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The fundamental tool used by scientists to practice scienceis:
a. faith. b. Hypothetico-deductive reasoning. c. the “Scientific Method”.
d. aand c, which are really the same thing. e. b and c, which are really the same thing.
Which ofthe following is always one of the by-products of dehydration synthesis oforganic molecules?
a. carboxylgroups. b. oxygen c. hydroxide groups. d.. water. e. none of the above.
Reactants are the substances produced by a chemical reaction (T or F).
The property of water that allows it to stick to another object thereby “wetting” it is referred to as:
a. cohesion b. it is clear. c. adhesion. d. mass. e. none of the above.
Notes state that water moleculesdisplay Adhesion- Water molecules are attracted to other substances. Think adhesion is sticky!
Water molecules stick together asa result of hydrogen bonding. Water molecules are attracted to each other bycohesion.
Related to cohesion is surfacetension, a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface ofliquid.
I think a property is somethingyou can observe so it is not cohesion.
a. Neutron b. Proton c. Electron d. a and c e. a and b.
Both A and B
Dalton is unitused in expressing the molecular weight of proteins, equivalent to atomic massunit.
Thenotes indicate that Protons 1 dalton and neutrons=1dalton. Electrons is only1/1840 dalton
Which of the following terms describes the study of the relationship between living things and components of their environment?
a. Zoology b. Ecology c. Herpetology d. Analogy e. Ichthyology.
A chemical bond formed by the COMPLETE TRANSFER of electrons from on participant to the other is called:
a. Polar covalent. b. Non-polar covalent. c. Ionic. d. Hydrogen e. None of the above.
A chemical bond formed by UNEQUAL SHARING of electrons is called:
a. Ionic b. Non-polar covalent c. Polar covalent d. Hydrogen e. None of the above.
Which is NOT TRUE of amino acids?
a. There are approximately 20 kinds
b. All have amine functional groups.
c. All have carboxyl functional groups
d. All have aldehyde functional groups
e. none of the above.
The groups of molecules that most often engage in chemical reactions are referred to as functional groups (Tor F).
For practical purposes, the ultimate source of energy used by life on earth comes from:
a. the sun. b. Mars. c. within ourselves. d. a and c. e. none of the above.
Which of the following is NOT TRUE about phospholipids (this is a think question. draw one and think bout your answer)?
a. they are completely non-polar
b. they are amphipathic
c. They consist of 2 fatty acids, a 3 carbonalcohol, and a phosphate group.
d. they are major components of the cell membrane.
-plasma membrane is made mostly from two layers of phospholipid molecules, with "tails" that mingle together, but "heads" that point in opposite directions. The exterior of the bilayer, or "head", is hyrdophyllic while the interior, or "tail", is hydrophobic.
-It helps give the plasma membrane a fluid structure.
-Because it has a hydrophobic center, the only substances that can pass through it with ease are other hydrophobic substances or a few small non hydrophobic substances (like dissolves like)
The end-point inthe Scientific Process is the development of a(n):
a. Law. b. Fact. c. Theory. d. Hypothesis. e. none of the above
The building blocks (the monomers) of carbohydrates are:
a. Proteins b. Fatty acids c. Nucleic acids d...Simple sugars e. none of the above.
When monomers are bonded together to form polymers, the bonding process is referred to as:
a. radiometric bonding. b. hydrolysis. c. half life. d. dehydration synthesis. e. none of the above.
Carbon plays a central role in the chemistry of life because:
a. it can form up to 4 covalent bonds. b. it can form multiple bonds with another molecule. c. it can bond with other carbon atoms. d. a, b, and c are all true about carbon. e. none of the above.
When a polymersuch as a complex carbohydrate is broken apart into its monomer buildingblocks (like glucose), the process is referred to as:
a. hydrolysis. b. radiometric reduction. c. dehydration synthesis. d. cleavage. e. none of the above.
Our muscles are comprised predominantly of which of thesematerials?
a. sugar. b. protein. c. fatty acids. d. phospholipids. e. calcium.
Among the following choices, which displays the lowest level of emergent properties?
a. organ. b. organ system. c. cell. d. tissue. e. none of the above.
In a closed system, when energy is changes from one form into another, the resulting form has less energy in it than the initial form. This is a summary of which of the following?
a. 1st law of thermodynamics. b. 2nd law of thermodynamics. c. law of thermodydactics. d. Theory of thermo- evolution of matter. e. none of the above.
These molecules (usually special kinds of proteins)are vital to the chemistry of life because they catalyze chemical reactions:
a. hormones. b. lipids. c. carbohydrates. d. enzymes e. none of the above.
The rate atwhich a radioactive isotope disintegrates is referred to as its:
a. disintegration velocity. b. disintegration rate. c. radioactive rate. d. half-life
e. none of the above.
These Molecules are vital to the chemistry of life because they catalyze chemical reactions.
Given the flower color in snapdragons is an incomplete dominance trait, what would be the genotypic ration among the F2 generation that resulted from a cross of red & white parents?
Which genotype characterizes an organism that is heterozygous for 2 genes?
Phenotypic ratio for dihybrid cross
Biological evolution is a scientific fact (t/f)
The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium is a mathematical model (based on assumptions of large population size and gene frequence stability) that tells us that something other than the reshuffling of alleles during sexual reproduction is required to (t/f)
fossils provide record of biodiversity over time (t/f)
organisms are fundamentally cellular in their fundamental structure
One of the Unifying Principles of Biology is that:
Which of the following schools of thought held the belief that living systems could produce products that non living systems could not?
Sometimes a molecule can be sufficiently similar to a legitimate substrate molecule that it fools an enzyme into locking onto it, resulting in the biochemical pathway ceasing to produce it's ultimate product. This is often what an antibiotic substanc
Mitosis produces GENETICALLY UNIQUE daughter cells (t/f)
Fossils provide no information about the length of time a life form has been successful (t/f)
Change in allele frequencies over time is called macroevolution (t/f)
On the origin of species by means of natural selection was written by
Challenged prevailing scientific views.
wrote about Natural selection
fossil distribution helps us understand that continents that today are separated used to be connected. for ex: what mammal groups used to be on An tat oca as well as South America and Australia?
Darwin believed that the major driving force in evolution was
Weight of human babies at birth are an example of which kind of selection?
bat wings and cats limbs
Which of the following are examples of homologous structures?
The ability of a single cell gene to have multiple phenotypic effects is called
How many DIFFERENT kinds of gametes may be produced by a TWO - GENE organism with the genotype rrYY
If 2 alleles are equally fully expressed they are said to be
When something such as exposure to radiation or a chemical causes developmental disorders usually attributed to genetic dysfunction, this Is referred to as
The biochemistry that causes the expression of a particular trait in an organism is referred to as the organism's:
Proportion of individuals who show phenotype that is expected from their genotype.
ex: Tay-Saches disease (recessive) 100 percent _______
dominant allel for retinoblastoma incomplete ______
a method for determining the age of fossils and rocks from the ratio of a radioactive isotope to the non radioactive isotope(s) of the same element in the sample.
The ordered sequence of fossils as they appear in the rock layers, marking the passing of geological time.
Material preserved through time
Material or impressions of past organisms hermetically sealed in rock.
includes hard and soft parts, impressions, whole organisms, petrification.
evidence of evolution
The condition describing a non evolving population (one that is in genetic equilibrium).
containing a single set of chromosomes; referring to an n cell.
bottle neck effect
genetic drift resulting from a drastic reduction in population size.
bottle neck effect
Reduction in pop. By disaster - unselective.
Result: small pop that by chance has some alleles over or under presented
Evolutionary change above the species level, including the origin of evolutionary novelty and new taxonomic groups groups and the impact of mass extinctions on the diversity of life and its subsequent recovery.
sickle cell anemia
a genetic disorder in which the red blood cells have abnormal hemoglobin molecules and take on abnormal shape.
a mating of individuals differing at two genetic loci.
a mating of individuals differing at one genetic loci.
Oparin-Haldane Hypothesis of Origin of Life
Origin of Life preceded by long period of chemical evolution.
little or no free oxygen present
much energy present
biomolecules accumulated. Some more successful than others.
Eukaryotes arose as symbiotic colonies of prokaryotes.
Smaller prokaryotes lived within smaller prokaryotes
Ancestors of mitochandria, chloroplasts, and flagella may have entered into larger anaerobic cells as prey or parasites!
All organisms created on present form at some level of perfection.
Arranged on natural scale.
Each station in life like a rung on a ladder; humans at top, pond slime at bottom.
basis of world view that humans = centerofuniverse
Ptolemaic World View
Human center of universe.
Earth is center of physical universe.
All species created unchanging by supernatural force for purpose, each it's own station.
Creationist - essentialist dogma
Founder of TaxonomyDeveloped the modern binomial system of naming organisms by genus and specific epithet.Swedish physician-botanist
Major objective: classify species in order to reveal steps of the scale of life creator had made.
relics or impressions of past organisms hermetically sealed in rock.
Erosion carves down through layers, youngest on top.
Reveals a chronological picture of change in biodiversity over time.
He recognized that different strata had different assemblages of organisms.
and that extinction had become a common occurrence in history of life.
He believed in classical creation: species unchanging.
Recognized evidence in fossil record: dynamic biodiversity.
Appearance of new species
Colonozation from adjacent areas.
New species created
Jean Baptiste Lamarck
Believed organisms evolved, but was incorrect in his belief about how they evolved.
Believed organisms inherited and passed on acquired traits.
ex: Giraffe necks got longer bc adults stretching their necks hot longer which they passed onto offsprin
Lamarcks major contribution to evolutionary understanding:
Cause: interaction with environment.
castings made in fine clay or sediment by original organism
organism decomposes leaving a casting
Often evidence of soft tissue form.
chemicals leach out
and replaces them
These evolved from 4-legged land animals of 55mybp.
This leads to:
Change in climate.
Brings competitors closer.
fragmentation of continents
Separates organisms and their populations
Bars easy movement
Creates niches with shallow seas, increase coastline.
Anatomical similarities resulting from common ancestry.
Ex:Skeletal components of for elites of various species of vertebrates.
Modification made to fit diff purpose
carry the same gene
historical relics of structures
functioned in ancestors, but not now.
Ex: pelvis and leg bones in some snakes.
Lateral toes in modern horses.
Evolutionary history of a species.
Evolutionary relationships among species reflected in molecules like
Proteins of genes
Principle Simple of Molecular Bio
If two organisms have similar libraries of genes and proteins THEN
sequences must have come from COMMON ANCESTRY.
All forms of life are related through branching decent with modification from earliest organisms.
Ex: Humans and _______ share some protein in common.
Assumption of non-evolving population:
No net mutations
No natural selection
Migration of reproductive individuals or fertile gametes.
Usually non - adaptive, changes too small to affect large population.
Can reduce heterozygote
can increase homozygotes
ex: assertive mating: picking your partner due to criteria.
Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms
hybrid embryos do not develop properly
hybrid adults do not survive in nature
hybrid adults are sterile or have reduced fertility
= fertile hybrid offspring
greatly increased ability to generate genetic diversity
degree of phenotypic expression of a genotype varies among individuals that show the phenotype.
Where one gene interferes with the expression of another that is independently inherited.
ex: purple in sweet pea flowers
in dihybrid cross
believed whole human was already present in egg and sperms only role was to stimulate growth
believed mother to only be an "incubator"
all inheritable traits from father.
theory based on observations of breeding of ornamental plants
both parents contribute equally
offspring a mix of parental traits
just as blue and yellow paint make green
Law of Independent Assortment
Each allele pair segregated independently
alleles sort independently
support by Mendel
F1 generation displays phenotype midway between parental ohenotypes.
F2 generation gives GENOTYPE RATIO = PHENOTYPIC RATIO = 1:2:1
Ex: SNAPDRAGON COLOR
PRO DUSTIN OF LOW DENSITY LIPIDS
SICKLE CELL ANEMIA
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