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How much of the Bible is made of poetry?
Where can poetry be found in the Bible?
Poetical books like job, psalms, song of songs, lamentations, some in the OT and some in the NT, prophetic oracles
What is the main characteristic of the poetic line?
They are terse which means that none fill out a full line of the printed page.
What is the main characteristic of the structure of Hebrew poetry?
Its use of sound. Having suffixes as an end rhyme. Also uses free rhyme which is the flexible use of syllables.
Two or more successive poetic lines dynamically strengthen, reinforce, and develop each other’s thought.
Explain imagery and provide an example
Words that evoke a sensory experience in our imagination. You will get mental images and feel emotions.
Ex: “The Lord is my shepherd I shall not be in want’ Psm. 23
Explain what similes and metaphors are. Give an example
Figure of speech that compares things using like or as. Draws a single correspondence between two items in a single sentence
Compares two things but draws correspondence more bluntly
What is an anthropomorphism? Give an example
Giving something human features for a comparison
Ex: The eyes of the Lord Psm 34
What is a hyperbole? Give an example
A conscious exaggeration for the sake of an effect
Ex: At this my heart pounds and leaps from its place Job 37
What is an apostrophe? Give an example
A direct address to someone or something absent as if it were present
What is a metonymy? Give an example
Features the substitution of a word or idea for one closely associated with it
Ex: you prepare a table in front of my enemies psm 23
What is an irony? Give an example
When the writer says the opposite of what he means.
Ex: 1 cor 4:8-10
List the steps to interpret poetic language
Identify, the kind of figure of speech. Interpret it. Determine the function of the figure.
What are the 4 major collections of laws
Covenant, Deuteronomic ,Holiness, Priestly
States both condition and penalty
Unconditional categorical directives such as commands and prohibitions.
(you shall not…)
What is the best-known form of apodictic law?
Prohibition or negative command
What do you call the law that expresses itself as a positive command?
What type of law deals with death penalty?
What type of law introduced the principle that the penalty should befit the crime?
How should the law be interpreted?
As guidelines to benefit your relationship with God, not as a legal code
What percentage of the OT is made up of narratives?
How does the purpose of OT narratives differ from that of history in general (top of p. 326)?
They are made more to instruct than inform and they are told like stories. Literary art varies!
What is the most basic form of narratives?
stories plot and recount an event. It has more literary elaboration
What do you call the report in which God or an angel appears?
How does an anecdote differ from a memoir?
First person and tells the history of an era
They are a series of individual voices joined to sound a common theme.
In what way does an epic differ from a heroic narrative?
It greater in length and magnifies a hero representing destiny of a whole nation
To edify his audience by presenting the prophet as a model for proper conduct
In literature, a plot that has a happy ending is called what?
What is the best narrative classification for the book of Esther and the story of Joseph?
List the other types of literature that are embedded within OT narratives.
Farewell proverb parables fables riddles
Words extended to God.
most common genre of prayer ask Yahweh to deliver for some unsolvable crisis
song of thanksgiving for an answer to their complaint
Worship as a community and speak in response to one another
Write a brief summary of 3 of the principles of poetry interpretation given in the book that make the most sense to you.
Poems are complete units so they shouldn’t isolate the verses
Applications must conform to the situation behind the situation
The unique features of each literary type determine how we should interpret it
A biblical phenomenon by which God conveyed messages to his people through human writers or speakers
let the context of passage inform its intended meaning
let the original historical-cultural background of passage inform its intended meaning
let the context inform the meaning of words
parallelism - cadence and free flow of side by side lines
Terseness- short elegant lines easier to remember than prose
announcements of imminent divine judgment in the present or near future
predictions about the future
announces doom with an opening interjection (woe to you) followed by participles describing those addressed
autobiographical reports of things the prophet saw or heard in a vision that conveys God’s message. (see, made seen, and behold followed by description of the vision)
includes a command to perform an action, a report of the performance, and it’s interpretation through a follow-up prophetic word or vision
A prophet speaks as if Israel were on trial accused of a crime.
When does one message end and the next begin, the books create the impression or repetition with little evident thematic development, obscurity
Why is the title ‘Acts of the Apostles’ misleading?
Because 11 of the 12 disappear in the early chapters
No. There is something that can be learned from all scripture, even narrative. If it wasn’t important God wouldn’t have put it there.
Study the whole book to determine if specific events form a consistent pattern throughout or if the positive models vary from one situation to another.
What is an epistle (type of literature, characteristics, etc.)?
Letters; less literary, formal and artistic than classic Greek treatise but longer, more carefully structured, and more didactic than personal correspondence
What do epistles primarily teach?
Theology and ethics
Because the people that wrote the letters lived out what they were teaching and therefore could explain it simply for others.
What does it mean that epistles are “occasional” documents, and how does that affect the task of the interpreter?
They were written for a specific occasion; interpreters must reconstruct the original occasion and purpose as precisely as possible in order to separate timeless principles from situation-specific applications.
Describe the form of an ancient Greco-Roman letter
Salutation (identification of author, audience, and some kind of greeting), prayer or expression of thanks for the well-being of the recipients; the body, that sets forth the reason for writing; advice or exhortation comes after the body; a closing farewell
How does the form of Hebrews and that of the general epistles differ from Pauline epistles?
Does not begin like a letter; is described as a word of exhortation (may have been intended as a sermon)
What are the two key theological issues for Pauline epistles? Give a brief answer to each theological issue.
Is there a unifying center of Pauline theology? -
Does Paul’s theology “develop” from one period of time to another so that he changes his mind on significant issues? -
What do the authors mean that wisdom thought lie in creation theology?
What is a proverb?
A concise memorable statement of truth
What is the difference between a descriptive proverb and a prescriptive proverb?
Descriptive proverbs just tell a truth, prescriptive proverbs tell a truth in order to change behavior (prescriptive proverbs have a promise of benefit)
How do comparison, numerical, and antithetical proverbs get their points across?
Comparison – underscore superiority of certain traits or conducts by comparing them to others; Numerical – use the x/x+1 method. x+1 is the point and more emphasized than the rest of the list; Antithetical – commend the good and make the bad unappealing
Based on the nature of proverbs, how should they be interpreted?
1.) Not as absolute promises, but as general principles
2.) In light of other proverbs in the Bible
3.) In light of other scriptural teachings
Describe the characteristics of instructions
Prohibition supported by motives
Describe the characteristics of the example story and reflection types of wisdom literature
They begin with statements like:
I passed by
As I was
What type of wisdom dominates the book of Ecclesiastes?
Describe the characteristics of a disputation speech
Debate – both sides of an argument
Book of Job
In the final analysis, what literary genre did the authors conclude that the gospels are?
What does it mean to read and think horizontally and vertically when interpreting the gospels?
Horizontal reading is comparing the gospels to each other and vertical is considering them on their own.
Why is reading and thinking vertically more important than reading and thinking horizontally?
Each gospel should be interpreted in light of its overall structure and themes, paying attention to its unique emphases
What two theological issues stemming out of Jesus teaching are critical for the correct understanding of the gospels?
Kingdom of God
Ethics of Jesus
What does it mean that Jesus’ stories, especially the parables, are “triadic”?
Having 3 mains characters that interact with the stories main circumstances
Most often 1 master and 2 subordinates
If miracle-stories function Christologically and salvation-historically, how should that view affect the contemporary application of miracles?
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