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Approximately 99% of blood cells are involved in ________.
The role of valves in the veins is to _______________.
Keep the blood from flowing backward when the veins are squeezed by the skeletal muscles.
Which animals have four-chambered hearts?
What is an example of an animal that has a heart with only two chambers?
In a random screening of athletes at a recent event, a runner was disqualified for testing positive for an injected form of erythropoietin. What is one piece of evidence that the testers used in this case?
The cellular components made up 55% of the blood volume
Which is the correct sequence of blood vessels from the heart through the body and back to the heart?
arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins
Reduces blood flow in arteries
Which statement is NOT TRUE?
a. Plasma is primarily water
b. Red blood cells carry oxygen
c. White blood cells defend the body against disease
d. Platelets are large cells that aid in blood clotting
Which is NOT TRUE of lymph nodes?
a. destroy bacteria and viruses.
b. aid in clotting.
c. produce certain white blood cells.
d. are located along lymphatic vessels.
e. are filled with channels through which the lymph is forced.
Which has the lowest blood pressure?
In humans, the tricuspid valve is found ___________.
between the right atrium and the right ventricle
A person who has an artificial pacemaker has an artificial device that replaces the actions of the _________________.
Which of the following is NOT TRUE of hemoglobin?
a. is found in all blood cells.
b. carries oxygen.
c. carries carbon dioxide.
d. contains iron
e. is red.
A diagnosis of hypertension is made when blood pressure goes above _____.
Which of the following is NOT possible?
a. an involuntary increase in the rate of breathing b. inhibition of the respiratory centers in the brain c. holding one's breath until death occurs
d. a voluntary increase in the rate of breathing
e. a voluntary decrease in the rate of breathing
Movement of O2 from the outside air to respiratory surfaces by ventilation of the lungs is an example of _________.
A thin slice of a lung would look like a thin slice of __________.
After passing through the nasal cavities, incoming air moves next to the ____________.
- A moist gas exchange surface
- A large surface area
- Thin surfaces
At the end of a quiet expiration ______________.
abdominal muscles can be contracted to push more air out
Jellyfish do not have a circulatory system because _______________.
their tissues are so thin that diffusion is sufficient for gas exchange
Which of the following is NOT a stage in gas exchange in respiratory systems?
a. air moves across system by bulk flow
b. diffusion of O2 and CO2 across the respiratory membranes
c. active transport of O2 into the circulatory system d. gases transported by the circulatory system by bulk flow
e. gas exchange from the circulation to the tissues by diffusion
The respiratory system is regulated to maintain a constant level of ________ in the blood.
Which of the following can bind to hemoglobin?
b. carbon dioxide
c. carbon monoxide
e. answer choices A, B and C
Which of the following is NOT a respiratory surface?
a. tracheae of a fly
b. bat wings
c. skin of an earthworm
d. gills of a fish
Insect respiratory systems do NOT contain?
Where is the respiratory center located?
"Smoker's cough" is the result of what?
Hemoglobin and hemocyanin are respiratory proteins. What is their function?
Increase the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.
A joint which is movable in only two dimensions is known as a ________ joint.
The fluid in the sarcoplasmic reticulum contains a high concentration of ________ ions, which are released when an action potential stimulates it.
Which of the following would increase bone strength?
a. low dietary calcium
c. action potentials directly stimulating bones
d. osteoclast activity
Osteoporosis may occur when ______________.
the activity of osteoclasts exceeds that of the osteoblasts
What is the purpose of the sarcoplasmic reticulum?
The muscles of your lower leg are arranged in antagonistic pairs so that you ________________.
can both flex and extend your leg
In a muscle that is fatigue resistant, such as that of a leg muscle in a marathon runner, you would expect it to have __________________.
- Many mitochondria
- An elevated blood supply
- Elevated levels of ATP
The function of the accessory proteins of the thin filaments is to _______________.
prevent the formation of cross-bridges between actin and myosin unless Ca ions are present
The pectoral girdle is part of the axial skeleton. True or False?
When a muscle fiber receives an action potential from a motor neuron, how many sarcomeres in the fiber contract?
What are the thick filaments of a myofibril composed of?
What common medical procedure would be much more dangerous if cartilage was not present in the ribcage of humans?
Which type of muscle constricts veins when blood pressure drops suddenly?
The loss of calcium salts from hard bone, which most commonly occurs in post-menopausal women.
Age 20: average 135 bpm
Age 50: average 115 bpm
Age 70: average 101 bpm
How does the skeletalsystem work with the circulatory system?
Which of the following is a sound that exceeds 100 decibels?
If the doctor says you have a middle ear infection, which of the following could be involved?
Receptor potentials are ________ the strength of the stimulus.
directly proportional to
The arrangement of the semicircular canals is most similar to which of the examples listed below?
axes of a three-dimensional graph.
The oval window is between the _____ and the ______.
middle ear and the inner ear.
Which of the following is the sequence of structures through which sound waves travel to stimulate hearing?
outer ear >>>> tympanic membrane >>>> middle ear >>>> oval window >>>> cochlea
Which of the following respond to rapid vibrations or a sharp poke?
The intensity of a stimulus is indicated by the ________ of action potentials.
The receptor cells affected by light rays are called or located or considered to be what?
Ommatidia are found in ________ eyes.
The birth defect spina bifida results in part of the spinal cord lying outside of the body. This defect is due to abnormal development of the what?
Stem cells developed by inserting genes into cells from an adult are what type of cells?
induced pluripotent stem
A human embryologist examines a 3-week-old embryo and notices that it has not developed a notochord. If the embryo survives, it will lack what?
a brain and a spinal cord.
Birds hatch out of their eggs looking like small versions of the adult. This is an example of what?
Longevity in animals appears to be most related to their cells' ability to repair damage to their own DNA. True or False?
The fetus can move and respond to stimuli as early as the ________ month.
All the cells in an animal are genetically identical. True or False?
The structure produced by cleavage of a human zygote is called a(n) what?
Suppose a pregnant woman took a drug that causes incomplete brain formation during fetal development. When must the woman have taken the drug for this effect to occur?
in the first two months of development
In blastulas, if cells from an area that would normally become skin are transplanted into an area that would become nervous system, the transplanted cells will become nervous system. True or False?
A fruit is a mature what?
Megaspore mother cells are diploid. True or False?
In angiosperms, but not conifers, pollen grains can form pollen tubes. True or False?
You have some freshly produced seeds that refuse to germinate when placed in moist soil. What can you do to encourage the seeds to germinate?
Which of the following undergoes meiosis during the development of pollen grains?
microspore mother cell
All of the following are processes that occur during angiosperm reproduction EXCEPT what?
one megaspore degenerates, and the other three divide once to produce the six-celled embryo sac.
The reserve food in angiosperm seeds is stored either in the cotyledons or in the what?
Grass flowers lack petals and sepals. Which of the following statements is TRUE?
They are incomplete flowers.
In the fern life cycle, how do spores and gametes differ?
Meiotic cell division produces haploid spores; mitotic cell division produces haploid gametes.
Meiosis produces a ________, which eventually gives rise to an egg in an unfertilized seed. What is the missing term?
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