Bio. 102 Final Exam Review- Evolution ? Ecology (Prof. Gaugler) *Note: One question is missing Which ecosystem would typically have the greatest species richness on an equivalent area basis? Answer: A community dominated by k-selected species Fruit fly example showed male fitness increases with each mating a male receives, whereas female fitness is independent of the number of matings. This explains why?? Answer: Males compete and females choose Two factors that contribute to a decline in population size are?? Answer: Death and emigration Development of insecticide resistance in an insect population is an example of?? Answer: Microevolution Overloading ecosystems with excess Nitrogen via fertilizers can have negative consequences, including?? Answer: Accelerated eutrophication In a population of hypergylphs, individuals with long snouts survive better on an island that has burrowing termites. Over time, the population consists of individuals with extremely long snouts. This is an example of?? Answer: Directional selection Darwin?s problem with Lamarck?s 1809 theory of evolution via acquired traits is that Lamarck was focused on?? Answer: Individuals A k-selected population shows logistic growth. The number of individuals in the population at any time is equal to N. At what value of N will the population reach the environment?s carrying capacity? Answer: When N equals K When two species occupy similar niches and compete for resources?? Answer: One species may become extinct; Character displacement occurs resulting in reduced competition (both are correct) Sympatric speciation is most prevalent in?? Answer: Plants A major deficiency of the morphological species concept is?? Answer: Variation (or polymorphism) Only a small portion of the energy stored in one trophic level is available to the next higher level because of?? Answer: Respiration Which of the following helps maintain species integrity?? Answer: Habitat isolation Which of the following is true regarding genetic drift?? Answer: Result of sampling error A population in which gene frequencies don?t change from generation to generation is said to be?? Answer: In genetic equilibrium The tendency of organisms to develop the same types of adaptations in response to similar environmental conditions?? Answer: Convergent evolution Fundamental reason why Bonobo chimp males don?t show infanticide?? Answer: Polyandry According to Ernst Mayr, speciation depends on?? Answer: Interruption of gene flow A realized niche is?? Answer: The niche occupied by a species in the presence of competitors Elements that contributed to adaptive radiation on oceanic islands include?? Answer: All of the above (allopatric speciation; lack of gene flow; genetic drift; unexploited niches) Excellent example of microevolution?? Answer: None of the above (evolution of wings in insects; extinction of the Dodo bird; adaptive radiation; divergence of Homo sapiens as species) Which of the following is most likely to lead to divergent evolution?? Answer: Disruptive selection What is the central consequence of gene flow? Answer: Homogeneity Which of the following has the most long-term potential to alter gene frequencies in populations? Answer: Mutation and natural selection An ecologist comes upon a community comprised of plants having low shade tolerance. She concludes the community is most likely?? Answer: Early successional community Rapid evolution of many new mammalian forms 65 million years ago is example of?? Answer: Adaptive radiation Which of the following is most likely to promote sympatric speciation?? Answer: Ecological isolation or chromosomal aberrations (or mutation) (answer is either one is correct) The 1995 floods in the Mississippi River drainage had devastating effect on plants and animals. Events of this type that tend to regulate population size can be described as?? Answer: Density independent Monogamy might reasonably be considered as?? Answer: An extreme form of mate guarding Speciation occurs when?? Answer: Two populations can no longer interbreed Wisdom teeth illustrate which of the following?? Answer: Vestigial structures According to the theory of evolution by natural selection, which of the following is true?? Answer: Populations will adapt to better fit their environment A theory is best thought of as?? Answer: Framework for testing predictions Imagine that half of the Oaks in a forest where Oak-dwelling Tiger Salamanders lived were cut down. One might expect their population would then?? Answer: Decline to new, lower carrying capacity; Experience death rates exceeding birth rates (both are correct)
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