Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
1. flower color - white
2. flower fragrance - heavy, fruity
3. flower form - large, sturdy, lots of pollen
4. bloom time - night
5. nectar type - high energy, large quantity
1. flower color - bright blue, yellow
2. flower fragrance - light, minty or flowery
3. flower form - landing platform, often tubular
4. bloom time - day
5. nectar type - medium energy, small quantity
1. white, yellowish
2. fruity, very spicy
3. large, often solitary, lots of pollen
5. medium energy, medium quantity
1. orange, red
2. usually none
3. large, tubular, often without a landing platform
5. low energy, copious amounts
1. dull red, purple, brown, often veined
2. carrion or dung
3. sturdy. often trap insect for a time
4 day and night
5. often none
1. white, dull
2. heavy or flowery
3. tubes or spurs, no platform
4. evening, night
5. low energy, watery
1. green, white
3. floating, often no petals, pollen very reduced
2. generally none
3. reduced, no petals, exposed pistils and stamens, lots of light powdery pollen
Prevent apoplastic transport through endodermal cell walls
-found in root endodermal cells
-prevents toxins from entering cell
-forces water across membrane before entering xylem
The stroma is the enzymatic “soup” that surrounds the thylakoids.
Seeds dormant until they get the cue to grow…. Which might be water, light, friction that removes seed coat, temperature, etc
In bean, cotyledons are pulled above ground and out of the seed coat by elongation of the hypocotyl.
In corn, the hypocotyl does not elongate, cotyledon stays below ground. Also corn puts up coleoptile then first shoot.
a linear crystalline molecule of glucose molecules linked end to end...
Primary cell walls:
Hemicellulose (neutral and acidic polysaccharides)
Pectin (hydrating gel)
Secondary cell walls:
dermal (epidermis) --- gas exchange, protection
vascular (xylem,phloem) --- long distance transport
ground (pith, cortex) --- “filler tissue,””workhorse tissue" , storage, support
Why are different types of tracheary elements (annular/helical wall pattern vs. pitted walls) found in one vascular bundle?
Not all cells with a vascular bundle differentiate at the same time. The type of secondary cell wall pattern depends on how rapidly the cell was expanding at the time of cell differentiation. Annular and helical patterns occur in cells that differentiate during rapid growth. After growth has ceased, newly differentiating cells will have pitted cell walls.
Primary-- mainly growth in length from shoot and root apical meristems
Secondary-- growth in width from lateral meristems
- Turgor pressure drives all growth in cells with primary cell walls… the pressure on the cell walls causes them to expand!
- it cant cause growth of cells w secondary walls b/c secondary cell walls can't expand
Water diffuses across a selectively permeable membrane from a region with lower solute concentration (hypotonic) to a region of higher solute concentration (hypertonic).
Water potential (Ψ) is the chemical potential of water, i.e. a measure of the ability of water to do work.
Ψtotal = Ψpressure + Ψsolute
The units of measurement of water potential are called megapascals (Mpa).
Pure water (nothing dissolved in it) at ground level (so no gravitational potential), atmospheric pressure and room temperature has a water potential of 0.
Solutes lower Ψ, so more solute = more negative Ψsolute.
Ψsolute is always negative.
(Cells always have solutes, so Ψsolute is always negative in cells.
Ψpressure can be positive or negative.... Hose pushing water out is positive pressure.. Sucking water thru a straw is negative pressure.... another example of positive pressure is turgor pressure in a plant cell!
protein channels (gateways) that allowwater to cross membranes at faster rates than diffusion alone.
Apoplastic (apo=without, plastic=plasm): cell walls and intercellular spaces, including the interior of tracheary elements.
so that the water has to go through the endodermic cells and thus they can filter which ions enter the xylem, only allow beneficial ones (for ex. Allow potassium and not sodium)
water is a polar molecule.... so each H bonds to the O of another water molecule... these hydrogen bonds allow---
1. Membranes of the endodermis transport beneficial mineral ions into the root xylem. A water potential gradient is established by increases in the concentration of ions in the root xylem. Water follows the mineral ions (solutes) by osmosis.
The net movement of water from inside the leaf to the air outside the leaf....
Water in the leaf evaporates from the surfaces of mesophyll cell walls and exits through open stomata along a water vapor pressure concentration gradient.
Stomatal conductance (C) measures how freely water can pass from the inside to the outside of the leaf per unit leaf area.
Transpiration is just the net movement of water (how much water)
Transpiration rate = driving force X stomatal control
T = G x C
G is the mole fraction gradient (difference in vapor pressure inside and outside leaf, when G > 0, water will be lost)
C is the conductance
Pigments are molecules that absorb light in the visible range.
The precise wavelength of light absorbed is determined by the molecular structure of the pigment.
Reflect- light bounces off…. Transmit- light passes through…. Absorb- light is absorbed
Grana are stacks of thylakoid membranes.
Thylakoids are internal membranes, usually in the form of membrane sacs.(in chloroplasts)
Electrons receive an energy boost at PS I, where the process of light absorption, energy transfer and electron transfer is also occurring.
Excited electrons from the primary acceptor molecule of PS I are now passed to ferrodoxin and eventually turned to NADPH by NADP+ reductase.
G3P is the molecule that can exit the cycle and is used as the starting point for glucose or starch synthesis.
Fixation of 1 CO2 requires 3 ATP (2 in reduction and 1 in regeneration) and 2 NADPH (in reduction).
Photorespiration wastes 30-50% of carbon fixed by photosynthesis! ALso creates a toxic 2 carbon sugar
In C4 plants, CO2 is fixed in the leaf mesophyll cells by PEP carboxylase, which has a high affinity for CO2 and none for O2, so this enzyme can fix carbon efficiently even when stomates are partially closed. (remember, photorespiration comes from rubisco binding o2 instead of co2)
their stomata are closed during the day and open during the night. the CO2 is fixed in a 4 carbon acid at night and is stored in a vacuole until the day so that it could be moved out and the CO2 donated to rubisco in the day
Essential nutrients are required by plants for completion of their life cycle.
There are 9 essential macronutrients that are required in relatively large amounts.
There are 8 essential micronutrients that are required in smaller amounts.
The most fertile topsoils are loams, which are “roughly” equal mixtures of sand, silt and clay.
Soil particles have negatively charged surfaces!
So, negative ions dissolve easily in the soil solution and are are available for uptake by roots….or easily leached from soil!
Most plants grow best at near neutral pH. Most soils are slightly basic (without acid rain). Plants can influence nutrient availability by acidifying the soil solution through root respiration of CO2 . Acid rain causes a (permanent) loss of cations from soil as the nutrients are replaced by H+ ions.
Mycorrhizae are fungi that form mutualistic associations with plant roots of almost all plant species. they extend the surface area over which water and soil nutrients, are absorbed; this increase can be as large as 700%.
The plant provides a source of sugar to the fungi.
These bacteria can take inorganic nitrogen from air in the form of N2 and fix it into organic nitrogen compounds that plants can use.
Nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia can invade the root hairs.
When this happens, the fixed nitrogen in the form of ammonia is immediately available to the plant.
The relationship is mutualistic because the plant has a source of nitrogen and the bacteria is provided carbohydrates by the plant.
A type of metamorphosis in which the animal increases in size from one stage to the next, but does not dramatically change its body form. Also called incomplete metamorphosis.
Flatworms and Kin
- Flattened acoelomates
- Bilaterally symmetrical
- One-way digestive tract
- Parallel nerve cords and eyespots
- Excretory system using flame cells
Flatworms are free-living scavengers and predators
Sharks,skates & sting rays
Chondroitin used for building cartilage and prevent its degradation
Lungs evolved into the _______ for buoyancy and control.
-air bladder- to control bouyancy
- operculum- breathe by drawing water over gills
-salmon, perch, carp
-most diverse and abundant of all vertebrates
-96% modern fishes
- assumes a population is growing without limits at its maximal rate.
- dN/dt = riN
- r = rate, called the biotic potential
- d = change
- N = number of births
- t = chage in time
- ri = intrinsic rate of increase
r=0, no growth
r<0, negative growth
r>0, positive growth
PEP carboxylase has no affinity for O2, so this enzyme can fix carbonefficiently even when stomates are partially closed. (T/F)
small undifferentiated organelles present in the rapidly dividing cells of plant roots and shoots. These then develop into the various types of mature plastids that store starch
the skin on a plant. protection, structure, and water allowance.
2 types: Epidermis and periderm.