the most important function of the hypothalamus? What are some examples?
What are the five parts of each hemisphere in the brain?
What is the main function of the cerebrum?
What are basal nuclei [ganglia]?
What does it regulate?
What structures are included in the basal nuclei?
Sensation and language
the post central gyrus which is also the primary somatosensory cortex
Temporal = auditory
occipital = sight
What is the function of the frontal lobe? Primary motor cortex? Premotor cortex? Prefrontal cortex?
Primary motor cortex- carries out voluntary movements
Premotor cortex- assists in planning movements
Prefrontal cortex- critical for logic, reasoning, planning and personality
What does it connect to? Important function?
Why is the left hemisphere most likely to produce aphasia?
What is the general difference between the left and right hemispheres?
What does EEG stand for?
What neurotransmitters are released by what kind of neurons in the sympathetic system? Parasympathetic system?
What organ systems are involved in the sympathetic system?
What is a somatic sensory receptor?
. What is responsible for crude touch sensation?
What are gustatory receptors? Where are they located?
What is hearing?
What is the purpose of hair cells in hearing? Why is this important?
What is another name for the eardrum?
What are the three auditory Ossicles?
What is the difference between sensation and perception? Somatic and visceral?
Sensation : action potentials sent from sensory receptors to the brain
Perception: canscious awareness of sensation, basically invented by our brains in order to explain something.
pain: whatever your patient tells you it is.
Referred pain: visceral pain experienced on the skin, not necessarily above the damaged organ
Phantom pain: pain in a limb that is no longer there, has been amputated.
Why can you taste so many different tastes? What can’t you taste as much when you’re sick?
What nerve is responsible for smell?
What are the two main things that ears are responsible for?
What is hearing?
In the cochlea, what are the three “membranes”?
What is Organ of Corti? What two membranes are involved in it?
How do our ears detect volume? Pitch?
What is the blind spot? Why is it called that?
What focuses on things we see and produces the sharpest image?
What is responsible for the dilation and constriction of the pupil?
What happens to the lens with near vision? Distance vision? Why does this happen?
Near: the ciliary muscles cotract to release tension on the suspensory ligaments, the lens becomes rounder
Distance: the ciliary muscles relax so the suspensory ligaments pull more tightly on the lens which becomes flatter.
What is light?
What is the single smallest unit of light?
What organ in the brain does everything have to go through in order to get to the cortex?
After you spin around in an office chair, giggling crazily, why does your head continue to spin and you feel drunk when you walk afterwards?
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