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Persistence of deleterious alleles
vascularcambium is a secondarymeristem involved in lateralgrowth
1. The gametophyte produces haploid (n) gametes by mitosis.
2. Two gametes unite (fertilization) and form a diploid (2n) zygote.
3. The zygote develops into a multicellular diploid sporophyte (2n).
4. The sporophyte produces haploid (n) spores by meiosis.
5. The spores develop into multicellular haploid (n) gametophytes.
distinguished by haploid and diploid stages that are both multicellular
Ulva Life Cycle: (sporic meiosis)
-Haploid and Diploid forms alternate
-Sporophyte > haploid zoospores via meiosis > zoospores become haploid gametophytes > produce gametes > gametes release into ocean to fuse > become diploid zygotes > zygotes grow into sporophyte.
1. Allow plants to survive adverse conditions such as drought or extreme cold
2. Seeds permit a small multicellular sporophyte to remain dormant until conditions favor germination
3. Embryo is protected within the seed coat and surrounded by a food supply
4. Seeds facilitate dispersal
leaves of a plant embryo, which in someplants enlarge and function as a storage site for nutrients to support earlygrowth after seed germination.
When Sam listens to his girlfriend Susan in the restaurant and ignores other people's conversations, he is engaged in the process of ____ attention.
a. low load b. divided c. cocktail party d. selective
Dichotic listening occurs when
a. the same message is presented to the left and right ears.
b. different messages are presented to the left and right ears.
c. a message is presented to one ear, and a masking noise is presented to the other ear.
d. participants are asked to listen to a message and look at a visual stimulus, both at the same time.
3.When a person is shadowing a message, he or she is
a. silently following it mentally. b. ignoring it while paying attention to another message. c. saying the message out loud. d. thinking about something closely related to the message.
Which of the following would likely be an input message into the detector in Broadbent’s model?
a. All messages selected by the filter
b. All messages within earshot
c. A message with a German accent
d. All sensory messages
4.The cocktail party effect is
a. the ability to pay attention to one message and ignore others, yet hear distinctive features of the unattended messages.
b. the inability to pay attention to one message in the presence of competing messages.
c. the diminished awareness of information in a crowd.
d. the equal division of attention between competing messages.
In Broadbent’s filter model, the stages of information processing occur in which order?
a. Detector, filter, sensory store, memory
b. Sensory store, filter, detector, memory
c. Filter, detector, sensory store, memory
d. Detector, sensory store, filter, memory
The main difference between early and late selection models of attention is that in late selection models, selection of stimuli for final processing doesn’t occur until the information is analyzed for
a. modality. b. meaning. c. physical characteristics. d. location.
Suppose twin teenagers are vying for their mother’s attention. The mother is trying to pay attention to one of her daughters, though both girls are talking (one about her boyfriend, one about a school project). According to the operating characteristics of Treisman’s attenuator, it is most likely the attenuator is analyzing the incoming messages in terms of
a. physical characteristics. b. language. c. meaning. d. direction.
According to Treisman’s "attenuation model," which of the following would you expect to have the highest threshold for most people?
a. The word "house" b. Their spouse’s first name c. The word "fire" d. The word "platypus"
A high threshold in Treisman’s model of attention implies that
a. weak signals can cause activation. b. it takes a strong signal to cause activation. c. all signals cause activation. d. no signals cause activation.
In support of late selection models, Donald MacKay showed that the presentation of a biasing word on the unattended ear influenced participants' processing of ____ when they were ____ of that word.
a. letter pairs; aware b. letter pairs; unaware c. ambiguous sentences; aware d. ambiguous sentences; unaware
Which of the following everyday scenarios is most likely to support what the early selection approach would say about how attention will affect the performance of the two tasks involved?
a. Driving home while thinking about a problem at work
b. Reading a novel while walking on a treadmill
c. Humming a familiar song while washing dishes d. Conversing on the phone while doing a crossword puzzle
According to your text, students often overlook functions of memory they take for granted such as
a. keeping daily appointments on their schedules. b. learning material for exams.
c. remembering names and phone numbers.
d. labeling familiar objects.
The three structural components of the modal model of memory are
a. receptors, occipital lobe, temporal lobe. b. receptors, temporal lobe, frontal lobe. c. sensory memory, short-term memory, long-term memory. d. sensory memory, iconic memory, rehearsal.
Information remains in sensory memory for
a. seconds or a fraction of a second. b. 15-30 seconds. c. 1-3 minutes. d. as long as it is rehearsed.
When light from a flashlight is moved quickly back and forth on a wall in a darkened room, it can appear to observers that there is a trail of light moving across the wall, even though physically the light is only in one place at any given time. This experience is an effect of memory that occurs because of
a. a visual delay effect. b. echoic memory. c. persistence of vision. d. top-down processing.
Compared to the whole-report technique, the partial-report procedure involves
a. a smaller stimulus set. b. a smaller response set. c. a smaller stimulus set and a smaller response set. d. a shorter rehearsal period.
Brief sensory memory for sound is known as
a. iconic memory. b. primary auditory memory. c. echoic memory. d. pre-perceptual auditory memory.
Sensory memory is believed by many cognitive psychologists to be responsible for all of the following EXCEPT
a. deciding which incoming sensory information will be the focus of attention. b. filling in the blanks when the stimulation is intermittent. c. holding incoming information briefly during initial processing. d. collecting information to be processed.
On Monday, Jill is proud to find that she remembers 95 percent of the tasks without referring to the list. On Tuesday, her memory drops to 80 percent, and by Thursday, she is dismayed to see her performance has declined to 20 percent. Jill does not realize that she is demonstrating a natural mechanism of memory known as
a. short-term memory. b. episodic buffering. c. chunking. d. proactive interference.
The effective duration of short-term memory, when rehearsal is prevented, is
a. a fraction of a second. b. 15-20 seconds. c. 1-3 minutes. d. 5-7 minutes.
If a person has a digit span of two, this indicates that he has _____ memory.
a. poor sensory b. poor short-term c. normal sensory d. normal short-term
STM’s capacity is best estimated as seven (plus or minus two)
a. meaningful units. b. digits. c. words. d. sentences.
The primary effect of chunking is to
a. maximize the recency effect. b. increase memory for items by grouping them together based on sound. c. develop a visual code to supplement a phonological code for the information. d. stretch the capacity of STM.
The conclusion from the experiment in which a chess master and a chess novice were asked to remember the positions of chess pieces on a chess board was that
a. chess masters outperform novices in all conditions. b. chess masters have developed better memory skills than novices. c. novices do better because they are not distracted by irrelevant knowledge about previous chess games. d. chess masters use chunking to help them remember actual game arrangements.
Funahashi et al.'s work on monkeys doing a delayed response task is an example of the
a. physiological approach to coding. b. mental approach to coding. c. physiological and mental approach to coding. d. study of articulatory suppression.
Recalling the sound of a song you heard on the radio yesterday would be an example of
a. auditory coding in STM. b. semantic coding in STM. c. auditory coding in LTM. d. semantic coding in LTM
Conduct an experiment where participants see a number of target letters flashed briefly on a screen and are told to immediately write down the letters in the order they were presented. It is most likely that the target letter "P" will be misidentified as
a. L. b. I. c. R. d. C.
Consider an experiment in which participants were asked to remember Chinese symbols called radicals (which have no sound) and symbols called characters (which consist of a radical plus another symbol). The fact that the participants were able to remember some of the radicals provides evidence for the operation of _____ coding.
a. semantic b. auditory c. abstract d. visual
First, Lamar meets 4 people and is told only their first names. The same thing happens with a 2nd group and a 3rd group. At the 4th group, Lamar is told their names and that one of the women in the group is the company accountant. A little while later, Lamar realizes that he only remembers the names of the people in the first group, though he also remembers the profession of the last woman he met (the accountant). Lamar’s experience demonstrates:
b. A build-up and release of proactive interference
Suppose you (a student) are asked by a teacher to learn a poem you will recite in front of your class. Soon after, both you and a classmate, J.P., are asked by another teacher to learn the lyrics to an unfamiliar song. When you and J.P. are asked to remember the song lyrics, you have a harder recalling them than J.P. does. This impairment is due to: a. proactive interference. b. your overloading the phonological loop. c. a release from proactive interference. d. a recency effect.
The ability to pay attention to, or carry out, two or more different tasks simultaneously is known as
a. divided attention. b. dual attention. c. divergent tasking. d. selective attention.
In Schneider and Shiffrin’s experiment, in which participants were asked to indicate whether a target stimulus was present in a series of rapidly presented "frames," divided attention was easier
a. in the consistent-mapping condition.
b. in the variable-mapping condition.
c. in the high-load condition.
d. for the location-based task.
The Stroop effect demonstrates
a. how automatic processing can interfere with intended processing. b. a failure of divided attention. c. the ease of performing a low-load task. d. support for object-based attention.
With the Stroop effect, you would expect to find longest response times when
a. the color and the name matched.
b. the color and the name differed.
c. the shape and the name matched.
d. the shape and the name differed.
Controlled processing involves
a. close attention.
b. ease in performing parallel tasks.
c. overlearning of tasks.
d. few cognitive resources.
Research on the use of cell phones while driving indicates that
a. the negative effect can be decreased by using "hands-free" units. b. the problem with cell phones is that attention is distracted from the task of driving by the need to hold the phone and drive with one hand. c. the main effect of cell phone use on driving safety can be attributed to the fact that attention is used up by the cognitive task of talking on the phone. d. both a and b are correct
Strayer and Johnston’s (2001) experiment involving simulated driving and the use of "hands-free" vs. "handheld" cell phones found that
a. talking on either kind of phone impairs driving performance significantly and to the same extent. b. driving performance was impaired only with the handheld cell phones. c. driving performance was impaired less with the hands-free phones than with the handheld phones. d. divided attention (driving and talking on the phone) did not affect performance.
In Simons and Chabris's "change blindness" experiment, participants watch a film of people playing basketball. Many participants failed to report that that a woman carrying an umbrella walked through because the
a. woman with the umbrella was in motion, just like the players. b. the umbrella was the same color as the floor. c. participants were counting the number of ball passes. d. participants were not asked if they saw anything unusual.
Automatic attraction of attention by a sudden visual or auditory stimulus is called
a. covert attention. b. exogenous attention. c. endogenous attention. d. an illusory conjunction.
A bottom-up process is involved in fixating on an area of a scene that
a. has high stimulus salience. b. fits with the observer's interests. c. is familiar. d. carries meaning for the observer.
Scene schema is
a. rapid movements of the eyes from one place to another in a scene. b. short pauses of the eyes on points of interest in a scene. c. how attention is distributed throughout a static scene. d. knowledge about what is contained in a typical scene.
Lan has no idea what she just read in her text because she was thinking about how hungry she is and what she is going to have for dinner. This is a real-world example of
a. the late-selection model of attention.
b. an object-based attentional failure.
c. inattentional blindness.
d. the cocktail party phenomenon.
c. inattentional blindness.
Location-based attention is when
a. the enhancing effect of attention spreads throughout an object.
b. attention is divided across two or more tasks simultaneously.
c. people move their attention from one place to another.
d. attention affects an entire object, even if it is occluded by other objects.
According to Treisman’s feature integration theory, the first stage of perception is called the _____ stage.
a. feature analysis
b. focused attention
d. letter analysis
In Klin and coworkers' research that investigated autistic reactions to the film Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, autistic people primarily attended to ____ in the scene.
a. objects b. actions of the characters c. the facial reactions of people d. none of the above
The word-length effect shows that it is more difficult to remember
a. a long list of words than a short list of words. b. a list of long words than a list of short words. c. a list of words that are all the same length than a list of words that are of different lengths. d. a list of words that are of different lengths than a list of words that are all the same length.
Observations that participants could do two tasks at once, such as focusing on a digit-span task while comprehending a paragraph, challenged the conceptualization of
a. the phonological similarity effect. b. short-term memory. c. the persistence of vision. d. the physiological approach to coding.
The emphasis of the concept of working memory is on how information is
a. permanently stored. b. manipulated. c. forgotten. d. perceived.
Given what we know about the operation of the phonological loop, which of the following word lists would be most difficult for people to retain for 15 seconds?
a. BIP, TEK, LIN, MOD, REY b. SAY, BET, PIN, COW, RUG c. MAC, CAN, CAP, MAN, MAP d. PIG, DOG, RAT, FOX, HEN
Have you ever tried to think of the words and hum the melody of one song while the radio is playing a different song? People have often noted that this is very difficult to do. This difficulty can be understood as
a. articulatory suppression. b. an overload of sensory memory. c. rehearsal interference. d. an LTM recency effect.
Articulatory suppression does all of the following EXCEPT it
a. reduces memory span. b. interferes with semantic coding. c. reduces the phonological similarity effect for reading words. d. eliminates the word-length effect.
Which task should be easier? Keeping an image of a block letter "F" in your mind AND
a. saying "yes" for each corner that is an inside corner and "no" for each corner that is an outside corner? b. pointing to the letter "Y" for each inside corner and "N" for each outside corner?
It is easier to perform two tasks at the same time if
a. one is handled by the sketch pad and one is handled by the phonological loop. b. both are handled by the sketch pad. c. both are handled by the phonological loop. d. both b and c are correct
Shanta has frontal lobe damage. She is doing a problem solving task in which she has to choose the red object out of many choices. She can easily complete this repeatedly, but when the experimenter asks her to choose the blue object on a new trial of the task, she continues to choose the red one, even when the experimenter gives her feedback that she is incorrect. Shanta is displaying
a. sensory memory. b. decay. c. perseveration. d. the central executive.
Models designed to explain mental functioning are constantly refined and modified to explain new results. Which of the following exemplifies this concept?a. Replacing the STM component of the modal model with working memory b. Replacing the sensory memory component of the modal model with the episodic buffer c. Replacing the STM component of the modal model with iconic memory d. Replacing the sensory memory component of the modal model with working memory
a named group of organisms
2 or more features/structures derived from the same body part