BIO 110 Study Guide (2013-14 Foster)
- Wake Technical Community College
- Biology 110
- BIO 110 Study Guide (2013-14 Foster)
Last Modified: 2014-06-22
- humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes (46 individual chromosomes) and thus, two copies of each gene. (MOM & DAD)
- Each human gamete has just one copy of each chromosome and, thus, one copy of each gene. (EGG & SPERM)
- Child inherits one set of chromosomes from each parent and, thus, two copies of each gene. (BABY)
- different version of genes
- represented by dna codes
- we have 2 copies
- each of the two copies or more forms of a gene located at the same place on the Chromosome.
- Indicated with letter B and b
- Genes for a particular trait can come in different forms called alleles
- This is when a person or animal is carrying two non-functioning versions of gene (a,a) that gene that produces the pigment melanin causes albinism.
- Phenotype: little or no pigment in the eyes, hair, and skin
- Genotype: Homozygous for the recessive allele for albinism (p,p)
- genetic trait causing lack of pigment in the skin or hair
-two alleles are dominant
-both proteins are functional
example: red flower + yellow flower = orange flower
The case in which the heterozygote displays characteristics of both alleles
- Are an example of SEX-Linked traits.
- When a genes is found on the "X" but not on the "Y" chromosomes
- Color blindness: Can't see colors correctly.
- An allele that is expressed as the phenotype.
- Can also have the recessive Gene
- B x b
- the phenotype shows the effect of the dominant allele in both homozygous and heterozgous genotypes.
- the environment can alter the genes expressions
- PKU and fish Ordor syndrome
- Siamese Cats and Himalayan Rabbits
- Identical Twins.
F1 generation- the offspring from the parents in the P generation
F2 generation- self-fertilization or cross of two F1 results in F2
- sex cells, ova or egges in the female, or sperm cells in the male.
- Cell that will combine at fertilization to produce offspring; also called a reproductive cell.
*meiosis cell division used to make gametes
- A segment of DNA on a Chromosome that controls a certain trait
- a sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosomes that carries the information necessary for making a functional product, usually a protein or an RNA molecule.
- an organisms genetic makeup or allele comibinations.
- Examples of Genotypes
- (A,A) Homozygous Dominant
- (A,a) Heterozygous
- (a,a) Homozygous Recessive
- Homozygous Dominant
- Homozygous Recessive
The ratio of heterozygous and homozygous, the aberration)
- two members of the allelic pair in the zygote are different
- Two identical alleles for the dominant trait (TT).
- the blending of traits to make a new PHENOTYPE in the Heterozygous condition. (CR,CW)
- Cr= Red allele
- Cw= white allele
- Making a new color which is Pink.
- When genes are often inherited together
- Red hair and freckles
- Blond Hair and blue Eyes.
- The linked alleles never get splt up unless, during meiosis, recombination occurs between them, moving one or more to the other chromosomes in the pair so that they now become linked within the alleles on that chromosomes.
- genes located on the x chromosome
- genes on y chromosome are also sex linked
- X-linked recessive gene shows its effects more in men than women b/c men only have one x
Allele pairs for different genes separate independently in meiosis, so the inheritance of one trait generally does not influence the inheritance of another trait. (The exception, unknown to Mendel, occurs with linked genes)
abnormal cells that are not the same shape as normal cells, oval shaped norm rounder
population move from their native land, for example: when settlers to the new world and there was a red head on the boat there will be more red heads in the new world then back from the original land
emigration or immigration where individuals moving out or in to a pop. Can change the allele frequencies of those pop
large scale evolutionary changes involving the origin of new group of organism the accumulated effect of microevolution over a long period of time
- all possible alleles are NOT produced
- there is NOT a single optimum trait
the mechanism of evolution that occurs when individuals with one version of a inheritable trait have greater reproductive success then do individuals with a different version of the trait
when + how often a species reproduces and how many offspring it has.
L: shorter and can't block C02 as more energy
On the surface level(troposphere) there as been an ozone increase caused by machinery
Military purposes for example Light Chariots Changes in battle strategy
Plucking of hairs, wrestling, voices, venders selling their wharves
Made a stick into a brush its invention because they changed the shape of the stick
as a structure for measuring the Nile River's clarity and water level during the annual flood season.
a wooden pole attached to a bucket
used to get water to the farm
1600 bathers used all the roman teaturey to build it 27 acres
- begin as a mastaba; built in stages
- seen in: Funeral Complex of Djoser, Dynasty III 2630 BCE
Culture: Ostrogothic Religion: Arian (Christian)
Roof structure references building in Germany where he's from
Construction technology from Syria
Protected by deserts on its western and eastern frontiers, Egypt was safe from invasions for many centuries In Egypt there were very few slaves, only foreign captives or criminals
horse shoes and horse collar it didn’t choke the horses an agricultural revolution unparallled since the first invention of tillage. Its elements-the heavy plow, open fields, three-field rotation, and horse harness-accumulated and consolidated into a new agrarian system
2. all cells arise from other, preexisting cells
2. formulate a hypothesis
3. devise a testable prediction
4. conduct a critical experiment
5. draw conclusions and make revisions
- sharing electrons between atoms
- not gained or lost
- strong bonds
2. the result is two oppositely charged irons
3. the two oppositely oppositely charged ions attract each other, forming a compound
EX: table salt is formed by this
measure of the hydrogen ion concentration
break down food in digestive track
bitter in taste and slippery
found in house hold cleaners
- a simple organic compound containing both a carboxyl (—COOH) and an amino (—NH2) group.
- Substances that dissolve in water
- Polarized or charged
part comes off and broken part fully grows back again
female produces an egg and with no help with the male
some species can make hybrids spices even if the chromosomes don’t match they can still put make a hybrid animal for example a horse has 46 chroms a zebra has 62 chroms they can make a zorse but these Hybrids can’t produce an offspring with another hybrid. Those some hybrids can mate they just need to have similar chromosomes.
3 requirements for evolution by natural selection to occur
3. Differential reproductive
Physical, physiological/biochemical, behavior
- messenger RNA
- the single strand copy of DNA which is the product of transcription
With proteins coded in linear sequence of amino acids
- a sequence of three nucleotides forming a unit of genetic code in a transfer RNA molecule, corresponding to a complementary codon in messenger RNA.
- a hormone secreted by the kidneys that increases the rate of production of red blood cells in response to falling levels of oxygen in the tissues.
A bacterium, plant, or animal that has been genetically modified to carry one or more genes from an organism of a different species.
Carries different DNA from Different organism.
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