2 In this Act, affidavit includes statutory declaration and solemn affirmation; (affidavit) aircraft objects [Repealed, 2012, c. 31, s. 414] application, with respect to a bankruptcy application filed in a court in the Province of Quebec, means a motion; assignment means an assignment filed with the official receiver; (cession) bank means (a) every bank and every authorized foreign bank within the meaning of section 2 of the Bank Act, (b) every other member of the Canadian Payments Association established by the Canadian Payments Act, and (c) every local cooperative credit society, as defined in subsection 2(1) of the Act referred to in paragraph (b), that is a member of a central cooperative credit society, as defined in that subsection, that is a member of that Association; bankrupt means a person who has made an assignment or against whom a bankruptcy order has been made or the legal status of that person; bankruptcy means the state of being bankrupt or the fact of becoming bankrupt; (faillite) bargaining agent means any trade union that has entered into a collective agreement on behalf of the employees of a person; (agent négociateur) child [Repealed, 2000, c. 12, s. 8] claim provable in bankruptcy, provable claim or claim provable includes any claim or liability provable in proceedings under this Act by a creditor; (réclamation prouvable en matière de faillite ou réclamation prouvable) collective agreement, in relation to an insolvent person, means a collective agreement within the meaning of the jurisdiction governing collective bargaining between the insolvent person and a bargaining agent; (convention collective) common-law partner, in relation to an individual, means a person who is cohabiting with the individual in a conjugal relationship, having so cohabited for a period of at least one year; (conjoint de fait) common-law partnership means the relationship between two persons who are common-law partners of each other; (union de fait) corporation means a company or legal person that is incorporated by or under an Act of Parliament or of the legislature of a province, an incorporated company, wherever incorporated, that is authorized to carry on business in Canada or has an office or property in Canada or an income trust, but does not include banks, authorized foreign banks within the meaning of section 2 of the Bank Act (/eng/acts/B-1.01), insurance companies, trust companies, loan companies or railway companies; court, except in paragraphs 178(1)(a) and (a.1) and sections 204.1 to 204.3, means a court referred to in subsection 183(1) or (1.1) or a judge of that court, and includes a registrar when exercising the powers of the court conferred on a registrar under this Act; (tribunal) creditor means a person having a claim provable as a claim under this Act; (créancier) current assets means cash, cash equivalents — including negotiable instruments and demand deposits — inventory or accounts receivable, or the proceeds from any dealing with those assets; (actif à court terme) date of the bankruptcy, in respect of a person, means the date of (a) the granting of a bankruptcy order against the person, (b) the filing of an assignment in respect of the person, or (c) the event that causes an assignment by the person to be deemed; (date de la faillite) date of the initial bankruptcy event, in respect of a person, means the earliest of the day on which any one of the following is made, filed or commenced, as the case may be: (a) an assignment by or in respect of the person, (b) a proposal by or in respect of the person, (c) a notice of intention by the person, (d) the first application for a bankruptcy order against the person, in any case (i) referred to in paragraph 50.4(8)(a) or 57(a) or subsection 61(2), or (ii) in which a notice of intention to make a proposal has been filed under section 50.4 or a proposal has been filed under section 62 in respect of the person and the person files an assignment before the court has approved the proposal, (e) the application in respect of which a bankruptcy order is made, in the case of an application other than one referred to in paragraph (d), or (f) proceedings under the Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act (/eng/acts/C-36); (ouverture de la faillite) debtor includes an insolvent person and any person who, at the time an act of bankruptcy was committed by him, resided or carried on business in Canada and, where the context requires, includes a bankrupt; (débiteur) director in respect of a corporation other than an income trust, means a person occupying the position of director by whatever name called and, in the case of an income trust, a person occupying the position of trustee by whatever name called; (administrateur) eligible financial contract means an agreement of a prescribed kind; (contrat financier admissible) equity claim means a claim that is in respect of an equity interest, including a claim for, among others, (a) a dividend or similar payment, (b) a return of capital, (c) a redemption or retraction obligation, (d) a monetary loss resulting from the ownership, purchase or sale of an equity interest or from the rescission, or, in Quebec, the annulment, of a purchase or sale of an equity interest, or (e) contribution or indemnity in respect of a claim referred to in any of paragraphs (a) to (d); (réclamation relative à des capitaux propres) equity interest means (a) in the case of a corporation other than an income trust, a share in the corporation — or a warrant or option or another right to acquire a share in the corporation — other than one that is derived from a convertible debt, and (b) in the case of an income trust, a unit in the income trust — or a warrant or option or another right to acquire a unit in the income trust — other than one that is derived from a convertible debt; (intérêt relatif à des capitaux propres) executing officer includes a sheriff, a bailiff and any officer charged with the execution of a writ or other process under this Act or any other Act or proceeding with respect to any property of a debtor; (huissier- exécutant) financial collateral means any of the following that is subject to an interest, or in the Province of Quebec a right, that secures payment or performance of an obligation in respect of an eligible financial contract or that is subject to a title transfer credit support agreement: (a) cash or cash equivalents, including negotiable instruments and demand deposits, (b) securities, a securities account, a securities entitlement or a right to acquire securities, or (c) a futures agreement or a futures account; (garantie financière) General Rules means the General Rules referred to in section 209; (Règles générales) income trust means a trust that has assets in Canada if (a) its units are listed on a prescribed stock exchange on the date of the initial bankruptcy event, or (b) the majority of its units are held by a trust whose units are listed on a prescribed stock exchange on the date of the initial bankruptcy event; (fiducie de revenu) insolvent person means a person who is not bankrupt and who resides, carries on business or has property in Canada, whose liabilities to creditors provable as claims under this Act amount to one thousand dollars, and (a) who is for any reason unable to meet his obligations as they generally become due, (b) who has ceased paying his current obligations in the ordinary course of business as they generally become due, or (c) the aggregate of whose property is not, at a fair valuation, sufficient, or, if disposed of at a fairly conducted sale under legal process, would not be sufficient to enable payment of all his obligations, due and accruing due; (personne insolvable) legal counsel means any person qualified, in accordance with the laws of a province, to give legal advice; (conseiller juridique) locality of a debtor means the principal place (a) where the debtor has carried on business during the year immediately preceding the date of the initial bankruptcy event, (b) where the debtor has resided during the year immediately preceding the date of the initial bankruptcy event, or (c) in cases not coming within paragraph (a) or (b), where the greater portion of the property of the debtor is situated; (localité) Minister means the Minister of Industry; (ministre) net termination value means the net amount obtained after netting or setting off or compensating the mutual obligations between the parties to an eligible financial contract in accordance with its provisions; (valeurs nettes dues à la date de résiliation) official receiver means an officer appointed under subsection 12(2); (séquestre officiel) person includes a partnership, an unincorporated association, a corporation, a cooperative society or a cooperative organization, the successors of a partnership, of an association, of a corporation, of a society or of an organization and the heirs, executors, liquidators of the succession, administrators or other legal representatives of a person; (personne) prescribed (a) in the case of the form of a document that is by this Act to be prescribed and the information to be given therein, means prescribed by directive issued by the Superintendent under paragraph 5(4)(e), and (b) in any other case, means prescribed by the General Rules; (prescrit) property means any type of property, whether situated in Canada or elsewhere, and includes money, goods, things in action, land and every description of property, whether real or personal, legal or equitable, as well as obligations, easements and every description of estate, interest and profit, present or future, vested or contingent, in, arising out of or incident to property; (bien) proposal means (a) in any provision of Division I of Part III, a proposal made under that Division, and (b) in any other provision, a proposal made under Division I of Part III or a consumer proposal made under Division II of Part III and includes a proposal or consumer proposal, as the case may be, for a composition, for an extension of time or for a scheme or arrangement; (proposition concordataire ou proposition) public utility includes a person or body who supplies fuel, water or electricity, or supplies telecommunications, garbage collection, pollution control or postal services; (entreprise de service public) resolution or ordinary resolution means a resolution carried in the manner provided by section 115; (résolution ou résolution ordinaire) secured creditor means a person holding a mortgage, hypothec, pledge, charge or lien on or against the property of the debtor or any part of that property as security for a debt due or accruing due to the person from the debtor, or a person whose claim is based on, or secured by, a negotiable instrument held as collateral security and on which the debtor is only indirectly or secondarily liable, and includes (a) a person who has a right of retention or a prior claim constituting a real right, within the meaning of the Civil Code of Québec or any other statute of the Province of Quebec, on or against the property of the debtor or any part of that property, or (b) any of (i) the vendor of any property sold to the debtor under a conditional or instalment sale, (ii) the purchaser of any property from the debtor subject to a right of redemption, or (iii) the trustee of a trust constituted by the debtor to secure the performance of an obligation, if the exercise of the person’s rights is subject to the provisions of Book Six of the Civil Code of Québec entitled Prior Claims and Hypothecs that deal with the exercise of hypothecary rights; (créancier garanti) settlement [Repealed, 2005, c. 47, s. 2] shareholder includes a member of a corporation — and, in the case of an income trust, a holder of a unit in an income trust — to which this Act applies; (actionnaire) sheriff [Repealed, 2004, c. 25, s. 7] special resolution means a resolution decided by a majority in number and three-fourths in value of the creditors with proven claims present, personally or by proxy, at a meeting of creditors and voting on the resolution; (résolution spéciale) Superintendent means the Superintendent of Bankruptcy appointed under subsection 5(1); (surintendant) Superintendent of Financial Institutions means the Superintendent of Financial Institutions appointed under subsection 5(1) of the Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions Act (/eng/acts/O-2.7); (surintendant des institutions financières) time of the bankruptcy, in respect of a person, means the time of (a) the granting of a bankruptcy order against the person, (b) the filing of an assignment by or in respect of the person, or (c) the event that causes an assignment by the person to be deemed; (moment de la faillite) title transfer credit support agreement means an agreement under which an insolvent person or a bankrupt has provided title to property for the purpose of securing the payment or performance of an obligation of the insolvent person or bankrupt in respect of an eligible financial contract; transfer at undervalue means a disposition of property or provision of services for which no consideration is received by the debtor or for which the consideration received by the debtor is conspicuously less than the fair market value of the consideration given by the debtor; trustee or licensed trustee means a person who is licensed or appointed under this Act.
1 Short title
This Act may be cited as the Bankruptcy and Insolvency Act
2.1 Designation of beneficiary
A change in the designation of a beneficiary in an insurance contract is deemed to be a disposition of property for the purpose of this Act.
2.2 Superintendent’s division office
Any notification, document or other information that is required by this Act to be given, forwarded, mailed, sent or otherwise provided to the Superintendent, other than an application for a licence under subsection 13(1), shall be given, forwarded, mailed, sent or otherwise provided to the Superintendent at the Superintendent’s division office as specified in directives of the Superintendent.
4 (1) In this section, entity means a person other than an individual; Relationships (3) For the purposes of this section, (a) if two entities are related to the same entity within the meaning of subsection (2), they are deemed to be related to each other; (b) if a related group is in a position to control an entity, it is deemed to be a related group that controls the entity whether or not it is part of a larger group by whom the entity is in fact controlled; (c) a person who has a right under a contract, in equity or otherwise, either immediately or in the future and either absolutely or contingently, to, or to acquire, ownership interests, however designated, in an entity, or to control the voting rights in an entity, is, except when the contract provides that the right is not exercisable until the death of an individual designated in the contract, deemed to have the same position in relation to the control of the entity as if the person owned the ownership interests; (d) if a person has ownership interests in two or more entities, the person is, as holder of any ownership interest in one of the entities, deemed to be related to himself or herself as holder of any ownership interest in each of the other entities; (e) persons are connected by blood relationship if one is the child or other descendant of the other or one is the brother or sister of the other; (f) persons are connected by marriage if one is married to the other or to a person who is connected by blood relationship or adoption to the other; (f.1) persons are connected by common-law partnership if one is in a common-law partnership with the other or with a person who is connected by blood relationship or adoption to the other; and (g) persons are connected by adoption if one has been adopted, either legally or in fact, as the child of the other or as the child of a person who is connected by blood relationship, otherwise than as a brother or sister, to the other. Question of fact (4) It is a question of fact whether persons not related to one another were at a particular time dealing with each other at arm’s length. Presumptions (5) Persons who are related to each other are deemed not to deal with each other at arm’s length while so related. For the purpose of paragraph 95(1)(b) or 96(1)(b), the persons are, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, deemed not to deal with each other at arm’s length. related group means a group of persons each member of which is related to every other member of the group; (groupe lié) unrelated group means a group of persons that is not a related group. (groupe non lié) Definition of related persons (2) For the purposes of this Act, persons are related to each other and are related persons if they are (a) individuals connected by blood relationship, marriage, common-law partnership or adoption; (b) an entity and (i) a person who controls the entity, if it is controlled by one person, (ii) a person who is a member of a related group that controls the entity, or (iii) any person connected in the manner set out in paragraph (a) to a person described in subparagraph (i) or (ii); or (c) two entities (i) both controlled by the same person or group of persons, (ii) each of which is controlled by one person and the person who controls one of the entities is related to the person who controls the other entity, (iii) one of which is controlled by one person and that person is related to any member of a related group that controls the other entity, (iv) one of which is controlled by one person and that person is related to each member of an unrelated group that controls the other entity, (v) one of which is controlled by a related group a member of which is related to each member of an unrelated group that controls the other entity, or (vi) one of which is controlled by an unrelated group each member of which is related to at least one member of an unrelated group that controls the other entity.