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- postive effect and negative to others
explainMendel’s Laws of Segregation of Allelesand Independent Assortment
Law of segregation- theidea that two alleles of a gene separate during the formation of eggs and spermso that every gamete receives only one allele. Law of independent assortment- the alleles of different genesassort independently of each other during gamete formation. Meaning that aspecific allele for one gene may be found in a gamete regardless of whichallele for a different gene I found in the same gamete.
Explainthe chromosome theory of inheritance
· Explainincomplete dominance and codominance
-Incomplete dominance is what was believed before Mendel. The phenotype of the heterozygous zygote is intermediate. Not having the recessive being masked by the dominant but a blend of both.
Codominance- Both alleles in the heterozygote are expressed completely ex) blood type AB-both A and B
Epigenetic-way of specifically explaining how the environment might have a role on the phenotype. Interactions of the genes with the environment. Even without changing the genotype the environment can change the way those genes are expressed or way they function***can be heritable*** No change in alleles is required
YOUNG EARTH VIEW
believed that all species were created as they currently exist and that they are immutable (non changing). Any variations were seen as temporary imperfections. Any data that was gathered was to support the supernatural.***Scientific method did not exist yet***
Believed that Earth must be at least 75,000 years old, living things do change through time as a result of influences from the environment, or even chance.
the way the world is working right now is consistent with the way it has been working.
Transitional Forms- intermediate fossil forms (between ancestral formand the form of its decedents) ex) fishapod is transitional form between which have fins and tetrapods which are four limbed animals.
evidence revealed by biogeography and endemic species.
Endemism-limited ranges of native organisms in specific places.
Biogeography-isolated species on island differ in some way from mainland but have similar charcteristics.
Convergence-similar traits that evolve independent of one another ex) wings of a bat and of a bird.***supports importance of selection- **Challenge can lead to evolution of similar traits
· 2 alleles of a gene segregate during theformation of eggs and sperm so that every gamete receives only one allele
*One allele per gamete
*Each allele comes from one parent
similarity in structure due to decent
similarities DNA or protein structure attributed to decent.**consistent with evolutionary relationships***relatedness*** ex) genes involved in different organisms for eye structure, has similar enough sequence to create an insect eye with the mammal gene inserted in the insect.
preconditions for adaptation by natural selection
alleles that relate to being better at surviving and reproducing will become more common in the pop.
- product of natural selection/phenotype ex) morphology, physiology
selected on purpose ***have a desired outcome***strength of selection
ex)wild mustard plant bred for broccoli, Kale, Brussels sprouts,cabbage
When p2+2pq+q2=1 is not true then the populationis evolving.
ways that diversity can be introduced into a population
crossing (in mitosis) over of alleles leads to diversity in gametes...then recombination at fertilization produces a whole new combination of allele***contribute to genetic diversity
· crossing (in mitosis) over of alleles leads to diversity ingametes then recombination at fertilization produces a whole new combination ofallele***contribute to genetic diversity
gene flow (moving of alleles into and out of the population) decreases differences between populations but increases diversity within the population
· gene flow (moving of alleles into and out of the population)decreases differences between populations but increases diversity within thepopulation
Structure or trait that is a result of convergent evolution. Such structures have arisen independently 2 or more times because species have occupied similar types of environment on earth
what is a monomorphic gene?
A model situation in which allele frequencies do not change, no evolution.
p2+ 2 pq + q2 = 1
p = frequency of allele A and q = frequency of allele a
· changes in allele frequencies due to random chance events**favors fixation over time*** decreasesdiversity, Doesn’t have to do with fitness, Strongest in a small population
· used to distinguish species. A species is a group of individualswho members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature toproduce viable offspring, but cannot successfully interbreed with members ofother species.
· used to distinguish species-states that a species is dervivedfrom a single distinct lineage and has its own evolutionary tendancies andhistorical fait.
· used to distinguish species. Considers a species within itsnative environment and states that each species occupies its own ecologicalniche
A type of reproductive isolation in which zygotes are produced but are unable to develop into reproducing adults; these mechanisms may range from inviability of zygotes or embryos to adults that are sterile
· The simplest explanation is probably the best
· Best would be fewest # of changes in the sequence
-Evacuated feeding Groove
-have plastids from secondary endosymbiosis w/ red algae
-theory that says that prokaryotic cells were swallowed by eukaryotic cells and were not digested or destroyed because they were useful or helped the eukaryotic cell in some way; they have just stayed
-ex. mitchondria and
1. homosporous- all spores are made same
2. gametophyte is most prominent
3. dependent on gametophyte for nutrition
4. require H2O to reproduce- sperm must swim to female egg
they are young sporophytes that develop from zygotes
Sexual reproduction- compatible hyphae fuse.
zygotic life cycle- everything is haploid except zygote, evenafter mating haploid condition, rapid cell division, occurs with in substrate,development of fruiting body, fuse- nuclei put together but do not fuse.
Asexual- 20,000 asexual reproduction,rapid reproduction, well-adapted, identical spores
Heterotrophs-primarily absorptivenutrition, sharing capability, hyphae growth can grow very fast
Decomposers- break apart things , that many other organisms cantbreak down.
Predators- fungus digest/ capture about 200 species.
Mutualisms- mycorrhizae up to 80% of plants have a relationshipwith fungi. Can be a challenge with restoration work. More affective atabsorbing water, phosphate, zinc, and copper. 2 forms- endomicorise (down inbetween cells membrane) ectomicorisy (branching around the cell), diverse inform
Applied importance- benefit from fruiting bodies, yeast,brewing, toxins (hallucinogens) cause liver failure, antibiotics, black mold,pests (fungal infection), yeast infections, lung infection is most serious
Earliest ancestor would reflect chanoflagellate, starteddividing (multicellular) specialization began. All animals would have a sharedcommon ancestor
Multicellularity and heterotrophs would be the foundation. Nocell walls, specialized structure for movement, true nerve tissue, noautotrophs, similar rRNA
Animals with spiral cleavage arecalled protostomes, and those exhibiting radial cleavage called deuterosomes.
· Compareand contrast the traditional classification of animals with currentviews of animal diversity – and the major changes from the old classificationto the new
Lessons importance of chelom, no segmentation, now ecdysisincludes the nematode and arthropoda. Protosome development is split into twogroups the ecdysis and the lophotrochozoa.
* no tissue level, no cephalization, no germ layer, no coelom,lack of segmentation, cellular, asymmetrical
polypand medusa forms of the Cnidaria and describe cnidocytes
Cnidarians exist as two forms polyp and medusa. Polyp is asessile structure, the medusa is mobile.
soft body and external or internal shell, require moisture, mostlive in water, movement to land contributed to the diversity, the FOOT is amuscular form that helps with mobility, celomate, filter or scrape food fromsubstrate, no real blood vessels except the cephalopoda,
15,000 species includes segmented worms and leeches, repeatedsegments, redundancy of functions, some specialization mostly in digestivetract, hydrostatic skeleton
· roleof the cuticle and growth via ecdysis in the Ecdysozoa
The ecdysozoans are named after their ability to shed theircuticle, a nonliving cover providing support and protection. The two mostcommon phyla are nematodes and arthropods. Ecdysis causes an increase in growthfollowed by a plato.
evolutionarysuccess and diversity of the arthropods
Arthropods are the most successful animals on earth because oftheir unique dervived features, exoskeleton, jointed appendages, tagmatazion,complex sensory, excretory, nervous, respitory structures, metamorphosis.Arthropod diversity-most diverse animals on the planet, 80% are insects, halfare beetles, 30 million species of insects, 200million:1 human, inhibit everyhabitat on earth, most small,
cuticle ( non-living part of exoskeleton) is secreted by theepidermis the living portion of the exoskeleton. Most successful arthropodshave an exoskeleton that is composed of chitin& protein that is strong andflexable. Crustaceans add calcium carbonate into their skeleton that makestheir skeleton even harder. Benefits- protection, water conservation, muscleattachment forms (complex movement). Disadvantages- heavy, limits growth
adaption that allows fast movement, and complex movement,Adaptable legs then can swim, jump ect.. appendages for eating (mouth parts)sucking, chewing, manipulating. Appendages for sensing, antennae, wings-dervived from cuticle
Chelicerata- 74,000 species ex) spiders, scorpions, mites,ticks***8 legs
Myripoda-13,000 species ex) centipedes, millipedes,***differentmouth parts, lots of legs
Hexapoda- over a million ex) insects such as flies, bees***3tagmata
Crustacea-45,000 ex) crabs, lobsters***usually marine has 2-3tagmata
o hinged jaw
o bony skeleton
o tetrapod limbs
o amniotic egg
o mammal adaptations
Evolution of hinged jaw
· From gill arches (supporting rods)
· New food sources available
o Still use gill slits for respirationFist seen in Placoderms
As area increases the number of species increases. On island, the rule is that the number of species doubles when habitat area increases by a factor of 10.
More area = more habitats = more species.
Extinction plays an important role
· - 1) Humans depend on plants, animals, and microorganisms for awide range of food, medicine and industrial products. 2) Preserving theessential services provided by ecosystems, such as clean air and water. 3) Wehave an ethical responsibility to protect what are our only known livingcompanions in the universe.
· genetically programed behaviors
Denoted as “r”
This is the proportion of shared genes between 2 individuals
The higher r = the more closely related
1.0 – yourself, your identical twin
0.5 – parents, siblings, offspring
0.25 – aunts & uncles, nieces & nephews, grandparents
0.125 – cousins, great grandparents
Allele that favors inclusive fitness
rB > C
Differential survival andreproduction-
Increased allele frequency
· decreases differences between populations but increasesdiversity within the population***increases diversity overall
· In the absence of the antibiotic the bacteria may not persistbecause of either ecologically- competitionwith the normal bacteria against the one mutant or evolutionarily- selection/ drift may get lost
· physical isolation-migration or change in habitat
· gametes are incompatible ex) external fertilization with fisheggs or pollen
· not through isolation**the whole group experiences change andcould eventually forma new species over time.
· more than 2 chromosomes, a failure in meiosis, causes adifferent number of alleles which then can only breed with that same number ofalleles which causes reproductive isolation
the proposalthat two species with the same resource requirements cannot occupy the sameniche
· on a phylogenetic tree, is represented by the different lengthsof each branch and all taxa would not be equal
· includes all common decedents of the ancestor
· using molecular traits to find similarities
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