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1. complex, organized structure
2. Response to stimuli
4. Ability to acquire material and energy
7. ability to evolve
a change outside or inside leads to another change
Na- sodium chloride
Cl- poisonous gas
put together= NaCl table salt
is two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The smallest unit that retains the physical and chemical properties of a compound.
is the capacity to do work.
is the total of an organism’s chemical processes
-Uptake of matter and energy
-Conversion to usable form
-Synthesis of cellular materials
-Elimination of waste products
-No nucleus or nuclear envelope
-Genetic material in a “nucleoid region”
-No organelles or internal membranes
-Nucleus with a nuclear envelope
-Genetic material within the nucleus
-Contains cytosol with membrane-bound organelles
Three basic methods
Make food using sunlight
Uptake of nutrients by
Uptake by eating or ______
Prokaryotic Unicellular Absorp./photosyn.
are atoms of the same element which have different atomic weights
The electron orbitals of an atom are arranged in _________based on their ______level.
get rid of
If an atom has a vacancy in the outer electron shell, it will try to _____ that vacancy or ____ of the “extra” electrons so the outer shell is full.
A reactive atom will try to fill the valence shell by interacting with _______
This interaction may result in two atoms forming a _______
Potential energy in biological systems can be stored in __________
Similar atoms-molecule- ?
Different atoms-molecule- ?
a negatively charged atom or molecule. It has gained an electron.
a positively charged atom or molecule. It has lost an electron.
_____ are strong in crystals but break easily in water.
Atoms with higher electronegativity have a more ______-charged nucleus, and will hold onto the electron pair more strongly than atoms with significantly ____ electronegativity.
Cells are ______ water.
Many proteins in your hair are held together by _____ bonds between the amino acids.
Adding water to your hair disrupts the _____ bonds between amino acids and causes them to hydrogen bond to water.
When your hair dries,______ bonds can re-form between amino acids.
hydrogen bonding and polarity
The polarity of water molecules makes water a poor solvent for molecules which do not have _______
describes the property of not having an affinity for water.
hydrophobic molecules clump together in water because of ________
Attraction between like molecules.
Water molecules can ___
That means that the hydrogen atom of one water molecule leaves its electron behind and forms a ______ (H+) and a
If the solution is _____, then the number of H+ ions is greater than the number of OH- ions.
For a ______solution pH = 7
For an _____ solution pH < 7
For a _____ solution pH > 7
(multiply by 10 from one number to the next)
are substances that prevent large, sudden changes in pH.
help maintain a constant pH
Buffers function by accepting ___ions from solution when they are in excess, and
______ H+ ions to the solution when the supply is depleted
1) High specific heat
2) High heat of vaporization
3) High heat of fusion
Three properties of water help keep temperature stable:
is the transformation of matter from a liquid to a gas.
is the transformation of matter from a liquid to a gas.
heat of fusion
Water is more dense in the _____ form than in the ____form. This is why ice floats.
2,3, or 4
Carbon has a valence of _.
Can bind to _,___,or __ other atoms.
Biological molecules are often put together in _____, or modules, called _______.
the simple molecules combined to form more complex ones
---monomers into _______
are used as fuels and building material
are organic molecules made of sugars and their polymers.
are simple sugars in which carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
occur in the ratio of 1-2-1 for C, H, and O.
is a covalent bond formed by a dehydration synthesis between two sugar monomers.
Glucose + Glucose (monomers)
Important in beer brewing
Glucose + Galactose (monomers)
Sugar present in milk
Glucose + Fructose (monomers)
Table sugar, most common disaccharide
Formed by enzyme-mediated condensation reactions.
is a glucose polymer that is used as a storage polysaccharide in plants.
When energy is needed, glycogen is quickly broken down to release ____ into the bloodstream for _______ energy needs.
Once glycogen stores are full, excess glucose gets converted to _____ for ________ energy needs.
A process by which athletes are able to double or triple the amount of glycogen stored in their muscles. Used to delay the onset of muscle fatigue.
2 phase process:
? phase- about a week before competition. Extremely low-carb diet and rigorous exercise.
? phase -2 days before competition. Super high-carb diet and no exercise. Achieves a blood glucose level that is higher than necessary, so excess glucose gets converted to glycogen.
The first stages of any diet usually involve rapid and dramatic weight loss.
This is because glycogen is being depleted in the muscles and liver as _________________.
include cellulose and chitin
most abundant organic molecule on the planet.
reinforces plant cell walls
differs from starch in the type of linkage
-different linkage gives different three-dimensional structure.
forms the exoskeleton of arthropods (insects, crawfish, etc.)-found in the cell walls of some fungi
-composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
-contain 1 or more fatty acids
-usually no ring structure
is a three-carbon molecule with one hydroxyl group per carbon.
The FA group is linked through the head to the _______ and each hydroxyl group on the ______ can form a linkage with a fatty acid.
The hydrocarbon chain, or tail, is ________ and not water soluble.
-The tail has a long carbon skeleton usually with an even number ____ of carbon atoms.-The carboxyl group, or head, has the properties of a __________
is a fat composed of three fatty acids bonded to one glycerol by
higher energy per gram
One gram of fat stores ____ as much energy in its chemical bonds as one gram of polysaccharide.
_____ store enormous amounts of energy.
Because of this, humans have actually evolved an extremely strong taste preference for foods that are high in ____
Humans store ___ in adipose tissue cells, which swell and shrink as ___ is added to, or taken from them.
___ also insulates the body and protects vital organs.
designed to be similar to fats in taste and texture.
Cannot be digested by humans.Instead of being a triglyceride with 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol, it has __ fatty acids attached to a molecule of sucrose
It still stimulates the taste buds on your tongue that tell your brain that you are eating fat.
But because the molecule is so complex in shape, it prevents your body’s digestive chemicals from grabbing onto it and breaking it down.
Passes through your digestive system without being digested.
-No double bonds between carbons
-Maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to -the carbon of the skeleton (saturated)
-Usually solid at room temperature
-Most animals store fats
-One or more double bonds between carbons
-Chain kinks at each double bond, so individual -chains cannot pack close enough together to solidify easily.
-Usually liquid at room temperature
-Most plants store oils
are compounds with molecular building blocks of glycerol, two
fatty acids, a phosphate group and usually a small chemical group attached to thephosphate group
Differs from a fat in the third carbon of the glycerol is attached to a negatively charged phosphate.
Phosphate group with a small chemical group attached to its hydrophilic head
A lipid made up of glycerol joined to two fatty acids and a phos- phate group. The hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids act as nonpolar, hydrophobic tails, while the rest of the molecule acts as a polar, hydrophilic head. Phospholipids form bilayers that function as biological membranes.
Range in length from a few monomers to more than a thousand.
are abundant, making up 50% (or more) of some cells dry weight.
are covalent bonds formed by a dehydration synthesis that links the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of
another amino acid.
is the sequence of amino acids in a protein.
-Determined by the genes.
-Different for each different protein
-Determines all the remaining structure
is the coiling and folding of a protein’s polypeptide backbone.
-Contributes to a protein’s overall conformation.
-Stabilized by hydrogen bonding between peptide linkages in the protein backbone
The major types of secondary structure are ______ and ______
is the irregular contortion of a protein backbone due to bonding or interactions between side chains (R groups).
This third level of structure is superimposed on the primary and secondary structures.
Interactions of amino acid side chains
is the structure that results from the interaction among several polypeptides (subunits) in a single protein.
A protein function is dependant on the correct structure at each level.
is a unit of DNA that encodes information needed to produce proteins, cells, and entire organisms (basically the blueprints for making an organism)
nucleic acid (DNA)
Genes are the units of heredity and are made of _______
In addition to their role in DNA and RNA, nucleotides also form ____________________ like adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and coenzymes.
is a (usually) membrane-bound cellular organelle in eukaryotic cells.
are cytoplasmic complexes which are the sites of protein synthesis.
build the cell’s proteins
are long threadlike associations of genes, composed of
chromatin and found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.
Humans have 46
is a set of genes
---are membrane-enclosed sacs that are pinched off portions of
__are formed at one site and move to a membrane at another site.
is an extensive membranous network of tubules and sacs
-Largest part of the cell’s membrane system
-Found in two forms smooth
there are no bound ribosomes attached)
Synthesis of lipids (especially phospholipids and steroids)
because of the presence of bound ribosomes)
1. Manufacture of membranes
2. Synthesis of secretory proteins
ER membrane, ER
The pathway of a secretory protein:
finishes, sorts and ships many cell products.
are membrane-bound organelles which are digestive compartments that digest all major classes of macromolecules.
1. intracellular digestion
2. .Recycling of cellular material
mitochondria and chloroplasts
-Membranes are not part of the endomembrane system
-Contain ribosomes and DNA
Make some but not all of their proteins (10-20%)
Can grow and reproduce
Features of ______:
-Number per cell varies with metabolic activity
-Can move and change shape
is usually the outermost barrier of the cell.
exception to this is found in cells which have a cell wall
are phospholipid bilayers
chitin plus proteins
Cells which have a cell wall:
is mainly for structural support and protection.
It usually doesn’t act as
a barrier to molecules.
contains the cell but still allows the cell to interact with the environment.
Evidence cell membranes are phospholipid bilayers: The phospholipid content of red blood cells is just enough to cover the cell with _____ layers.
The red blood cell has no___________.
Biological membranes contain _______
Evidence: Membranes isolated from red blood cells contain ______ in addition to _______.
(flip-flop) across the membrane is rare.
are proteins which have a carbohydrate attached to them.
is diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane.
-Does NOT require the cell to expend energy
-Depends on the permeability of the membrane
is the property of biological membranes which allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
-solubility characteristics of the substance crossing the membrane
-facilitated diffusion by a carrier protein or a channel protein
is diffusion across a membrane with the help of a protein.
is the diffusion of water across a differentially permeable
-Influenced by factors which govern diffusion
The tendency of water to move through a membrane from an area of lower concentration into an area of higher concentration solution, diluting it, until there is equal concentrations of fluid on both sides of the
Cells need to move molecules against a concentration gradient (from ____
concentration to ____ concentration)
Doing this requires _______ because it’s fighting diffusion.
-Uses energy from ATP
-Used to maintain ion gradients (e.g., Ca2+ ions)
is the cellular uptake of large molecules (a.k.a. macromolecules)
and particulate substances (food) by the localized pinching off of a region of the
plasma membrane to form a vesicle.
is the cellular secretion of large molecules (a.k.a. macromolecules)
by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
This is how neurotransmitters such as serotonin are released from cells in the brain.
Animal cells communicate through ________where two channel proteins in
adjacent cells line up.
arise by a stable alignment of channel proteins in adjacent cells so the pores are directly across from each other.
are large non-protein channels through both the cell membranes and the cell wall of neighboring plant cells.
states that energy can be transferred and
transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed (i.e., the energy of the universe
Why do you get hot when you work out?
Energy is constantly flowing in from the _____
is a system which is completely isolated from its surroundings.
energy can be transferred between the system and the surroundings.
. In all chemical reactions you begin with one set of substances, reactants, and
end with a __________ set of substances, products
A + B ________ C + D
is the entire region inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus in cells that have a nucleus (i.e., most eukaryotic cells).
-Reaction is energetically downhill
-Reaction is energetically uphill
(requires an energy source)
is the amount of energy that reactant molecules must absorb
to start a reaction
Which homeostatic process helps us maintain a constant body temperature?
pathways are metabolic pathways which release energy by breaking
down complex molecules to simpler compounds
degradation, releases energy
pathways are metabolic pathways which consume energy to build
complicated molecules from simpler ones.
-synthesis, energy requiring
are biological catalysts which are usually proteins.