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Determined by: morphology
Biochemical(gross properties like enzymatic activity and isoelectric points)
Post 1980, Determined by:
molecular- genomic, DNA, RNA, proteins
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar to bacteria in: sequence similarity, binary fission, circular chromosomes, and membrane structure. Mito and chloro contain their own DNA.
-widespread volcanic activity
-low oxygen levels in atmosphere; reduction of H2S, methane, etc.
-bombardment from space
-No nuclear membrane
-No intracellular organelles
-ETC systems: ATP use for energy
-Same genetic code
a. able to divide rapidly
b. haploid- therefore any mutations are expressed and any adaptive mutations can rapidly become a major pop. characteristic
-characteristic movement of bacteria in response to environmental stimuli
-important for bacteria to find food (for example, glucose) by swimming towards the highest concentration of food molecules, or to flee from poisons (for example, phenol).
-extra circles of DNA
-often encode contingency functions like antibiotic resistance
-5,000 to 20,000 base pairs
-can replicate independently of chromosome
-transferred during conjugation
Under stress some spp. form an endospore.
Resists heat, drought for years.
Ex: anthrax, tetanus
1. no intracellular organelles and no nuclear envelope
2. circular chromosome
3. have histones, introns, and multiple types of RNA polymerase
4. non-peptidoglycan cell wall
5. distinct rRNA sequences
-prokaryotes make unusual enzymes
-like polymerases from thermophiles used in PCRs
-and restriction enzymes
-also can use plasmids as a vector for amplifying large amounts of DNA
multiple membranes and residual nucleus
-DNA sequence sequence similarity
-some animals have choanoflagellate like cells
-DNA sequence similarity
-morphological and physiological similarities
-rosette complexes of cellulose enzymes
-similar sperm structure
-shared cell cycle features
-increase into oxygen levels
-adaptive radiation of plant species
-adaptive radiation of organisms that depend on plants for food (animals and fungi)
-evolution of traits for survival and reproduction on land
3. Alternation of generations
4. Sporophyte dominance
5. Apical Meristem
6. Waxy Cuticle
7. Secondary compounds
1. Vascular tissue
2. Proper root system
3. Sporophylls and spore variation
4. Life cycle differences
1. Very small and transient gametophyte
3. Pollen grains
Triploid body created by double fertilization that provides nutrition for the embryo in plants:
Class: Hydrazoa *Hydra
Class: Scyohozoa *True jellies
Class: Cubozoa *box-shaped jellies
Class: Anthozoa *Sea anemones/corals
Phylym: NematodaPhylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata*spiders/horseshoe crabs
Subphylum: Myriapoda *millipedes/centipedes
Subphylum: Hexapoda *insects
Subphylum: Crustacea *crabs
Asymmetrical, radial, and bilateral form
Describe the difference between triploblastic and diploblastic animals?
o Triploblastic: three primary germ layers
o Diploblastic: two primary germ layers
Describe the 3 types of body cavities and how they develop?
Acoelomate: no body cavity
Pseudocoelmate: mesoderm does not fully line cavity
Coelomate: “true” cavity (fully lined with mesoderm)
Describe the sponge body form and how they feed?
Sponge body forms differ in the arrangement of choanocytes
Asconoid: line open spongocoel
Synconoid: line canals extending from spongocoel
Leuconoid: line surfaces of chambers branching off spongocoel
What are unique features of cnidarians?
Nematocysts: specialized cells with stinging organelles
Diploblastic (ectoderm, and endoderm); mesoglea: gelatinous matrix that forms the bulk of the cnidarian
2 forms: mobile medusa and sessile polyp
What are the cnidarian classes?
o Hydrozoa (obelia, hydra, man-of-war)
§ Both polyp (colonial) and medusa stages
§ Reproductive polyps lack tentacles à release medusae capable of reproduction
o Schyphozoa (jellies)
§ Reduced polyp stage; free-swimming medusa
§ Statocysts: sense organs to help determine jelly’s position
o Cubozoa (box jellies, seawasps)
§ Box-shaped medusas
o Anthozoa (corals, sea anemones, sea fans)
§ ONLY exist as polyps
§ Most familiar
§ Reproduce asexually via fragmentation OR sexually via gametes
§ Some have symbiotic relationships with clown fish
What are the differences between protostome and deuterostome embryonic development?
o Protostome: blastophore à mouth
§ Schizocoelous (split coelom)
§ Cell division is determinate
§ Spiral cleavage pattern
o Dueterostome: blastophore à anus
§ Enterocoelous (form via a outpocketing of embryonic gut)
§ Cell division is indeterminate
§ Radial cleavage pattern
What clade do ecdysozoans and lophotrozoans belong?
What is the clade of animals that have true tissues?
Nematodes, arthropods, vertebrates
Ecdysis” = to molt
Animals that shed a tough outer cuticle, enter a growth phase, and secrete a new cuticle
MORE ecdyzoans than ALL animal eukaryotes combined!
What are two advances of nematodes?
Functional body cavity (psuedocoelomate)
Complete digestive system and separate sexes
Males: smaller/have curled tail
Identify: intestine, seminal vesicle (coiled), mouth, testis (end of coil)
Females are larger
Identify: “Y” shaped-reproductive system
· Ovary, oviduct, Vagina, Genital pore
What habitat do most animals live in?
Plants lack chloroplasts
Character traits of Animalia
Cell structure: Multicellular, lack cell walls, rely on proteins for structural support
Specialized cells: Nerve and muscle cells
Reproduction; Diploid dominant, sexual, flagellated sperm and nonmotile egg
Embryological cleavage: mitotic division of a zygote without cell growth, Gastrulation
o Most successful animal group on planet
§ High degree of adaptability and mobility
o Segmentation, chitinous exoskeleton, jointed appendages
o Oldest arthropod: trilobites (Hypostome: shield-shaped, calcified structure believed to be a mouthpart)
§ Body has 1-2 parts (cephalothorax and abdomen)
§ 6 pairs of appendages
§ Ocelli: small simple eyes with sensory cells and a single lens; detects light
§ Tarsal organs: hold sperm
§ Book lungs: respiratory gas exhange with highly folded membranesSpinnerets: secrete silk from glands within the abdomen
· Herbivores; 2 pairs of legs per segment
· Carniverous; 1 pair of legs per segment
· 1st appendage (maxillipeds) = poison claws
§ Most diverse – 90% all animal species
§ Innovations: Locomotor and feeding appendages, snensory organs, ability to fly
§ Tymphanic membrane: used to detect soundSpiracles: open respiratory networks
§ Biramous (branched) appendages
§ Compound eyes on stalks that allow eyes to move
Class: Turbellaria *free-living
Class: Trematoda *parasitic
Class: Cestoda *flukes
Class: Inarticulata *primative
Class: Articulata *lamp shells
Class: Polyplacophora *chitons
Class: Gastropoda *snails/slugs
Class: Bivalvia *clams
Class: Cephalopida *squids/octopuses
Molluscs puke green bile constantly
Class: Polychaeta *free-living marine/sandworms “bristled worms”
Class: Oligochaeta *earthworms “few bristled worms”
Class: Hirudinea *leeches
o Lophophore: ciliated tentacles around mouth
o Trochophore: larval stage of annelids and mollusks
o Acoelomate body plan *no body cavity
o TriploblasticMost are parasitic
a. Free-livingEx. Planaria
a. Parasitic flukes
b. Complex life-cycle with multiple host *definitive host is a vertebrate
c. 1° intermediate host = aquatic snail; 2° intermediate host = fish
d. Mimic host’s surface proteins to avoid detection of immune system
b. Highly specialized; definite vertebrate host
c. Scolex = anchors to host
d. Proglottids = reproductive chains that make up the wormWhen in gravid (egg-filled) state à break off and voided in host feces
o Sessile with true coelom
o Brachiopods: double shell consisting of two opposing shells/valves enclosing a soft body
o Lophophore (cilated mouth)
o Class Inarticulata: *primative
No hinges or teeth… rely on muscles to open/close
§ Apex is the oldest part of the valve
o Class Articulata: *lamp shells
§ MOST common brachiopod
§ Articulating hinges and teeth/socketsLayers: outer=protein, middle=calcium carbonate, inner=protein and calcium carbonate
o Bilateral symmetry, lack segements, have a true coelom
o Muscular foot (locomotion)
o Visceral mass (houses organs)Mantle (protective fold that covers visceral mass)
Lophophore à ONLY brachipods
Pedicle à ONLY brachiopods
Brachiopods à perpendicular to valves
Mollusc à parallel to valves
Brachiopods à Calcite, calcium phosphate, proteinsMullusc à Calcium carbonate
Environment: tidal rocks
Shell with 8 plates; NO head
Radula (feeding structure; scrapes algae off rocks)
Snails and slugs
Asymmetrical body; coiled shell
Environment: rocks and reefs
Two valves; head reduced; paired gills
Mantle forms siphon for feeding (incurrent and excurrent)
Open circulatory system
Squids, octupuses, nautilus
Shell is reduced to a pen in squid *stabilizes squid when swimming
Jet propulsion for locomotionSquids have 3 hearts!!
“Ring” segments that protrude into coelom as septae
Trochophore larvae *along with mollusks
Closed circulatory systemPrimative nervous system (dorsal ganglion and ventral nerve cord)
Parapodia: fleshy appendages
Bristles = chitinous setae
Many are sessile (construct “tube” houses”
Earthworms (“soil conditioners”)
Most are freshwater
Saliva contains hirudin (an anticoagulent) *used in medicineGood for patients who need blood thinners but can’t stand heparin
Class: Astroidea *starfish
Class: Ophiuroidea *brittle stars
Class: Echinoidea *sand dollars/sea urchins
Class: Crinoidea *sea lilies/feather starsClass: Holothuiroidea
Subphylum: Cephalochordata *invertebrate/sea lancelet
Subphylum: Urochordata *invertebrate/sea squirtsSubphylum: Vertebrates
Class: Myxini *hagfish **”can I have a martini”Class: Pteromyzontida *lamprey **scared lamprey
Class: Chondrichthyes *cartilaginous fish **fish/gnathostomes = body material + -chthyes
Class: Osteichthyes *boney fish
Subclass: Actinopterygii *ray-finned **boney fish end in -pterygii
Subclass: Sarcopterygii *lobe-finned
Class: Amphibia *frogs/salamanders
Class: Reptiles *lizards/snakes/birds
Spiny protective skin, water vascular system
Calcite plates make up skeletonTube feet for motion, feeding, and respiration
Tube feet w/ suckers
Dorsal anus; ventral mouth
Abby only eats cooked hamburgers
Lack bumpy skin seen in asteroidean
Tube feet w/o suckers **sensory rather than locomotion functionRegenerative
No arms; 5 rows of tube feet
Sea urchins independently move spines
Artistotle’s lantern: complex feeding apparatusLunules: narrow elongated holes in sand dollar that serve as channels to move food towards mouth
Tube feet w/o suckers
Sea lilies are stalked/sessile; endoskeleton = ossicles; discoid columnals (make up the “stalk”)
Feather stars are NOT sessile (DO move around)
sea lilies/feather stars
Abby only eats cooked hamburgers
Elongated shape; lack spines
Pentaradial symmetry and have 5 rows of tube feet
Eviscerating – vomits it’s guts to avoid predator
Regenerates the guts it eviscerates
Abby only eats cooked hamburgers
Dorsal hollow nerve cord
Longitudinal/flexible supporting rod between gut and nerve cord
Dorsal hollow nerve cord
Rolled tube of ectodermal tissue
Forms brain and spine
Provide evidence of sequence of evolutionary adaptations that resulted in vertebrates
clues to origin of vertebrates due to 5 pleisomorphic/derived traits
Adult has all 5 derived traits
13 pairs HOX genes
Respiration occurs across skin
Dioecious (sexes are separate)
Larvae has 4 derived traits
9 HOX genes (4 sets lost in 2° development)
Free swimming larvae; degenerate adult **adult does not look like chordate
Lack mineralized teeth and paired appendages
Analgous structures made of keratin
Organs, 2-chambered heart, hemoglobin
Cartilaginous skeleton, notochord is 1° support; rudimentary vertebrae
Class: Chondrichthyes *cartilaginous fish
Cartilage = 2° characteristic
Class: Osteichthyes *bony fish
Swim bladder, scales, and protective operculum
Subclasses of Osteichthyes
Actinopterygii *ray-finned; MAJORITY
Sarcopterygii *lobe-finned/fleshy-finnedIncludes Tiktaalik and Coelacantheformes
Class: Amphibia *frogs and salamanders
Respire via lungs AND skin (cutaneous respiration)
Lungs used seasonally/buoyancy regulators
Descendants of earliest terrestrial tetrapods
Eggs are NOT amnioiticSkin = alpha keratin (protect against desiccation)
Class: Reptiles *lizards, crocs, birds
Most scales are cornified (alpha and beta keratin)
This thick layer and minimal glands reduces water loss
Feathers on dinosaurs --> originally for insulation before adapted for flight
FeatherCentral rachis with barbs that connect like zipper
Alpha keratinized hair for insulation *also: horns, baleen, nails, claws, hooves
Arrector pilli miscles change orientation of hair
Goosebumps are remnants of thermoregulatory response
Most aquatic animals have fat not hair for insulation
What adaptions have vertebrates made to aid terrestrial life?
Dermal and epidermal layers prevent desiccation
Consists of alpha and beta keratin --> cornification of skin
Mammals and reptiles/birds
Amniotic egg eliminates needs for wet environment (like amphibians)
Parts: Amnion: protective membrane filled with amniotic fluid to protect embryo
Allantois: gas diffusion and waste removal
Chorion: encloses inner membrane and embryo
Albumin: “white” of egg
Mucous cuticle (gas exchange/prevent desiccation)
Closed circulatory system
Keratinized scales or skin
Closed circulatory system
Lungs first appeared in early jawed fishes
Ray-finned: became swim bladder (buoyancy regulator)
Early amniotes increased long surface by enfolding the vascular lining....
Turtles use this and breath through anus and mouth
Birds have small lung supplemented by airsacs in abdomen/neck/wing bones
Do not have tidal breathing – but unidirectional (one-way) flow
What are air sacs in birds for?
Increased oxygen supply
Control during flight
Skeletal/respiratory support for gigantic dinosaurs
What are traits of the mammalian lung?
Air has high oxygen concentration/faster diffusion than water
Respiratory surfaces exposed to air do not have to be ventilated (like gills)
Require less energy to breathe
Disadvantage: must be large and continuously moist
Enfolded lung in thoracic cavity solves this
1 cell thickSurrounded by capillary net (for gas exchange)
What are the evolutionary patterns of circulatory structures in fish?
Two-chambered heart (single atrium and ventricle)
Blood pressure drops when hits capillary beds
Low pressure circuit
Two atria (4 chamber)
Dual circuit: compensates for drop in blood pressure that occurs during gas exchange
Double circulation maintains blood pressure to brain, muscles, organs
Partially divided ventricle and 2 atria (3-chamber heart)
**Crocs and birds have 4 heart like mammals
Likely that they developed independently from each other
Endothermic animals require 10x more metabolic waste/energy than ectothermic animals
How does gas exchange occur in the pulmonary system?
Capillaries surrounding alveoli (gas diffuse down concentration gradients)
Bulk of cell types
Contain Hb (respiratory pigment) which binds/transports oxygen and carbon dioxide
As blood travels through body, oxygen levels decrease and carbon dioxide levels rise, causing
Used to form clot
Low --> uncontrollable bleeding (ie. Hemophilia)
High --> stroke/heat attackMay cause arteriosclerosis (hardening of arteries)
How can components of blood plasma be used to diagnose medical disorders(RBCs)?
Low = anemia/oxygen deprivation
High = High BP/stroke/heart attack
High = infection or leukemia
Used to monitor cancer treatments
Low = uncontrollable bleeding (ie. Hemophilia)
High = stroke/heat attack
May cause arteriosclerosis (hardening of arteries)
What are characteristics of blood vessels?
Inner (elastic lumen)
Middle (smooth muslce)
Vessel type dep. on size and if they lie on arterial or venous side of capillary bed
Arteries: thicker-walled with more muscle and CT
Veins: one-way valves
Capillaries:thin, all tissues near diff. of O2 and CO2
What are the capacities in spirometry?
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV): forced inhale
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV): forced exhale
Vital Capacity = IRV + TV + ERV
What are the electrical activities of the heart?
Sinoatrial (SA) node:pacemaker
Located in right atrium, Triggers atrial systole, and stimulates AV Node.
Atrioventricular (AV) node
Bundle of his -> purkinje fibers that cause ventricle systole
What is the role of the autonomic nervous system?
Manages distribution of oxygen-rich blood through body
Can redirect blood during extreme conditions *temperatures, pH imbalance, fear, etc.
Adjusts smooth muscle layer in arterioles to control the amount of blood entering the specific capillary bed
What is mean arteriole pressure (MAP)?
Compensates for fluctuations in arterial pressure during heartbeat
Diastolic pressure + (systolic pressure – diastolic pressure)/3
Begins Carb DigestionProduced by granulated cells
Highly folded pits lead to gastric glands (make gastric juice)
Parietal cells --> HCl
Chief cells --> Pepsinogen (inactive form of pepsin… activated by HCl)
Mucus layer protects stomach
Takes 2-6 hours for food to empty
BULK of digestive tract
Shortest in microscopic diets, long in high-protein, longest in herbivores
Primary site for chemical digestion and nutrient absorption
Anterior duodenum receives secretions from: pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
Anterior duodenum receives secretions from: pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
Inner mucosa (contains villi)
Middle submucosa (vascularized/muscle)
Outer serosa (visceral peritoneum)
Cecum: connecting point between colon and small intestine
Cloaca: common chamber for receiving feces, urine and gametes *NOT in bony fish or mammals
What is digestion pathway?
What is difference between endocrine and exocrine glands?
BOTH an exocrine and an endocrine gland
Exocrine via pancreatic duct
Endocrine via hormones
Islets of Langerhans: secrete glucagon and insulin which regulate blood sugar levels
Acinar cells: produce digestive enzymes that travel via pancreatic duct
What is special about the liver?
MAJOR metabolic organ of vertebrates
Hepatic portal vein: receives blood rich with
digestive products FROM intestines
Hepatic vein: sends blood to heart via IVC
EXOCRINE GLAND **has bile ducts
Why is the lymph system important?
For absorption/transfer of lipids from the small intestine to liver
What is peristalsis?
Involuntary waves of longitudinal and circular smooth muscle contractions
Where are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats broken down in digestive system?
Protein molecules are chmically digested into amino acids --> solid state is lost --> forms liquid
Ninhydrin test: purple or yellow --> presence of amino acids
Have symbiotic bacteria to break down beta cellulose, since we do not have the enzymes
Lugols: tests for presence of starch and digested starch
4 digestive enzymes – depend on materials, pH, and temperature
Each villus of the small intestine have epithelial cells with brush-like projections
Nutrients diffuse through the microvilli into adjacent capillary beds or fine lymphatic vessels
What is the key problem of amino acid breakdown?
What is osmoregulation?
Process by which an organism regulates its internal fluid volume and balances concentration of solutes/ions in its fluids
Primary organ? KIDNEY
Describe difference nitrogenous wastes?
Highly toxic...Requires lots of water …. Why found in fish (no need to conserve water)
Intermediate toxicity, Conserves water, Terrestrial vertebrates.
Uric acid crystals
Nontoxic, Insoluble, No need to worry about water conservation, some birds have special nasal osmoregulatory structures
The human body is what % water?
What is the structure/function of mammalian kidney?
Metabolic waste removal: H2O reten. key in land vertebrates
Regulating fluid balance: works w/ pituitary gland, Negative feed back loop...
NFL: dehydrasted -> Pituitary gland releases ADH/Vasopressin -> Causes thirst and re-absorption of water (concentrates urine)
What is the structure/function of mammalian kidney pt 2?
Regulating electrolyte balance:
Negative feedback mechanism
K+, Na+ and Cl- … vital to nerve and gland function
If electrolytes are low, kidneys reabsorb them and return them to blood via active transport
Regulation of BP: cells sense drop in BP -> release Renin -> increases BP.... Kidney failure occurs when BP increase as body fluid increases.
Kidneys remove excess H+ to regulate pH of blood
During metabolism, H+ is released
Renal medulla contains the loops of Henle/collecting ducts carrying urine
PCT make up most of the cortex
Nephron: microscopic filtration and reabsorption unit of the kidney
Human = 1 million nephrons
Glomerulus = capillary rich; covered by Bowman’s Capsule
3 Regions: Proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henly, Distal Convoluted tubule.
4 basic functions:
Filters blood particles based on size
Secretes toxins into filtrate (urine)
Concentrates filtrate if the organism has a high blood salt content/dehydrated
How is urine formed?
Glomerular filtration, Tubular re absorption,Tubular secretion, Tubular concentration....
**urine concentration is determined by the presence/absence of ADH/vasopressin from pituitary gland
ADH absent -> collecting ducts become impermeable (no additional water removed)
ADH present -> permeable to water (allows body to reabsorb more/concentrate urine)
Leukocytes: (-) normal and (+): urinary infection
pH: Normal is 4.8 to 7.5
Acidic: diarrhea, dehydration, starvation, high protein dietBasic: vegetarian, low carb, renal failure, vomiting
Ketones: normally absent
Intermediate product of fate metabolism
Glucose: normally absent
(+): diabetes, pregnancy, hyperthyroidism, liver disease
Erythrocytes/Hb: normally absent
(+): sickle cell anemia, renal cancer, urinary tract injury, menstruation
Urinalysis facts with Volume and Specific Gravity?
Volume: normal 1.0 – 1.8 L
Affected by diet and sweating
Specific gravity: 1.10 – 1.025
High values may suggest ADH deficiency, excessive water intake, IV
What is the nervous system stimulus-response pathway?
What makes up the CNS?
Brain and spinal cord
What are the different responses from the environment?
Myelination = insulation for axons
CNS --> via Oligodendrocytes
PNS --> via Schwann cells
Nodes of Ranvier = speed up transmission between myelin sheaths.
What is salutatory conduction?
Node of Ranvier causes electrical impulse to jump from node to node
What makes up a nerve?
Bundle of neurons
How do myotatic reflexes work?
Simply put, what are sensory receptors?
Specialized epithelial structures
What are types of cells in taste buds?
Receptor cells: extend and synapse with sensory neurons
Support cells may become receptor cells
What is the relationship between smell and taste?
Both rely on specialized chemoreceptors
Brain integrates airborne food odors into flavor detection... Via olfactory epithelium
Cells: support, basal, and olfactory receptor
Triggers production of NT in sensory neurons --> olfactory bulb (brain)
Is sight an ancestral trait?
Common set of regulatory genes, pax6 eye-specifying cascade
No longer believe it is due to convergent evolution
Ability to detect light is an ancestral trait
Photoreceptors most likely derived from common simple proto-eye
What are the structures/functions of the eye?
Tapetum lucidum: pigmented layer behind retina in animalCauses light shine (reflects light)
Optic nerve: connection between retina and brain
Optic disc: point where optic nerve fibers converge on retina.... blind spot because this area lacks rods and cones
What two reflexes do the eyes use?
MOST adjustments are made by photoreceptors on the retina
Pupillary response reflex
What are the types of photoreceptors?
What are the two common conditions for vision problems?
Lens: too bulged
Eyeball: too long
What gives you spatial awareness?
What controls equilibrium and balance?
What is Nystagmus?
Cerebral cortex: integration center of brain **consciousness, movement, sensory processing
Corpus callosum à connects/allows communication between L/R hemispheres
Olfactory bulb: integrates smell (small in human)
Lateral ventricles: contain CSFThalamus: "way station” for information in lower brain/cerebrum, relays visual and auditory signals
Pineal Gland: photoreceptive, produces melatonin.
Hypothalamus: control pituitary gland and regulates body temp, sleep, water balance, intake, metabolic and reproductive activity
Corpora Quadrigemini: Sight and Sound reflex
Cerebelum: Equilibrium, posture, movement.. receives info from mechanoreceptors and fine tuunes movement from other parts of the brain
What are the major regions/functions of the brain? pt 3
Controls ANS functions **heart rate, respiration, swallowing, vomiting, blood vessel dilation
What are 3 common causes of artifacts in an EEG?
EMG - electromyographic (face/scalp muscle movement)
EOG – electro-oculographic (eye movement)
What are the features of alpha waves?
Low amplitude (less than 50 microvolts)
Occur when relaxed/eyes closed
Abolished when open eyes
gravity; magnetic field
becomes F+ cell (w/ F plasmid) after the donor transfers the F factor to it. After HrF cell conjugation, donor's F factor is part of chromosome and F- cell gets new chromosomal alleles but not entire F factor
Nitrogen fixation converts N2 to NH4+.
N-fixing prokaryotes do this:
cyanobacteria in water & soil;
other bacteria in soil or symbiotic in plant roots. Other prok's convert & cycle N compounds in the nitrogen cycle
smaller parasite benefits at expense of other sp. (host):
includes pathogens (cause disease) of both animals and plants.
Treponema pallidum- syphilis (an STD).
Borrelia burgdorferi- Lyme disease
bacteria w/thick peptidoglycan layer. Stains purple. Includes many decomposers in soils:
Streptomyces-makes antibiotic. Includes many pathogens: anthrax-Bacillus anthracis , "staph" MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, "step throat"- Streptococcus, TB-Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Leprosy- M. leprae
Streptomyces-source of antibiotics
Bacillus anthrasis- anthrax
Clostridium tetani- tetanus
Staphylococcus aureus- staph infection & MRSA
Streptococcus- strep throat
Mycobacterium tuberculosis- tuberculosis (TB)
M. laprae- leprosy
Hairlike appendages that also help to adhere;
shorter and more numerous than pili
important in BIOFILMS
allows transfer of DNA: plasmids of parts of chromosomes
Autotrophs "fix" CO2 into organic.
-Important base of aquatic food webs
enlarged cells in filamentous cyanobacteria (N-fixation)
Symbiotic relationship where one organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed
i.e. Clownfish and Sea Anemone
Outer membrane lipopolysaccharides of gram-neg. bacteria is toxic.
EX: TSS- generalized toxicity
The use of either naturally occurring or deliberately introduced microorganisms or other forms of life to consume and break down environmental pollutants, in order to clean up a polluted site
-Food products: yogurt, cheese, etc.
Outside plasma membrane. Prevents cell rupture in hypotonic environment.
Bacteria walls: w/peptidoglycan
Archaea walls: various polysaccharides; lack peptidoglycan
directed movement of organisms in response to light.
In relation to photosynthesis.
Both species benefit from each other.
EX: bacteria in our colon make vitamin K; Rhizobium in legume roots get sugar & water & provide fixed N for plant; Flashlight fish (light organ filled w/bioluminescent bacteria.
Kill bacteria cells but not eukaryotic cells. Ex: Penicillin
- weak cell wall
lives w/in euk. host.
Example is Chlamydias-Chlamydia trachomatis--STD;major cause of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) & infertility.
Extreme Halophiles, Thermophiles, & Methanogens
Sulfur bacteria-photosynthesis, making S instead of O2.
Rhizobium- mutualistic N-fixer
E. Coli- food poisoning
Vibrio cholerae- cholera
Chlamydia trachomatis (causes STD,PID)
-chlamidia trachomatis (most common STD in the world)
Anabaena, Nostoc & many other blue-green O2 generating photosynthetic species, inclusing some that are N-fixers.
inherited traits that increase or maintain survival and/or reproductive success