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A scientific theory is one that:
is supported by many years of experimentation all supporting the hypothesis.
Science is self-correcting. This means that:
science actively seeks to disprove its own theories and hypotheses.
The biological species concept:
defines a species as any group of actually or potentially interbreeding organisms that produce viable offspring.
A population is:
a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same general location and have the potential to interbreed.
The blood only flows through the heart once per circuitThe fish's heart has two chambers: one atrium (blood in) and one ventricle (blood out). The heart pumps blood to the gills first, and then to the rest of the body. Blood movement through the gills is the slowest because this is where gas exchange occurs.
The double helix model of DNAsuggested by Watson and Crick was exciting to the scientific community because
Measures of overall DNA similaritybetween chimpanzees and humans reveal that _____ of our base pairs are thesame.
Alternate versions of a gene arecalled _______________. They can code for different ________________ of thesame character.
Which of the following nucleotidebases are present in equal amounts in DNA?
Which of the following correctlydescribes the locations of transcription and translation within a eukaryoticcell?
Which of the following is theprimary site of protein assembly within eukaryotic cells?
Most genetic diseases result frommutations that cause a gene to produce a non-functioning ______________, whichin turn blocks the functioning of a metabolic pathway.
The process of using the informationencoded in mRNA molecules to assemble polypeptides from amino acids is called:
Diabetes is a chronic disease inwhich the body cannot produce ________________, a chemical that allows cells totake up and break down sugar from the blood.
Which of the following molecules isNOT DIRECTLY involved in translation?
Which of the following are features that distinguish cancer cells from normal cells?
Normal cells have contact inhibition; cancer cells have no contact inhibition
Normal cells can divide a finite number of times; cancer cells can divide indefinitely.
The same genetic condition that causes sickle-cell anemia can also protect against:
A cross between homozygous red-eyed flies and homozygous white-eyed flies results in progeny that all have red eyes. This result demonstrates:
that red eyes is a dominant trait..
The triplet code in RNA which determines the identity of a corresponding amino acid
The following is an example of a mutation:
Contracts to cause movement
Animal cells have "sacrificial" ends on their chromosomes that determine the number of times a cell can divide. These ends are called:
refers to the division of a cell's cytoplasm.
A nucleotide requires three phosphates in order to be added to the growing DNA strand. Why?
The energy from the cleavage of the first two phosphates provides the energy to covalently link the nucleotides together.
Which of the following nucleotide bases are present in equal amounts in DNA?
There is a difference between HIV and AIDS because:
During the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), two strands of DNA are separated by:
A major difference between DNA and RNA is that:
A frameshift mutation:
results from an insertion or deletion in a DNA sequence.
Which of the following can be said about a frameshift mutation?
Errors sometimes occur when DNA duplicates itself. Why might that be a good thing?
Which of the following correctly describes the locations of transcription and translation within a eukaryotic cell?
DNA is transcribed in the nucleus, then the mRNA transcript is transported to the cytosol to be translated into protein.
A VNTR is:
A region of DNA containing short, repeated sequences that is used to determine the relatedness of individuals
DNA is a macromolecule that stores information. Which component of the nucleotide contains this information?
Why are viruses dependent on a host cell?
Viruses need the transcriptional and translational machinery of the host to reproduce.
Bt corn is a genetically engineered plant. What feature gives it value as a crop plant?
The plant produces a toxin designed to kill corn borers.
Cancer cells are different from other cells in that they have lost their "contact inhibition." "Contact inhibition" means:
most cells stop dividing when they bump up against other cells or collections of cells.
The majority of a eukaryotic cell's life is spent in an "in-between-division" stage referred to as:
A given section of DNA with the sequence AATGGCTAT is transcribed. What is the corresponding sequence on the mRNA transcription?
Gene therapy involves:
introducing non-defective genes into the cells of an individual with a genetic disorder.
DNA is now often used as evidence in criminal trials. It is particularly useful because it can be found in:
The combination of DNA from two or more sources is called:
The technique in which a non-functioning gene is replaced by a functioning gene in somatic cells is called:
One of the possible concerns about genetically modified foods is that they might kill organisms that we don't want to kill. Which of the following is an example of this phenomenon?
The pollen from plants containing insect-killing Bt genes can be blown onto other plants. Insects that we don't want to kill, such as monarch butterflies, may be killed by such pollen.
During transcription, at the point where the DNA strand being copied has an adenine, _______________ is added to the mRNA.
Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body cannot produce ________________, a chemical that allows cells to take up and break down sugar from the blood.
A young scientist has discovered a new species of grub worm in the Amazon. He would like to explore the possibility that in this grub worm the codon CUC is the start codon and codes for methionine not leucine as it does in other worms. He has been unable to get his research funded to date most likely because:
the genetic code is universal to all species.
Restriction enzymes that are used in biotechnology come from:
Cells have a variety of different characteristics, despite the fact that all of the cells in your body have the same DNA. This is due to differences in__________.
In humans, ______ of our DNA is coding DNA.
less than 5%
The complementary base pairs in a DNA molecule are stabilized by:
weak hydrogen bonds.
Semi-conservative replication of DNA means that:
Half of the DNA each daughter cell receives comes directly from the original parent cell's DNA double helix
An important difference between mRNA and DNA is:
mRNA contains uracil instead of thymine, which is found in DNA.
The three nonsense codons that do not code for any amino acid, UAA, UAG, and UGA, are also known as:
The first gene therapy experiments were undertaken in an attempt to cure otherwise fatal genetic diseases in children. What type of incurable genetic disease was the first gene therapy trial attempting to cure?
Severe Combined Immune Deficiency (SCID)
The process of using the information encoded in mRNA molecules to assemble polypeptides from amino acids is called:
The flu shot is different from the nasal spray vaccine because
The shot is composed of killed virus, whereas the nasal spray has a virus that is weakened, but still alive
Taking the nucleus out of an egg cell and replacing with the nucleus of a somatic cell
The expression of a gene to form a polypeptide occurs in two major steps. What are these two steps in their correct chronological order?
transcription and then translation
Transgenic bacteria are bacteria:
that have a sequence of DNA from another organism inserted into them.
One of the four nucleotide bases in DNA is replaced by a different base in RNA. Which base is it, and what is it replaced by?
thymine, replaced by uracil
In order for a eukaryotic cell to undergo reproduction and divide, certain steps must be successfully completed. Select from the choices below the one that is NOT one of these necessary steps.
There must be proper reshuffling of the genetic material in order to provide diversity within the gametes.
In any DNA molecule, the number of guanine bases will:
always be equal to the number of cytosine bases.
In asexual reproduction, daughter cells inherit their DNA from ____________________.
a single parent
The division of the cytoplasm during cell division is referred to as:
Which of the following is NOT a part of the alimentary canal?
Why must vegetarians worry about balancing complementary proteins?
Most plant proteins do not contain all of the essential amino acids.
Most mammals (including humans) prefer the taste of fats to carbohydrates and proteins. Why?
The caloric content of a gram of fat is more than double that of a gram of protein or carbohydrate.
All organisms need energy. What are the two fundamentally different ways that they can get it?
They can make it themselves, such as plants do by photosynthesis, or they can eat other organisms, as most animals do.
Cows have large bacterial floras in their digestive system. Which of the following best explains why cows have microbes in their rumen?
The microbes metabolize the cellulose in the plants that cows eat.
In controlled experiments:
one variable is manipulated while others are held constant.
Which of the following is not an important biological function of lipids?
Saturated fatty acids have _________________ than unsaturated fatty acids, which is why they exist as a ____________ at room temperature.
fewer double bonds; solid
A _____________ is a pill that looks identical to a pill that contains the active ingredient in a scientific trial, but contains no active ingredient itself.
On food packages, “insoluble fiber” refers to plant material that we can't fully digest but is important for maintaining a healthy digestive tract. This substance refers to a(n):
A complex polymer built of monosaccharides is called a(n):
If ingested food is absorbed in the small intestine, why is there an exit to the digestive system?
Not all that you ingest is digested and absorbed, this "leftover" must be eliminated.
Once a scientist has formulated a hypothesis that generates a testable prediction, she will:
Vitamins don't yield any usable energy. Rather:
they serve as collaborators with enzymes to enable the processing of the protein, carbohydrates, and fats we eat.
An unsaturated fatty acid is one in which:
carbon-carbon double bonds are present in the hydrocarbon chain.
The pH of a fluid is a measure of:
how acidic or basic it is.
Fermentation reactions generally occur under conditions of:
low oxygen concentrations.
Which is the most important concept in achieving healthy diet?
Suppose you measure the height of two people. One is a woman who is 5 feet 10 inches tall. The other is a man who is 5 feet 6 inches tall. Which of the following is an appropriate conclusion to draw from these measurements?
Some women are taller than some men.
“Engaging in aerobic activity three times each week will reduce cholesterol levels” is a:
Your friend believes astrology should be considered a scientific discipline and you want to explain to her why it is not. Which of the following arguments is the MOST sound reason why astrology is not considered a true scientific discipline?
Astrology cannot be tested and proved by controlled experiments.
Which of the following is the outermost feature on the surface of a plant cell?
Which of the following is nearly always a successful prescription for losing weight?
Eat less and move around more.
“Survival of the fittest” may be a misleading phrase to describe the process of evolution by natural selection because:
survival matters less to natural selection than reproductive success does.
Speciation without geographic isolation is called:
A primary function of the prostate gland is:
to produce the fluid (non-sperm) components of semen.
Many bacterial populations today are resistant to antibiotics that were historically effective. This antibiotic resistance arose in these populations because:
some bacteria were resistant to the antibiotic before they were used, and those bacteria were more likely to survive and reproduce.
Anatomical homology in vertebrate forelimbs is considered to be evidence for evolution because:
similarities among vertebrate forelimbs suggest that they evolved from a common ancestor.
The ____________ is the site of pregnancy in the human female.
The egg cells of a horse contain 32 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in the horse's liver cells?
In humans, X-linked traits:
occur on the X chromosome.
Population bottlenecks occur when:
Horses and donkeys can breed and produce sterile offspring known as mules. Horses and donkeys remain separate species because of this hybrid sterility, which is:
a postzygotic barrier to reproduction.
The completion of meiosis II in the oocyte of human females occurs:
after the oocyte is fertilized by a spermatazoan.
Protists can be described as:
In a pedigree, a shaded square represents:
a male that displays the trait of interest
The migration of reproductive individuals among populations results in a movement of alleles called:
Gametes contain _______ of chromosomes as are found in somatic cells.
half the number
The origin of all genetic variation is:
Is it possible for a woman to have a X-linked recessive trait? If it is, how can this occur?
In examples of convergent evolution such as with sharks and dolphins, it can be demonstrated that organisms of the two groups that converged:
occupy similar environments.
A disadvantage of asexual reproduction is that:
it results in less genetic variation in a population.
Natural selection results from interactions between:
species and their environment.
The phenotype of an organism is:
its physical characteristics.
The longer two species have been evolving on their own, the greater the number of _____________________ that accumulate between them.
Albinism (lack of skin and hair pigmentation) is caused by a recessive autosomal allele. A woman and man, both normally pigmented, have an albino child together. For this trait, what is the genotype of the albino child?
The _____________ is the site of gamete production in human females.
Where are the two alleles that make up a genotype located?
The alleles are on two different chromosomes, and these two chromosomes form a homologous pair.
In captivity, tigers and lions have been known to interbreed and produce hybrids, known as ligers. Why does this NOT make them the same species, according to the biological species concept?
Captivity is not a natural condition.
What structure in a sperm cell contains what might be called "a cap or bag containing digestive enzymes"?
Much of what is known about the history of the origin of life came from:
the study of fossils.
The SRY, or sex determining region of the Y chromosome, is most noted for:
causing an embryo to develop into a boy.
Why is the amniotic egg considered a key evolutionary innovation?
It greatly increases the survival probabilities of eggs in a terrestrial environment.
Trisomy 21 is a consequence of _______________________, the unequal distribution of chromosomes during meiosis.
Two important features that distinguish mammals from any other type of animal are:
hair and mammary glands.
To which one of the following is the bat's wing NOT homologous?
the dragonfly's wing
Genetic drift will have the greatest effects for populations:
that are very small.
According to the biological species concept, species are natural populations of organisms that have the potential to interbreed and that are ____________ isolated from other such populations.
Evolution is defined as:
a change in the frequency of alleles in a population over time.
The genotype of an organism is:
its genetic makeup
Which came first, the chicken or the egg?
The egg, because the amniotic egg evolved well before the first bird.
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