Find study materials for any course. Check these out:
Browse by school
Make your own
To login with Google, please enable popups
To login with Google, please enable popups
Don’t have an account?
To signup with Google, please enable popups
To signup with Google, please enable popups
Sign up withor
- Theoretically, there is no maximum number of hours
Only via natural selection, genetic drift, migration, or mutation
Radioactive isotopes emit high-energy particles that can damage DNA. These substances are known as:
Which of the following best explains why genetic bottlenecks and founder effects are evolutionary important?
Both result in small populations that are influenced by genetic drift
Select from the choices below the statement that best describes the effect of the migration of individuals into a population.
Migration of individuals into a population generally increases the genetic variability within a population
In humans, random mating is most likely to occur for which of the following characteristics?
Evolutionary change as a result of natural selection ALWAYS leads to:
- More intricate adaptations
- Increased complexity- None of the above is correct
A population’s environment sometimes changes too quickly for natural selection to adapt the individuals in the population to the environment. In these situations:
Extinction occurs during the following generation
'U’-shaped, with peaks at the low and the high extremes of beak size; disruptive selection
Under the right conditions, which type of selection is most likely to lead to the formation of a new species?
- A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same general location and
have the potential to interbreed
- A group of individuals of the same species that have the potential to interbreed
A gene pool consists of:
The total of all alleles present in a population
The origin of all genetic variation is:
When a sudden change in the environment, such as a flood or a fire, reduces the size of population, the survivors’ collective gene pool will be only a limited representation of what was present before the disaster. This phenomenon is called:
The bottleneck effect
To demonstrate evolution by natural selection, all of the following conditions must be satisfied EXCEPT:
Low environmental variation
Which of the following is the best measure of an organism’s fitness?
The number of fertile offspring it produces
What is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection?
Artificial selection requires human intervention, whereas natural selection does not require human intervention
Natural selection decreases genetic variability in a population. This statement is:
Sometimes correct, especially in cases of stabilizing selection
- A population-level change in the frequency of a behavioral trait
- A population-level change in allele frequency
- Evolution by natural selection
Most mutations are:
Random with respect to the environmental needs of the organism in which the mutation takes place
During gene flow, where do the genes flow to?
The genes flow into and out of the population due to migration of individuals from one population to another
Which of the following traits CANNOT be modified through artificial selection on a laboratory population?
- The number of eggs laid by a female bird
- The amount of time that it takes a mouse to learn a maze
- The length of a dog’s tail the number of days a fruit fly can live without food
- None of the above; all could be modified through artificial selection
From an evolutionary perspective, behavior can be viewed best as:
A trait that can satisfy the three conditions required for evolution by natural selection
From an evolutionary perspective, behavior can best be viewed as:
Part of the phenotype
Behaviors that do not require environmental input for their development are called:
Behaviors that are learned easily and by all (or nearly all) individuals in a species are called:
Will sometimes regurgitate blood into the mouth of an unrelated individual that is close to starving
The energy that a parent puts into the growth, feeding, and care of offspring is called:
The sex with the greater energetic investment in reproduction will be ______ when it comes to mating.
Because it is possible for the female to mate with multiple males, any of whom could be the father, male mammals and birds will always:
Have some degree of paternity uncertainty
Two types of polygamy are:
Polygyny and polyandry
Monogamy, a relatively rare system outside of birds, evolves when:
Both males and females have high and equal parental investment
The situation in which males and females differ physical and/or behaviorally
Which of the following statements BEST describes the difference between artificial and natural selection?
Natural selection acts without the input of humans; artificial selection requires human input
Which of the following statements about mutations is NOT true?
- Mutations are almost always random with respect to the needs of the organism
- A mutation is any change in an organism’s DNA
- Most mutations are harmful or neutral to the organism in which they occur
- The origin of genetic variation is mutation
- All of these statements are true
When a group of individuals colonizes a new habitat, the event is likely to be an evolutionary event because:
Small founding populations are rarely genetically representative of the initial population
To establish that evolution by natural selection is operating in a population, one must demonstrate variability for a trait, heritability of that trait, differential reproduction success based on that trait, and:
Adaptations shaped by natural selection:
May be out of date, having been shaped in the past under conditions that differed from those in the present
In a population in which a trait is exposed to stabilizing selection over time:
The average value for the trait stays approximately the same and the variation for the trait decreases
A fossil is defined most broadly as:
Any preserved remnant or trace of an organism from the past
Is responsible for the increased occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria
Why do human taste preferences exist?
Human feeding choices influence energy intake and, consequently, fitness
All of the following are necessary conditions for reciprocal altruism to evolve in a species except:
- The ability to recognize different individuals
- The ability punish cheaters who do not reciprocate
- Repeated interactions with the same individuals
- At least one of the sexes must not disperse, so that some individuals always live near
- None of the above is necessary for the evolution of reciprocal altruism
In mammals, as well as many other species, males generally compete for females. The best explanation for this phenomenon is:
females have a higher parental investment
Mate guarding is a reproductive tactic that functions to:
Reduce paternity uncertainty
In a species such as pigeons, in which males are almost indistinguishable in appearance from females, the most likely mating system is:
If you find a species of fish in which males are much more brightly colored and larger than females, what might you infer about their mating system?
They are polygynous
Are usually sexually dimorphic, with males larger and more highly ornamented
According to the biological species concept, species are natural populations of organisms that have the potential to interbreed and are ______ isolated from other such populations
The difference between microevolution and macroevolution is that:
They take place on different time scales
Prokaryotes are classified into ______ domain(s).
Protists are all alike in that all are:
Which of the following groups would be placed nearest the fungi in an evolutionary tree based on DNA sequences?
Which of the following is NOT a prezygotic barrier to interbreeding between different species?
- Two species live in areas so far from each other that they never meet
- Two species have sufficient physical differences that cause them to be unable to
- Two species have different courtship rituals
- Hybrids between the two species are infertile
- Biochemical factors prevent the sperm of one species from fertilizing the egg of the
From an evolutionary perspective, the most basic division among all organisms on earth is among:
Bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
Which group of organisms utilizes the largest variety of energy sources?
Which of the following statements about antibiotics is incorrect?
- Penicillin was the first antibiotic isolated from bacteria widely used to fight bacterial
- Antibiotics help microbes compete with other microbes
- Antibiotic-resistant microbes are selected for in humans who are taking antibiotics
- Antibiotics, though effective against viruses, are not effective against bacteria
- Antibiotics are sued not just in human health care but also in agriculture
Unlike other microbes, archaea are able to thrive:
In very extreme (with respect to temperature, salinity, pressure, etc.) environments
Many biologists do not consider viruses to be alive. Which of the following characteristics of viruses leads to this conclusion?
- Viruses lack a metabolic system
- Viruses are unable to reproduce on their own
The genetic information in all viruses is:
DNA or RNA
Viruses are able to infect:
- All of the above
Which of the following is NOT one of the kingdoms included within the Eukarya domain?
There are _______ major domain(s), determined by molecular evidence.
Spherical bacteria are known as:
__________ is added to milk to make yogurt.
Is it important to take all of the antibiotic prescribed to you by your physician even after your symptoms clear up?
Yes, even after your symptoms clear up there are still harmful bacteria in your system that are the most resistant to the antibiotic. It is the important to reduce their population size and expose them to competition from other types of bacteria
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that:
Brown algae are:
Eukaryotic and photosynthetic
The basic structure of a virus consists of:
Genetic information in the form of DNA or RNA enclosed within a protein coat
The protein coat of a virus is also referred to as its:
What is the most effective medical approach to treating viral infections?
Natural selection can only act on traits:
That are heritable
An animal will preferentially feed on:
The prey that provides the most energy relative to effort
Assume that you carry an allele, R, that causes you to help individuals to whom you are not related. This help increases their fitness and decreases yours. The frequency of allele R may still increase in the population:
If individuals you help are likely to return the favor and help you at some point in the future
Which of the following is the best way to distinguish male from female?
- Males are larger
- Males are more brightly colored
- Males are more aggressive
- Males produce motile gametes
In a polyandrous mating system:
Multiple males tend to mate with the same female ( andry=males)
o Polygynous—multiple females mate with the same male (gyny=females)
The biological species concept:
Defines a species as any group of actually or potentially interbreeding species that produce viable offspring
In one sense, microevolution is _____ and macroevolution is _______.
Domain, phylum, family, genus, species
o Domain is sometimes higher than kingdom, therefore the one without kingdom (or without domain) is good; if they show up together can’t pick it
Speciation with geographic isolation is called:
Viruses are most closely related, in that they share a common ancestor, to which domain of life?
Viruses are not considered to be part of the tree of life
The three most fundamental groups of organisms on the planet are:
Bacteria, archaea, and eukarya
Viral DNA is replicated by:
Using the HOST’s metabolic machinery and energy
Sign up for free and study better.
Get started today!