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______ – Elongated cells, dead at maturity (only cell wall remains). Pits in the cell let it pass water and nutrients between each other.
Unicellular and Multicelluar
Nonmotile and Motile
Aquatic and Terrestrial
Autotrophic (Photosynthetic) and Hetertrophic
Protists have no ________ that distinguish them from the non-protist Eukaryotes.
The main reason Protists are so useful is that they alone account for _____ occurring. They’re small but very numerous.
_______ causes a downy mildew of grapes. In the _____ it nearly wiped out the grape and wine industries in France. P.M.A Millardet, a professor from the University of Bordeaux, noticed that the leaves with copper sulfate and lime were healthy.
______ members of this genus cause diseases in several plants, more importantly in potatoes. They were the cause of the great potato famine in Ireland. About 800,000 people starved to death. The entire crop was basically wiped out in a week during the summer of ___.
Single celled protists are thought to have been the first organisms capable of ______.
Zygotic meiosis is a meiosis of a _____ immediately after _______, which is the fusion of two cell nuclei. This way, the organism ends its diploid phase and produces several haploid cells.
These cells divide mitotically to form either ________, or more _____. Two opposite types of gametes (e.g., male and female) from these individuals or cells fuse to become a _____.
In the whole cycle, zygotes are the only ______; mitosis occurs only in the ____.
Haploid dominant summary cont: These gametes then merge via ____ to produce a zygote (2n) and the process is repeated.
_____ a year die of it.
Every _____ an African child dies of it.
____ of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa.
Cells from the diploid individuals then undergo ___ to produce haploid cells or gametes. Haploid cells may divide again (by mitosis) to form more haploid cells, as in many yeasts, but the haploid phase is not the predominant life cycle phase.
In most diploid dominant plants, mitosis occurs only in the _____, i.e. gametes usually form quickly and fuse to produce diploid zygotes.
In the whole cycle, _____ are usually the only haploid cells, and mitosis usually occurs only in the diploid phase.
After fertilization the zygote (2n) undergoes ____ to form the adult organism. The cycle then repeats.
In haploid dominant organisms, the adult organism lives as a haploid organism.
The Zygote undergoes meiosis.
The cells produced by meiosis undergo mitosis.
In Diploid dominant organisms, the adult organism lives as a diploid organism.
The zygote undergoes mitosis.
The adult organism undergoes meiosis to produce gametes.The gametes fertilize each other or other organisms of the same species’ gametes.
Green Plant Synapomorphies
Chlorophyll b is the primary photo-synthetic pigment.
Thylakoids are stacked in grana in chloroplasts
Green Plant Synapomorphies
Starch is the food storage product.
Cellulose and Hemicellulose are the major cell wall components.
Sporopollenin-encased spores or zygotes are produced.
Oogamy occurs (probably evolved independently from other organisms.
Photosynthetic pigments are found within chloroplasts (___ per cell). The chloroplasts are embedded in membranes called ____
In most plants (Over 85%) the biochemical reactions begin when _____
Next, a phosphate group from ATP is added to each molecule of PGA producing a _______
___, not glucose, is the carbohydrate produced by this series of reactions. Some of the G3P is used to reform RuBP (ATP required)
The rest will exit the chloroplast and form ________, which is then used to make carbohydrates, fats, amino acids, and nucleic acids.
In ____, ______ demonstrated that an increase in the relative amount of oxygen in C3 plants will inhibit photosynthesis. In nature, such an increase occurs when a leaf’s stomata are closed due to hot, dry conditions.
1920, Otto Warburg.
It is hypothesized that rubisco evolved when the earth’s atmosphere contained little or no free oxygen (O2) and competition for ____ wasn’t a factor.
CO2 in the mesophyll cells, combines with ________ to form ______. This reaction is catalyzed by PEP carboxylase, which has a greater affinity for CO2 than O2
OAA is converted to ______ and then transferred via __________ (Microscopic channels that traverse the cell walls of plant cells) to the bundle-sheath cells. Once inside the budle-sheath cells, the 4-carbon compound splits to form _____ and ______
The internal concentration of CO2 in the bundle-sheath cells can become ___ times greater than outside. This high concentration of CO2 permits rubisco to fix CO2 at maximal rates
So in C4 Plants ______ is virtually eliminated. The CO2 released in the bundle-sheath cells is then fixed in the calvin cycle. Pyruvic acid (Pyruvate) is shuttled back to the mesophyll cells and converted into PEP (ATP required)
Because of their unique pathway, C4 Plants are able ____ even when their stomata close due to hot, dry conditions.
Less than ___ of all known plants are C4 plants.
C4 Plants are only efficient when its _____. At other times C4 plants are less efficient than C3 plants because the C4 Pathway requires additional ___ that convert Pyruvic Acid to PEP. Thus, C4 plants cannot compete well with C3 plants in wet, cool environments.
Since the stomata are closed during the day, CAM plants need much less ____ than C3 or C4 plants. However, they typically grow much ____ than these other plants.
They get the C4 name from the ___ (4 carbons in it) and ______(4 carbons as well) used in the C4 pathway
Certain plants are able to survive in permanently arid conditions due to a different developed pathway called ______
The stomata of CAM plants open _____. At this time, they fix CO2 and form 4-carbon compounds such as malic acid.
During the next day, while the stomata are closed, the 4-carbon acids are returned to the chloroplast and split into ________. The CO2 is then fixed via the _____.
The reason for this is that the stored CO2 is used up early each day, often after just _______.
Rubisco can constitute up to ______ of a leaf’s protein, making it the most ____ protein in the world.
An increase in atmospheric CO2 over the next ____ should lower photorespiration, and possibly _______.
Some CAM plants, when given large amounts of water, revert to _______
______ is when the female sex cell (Non-Motile) is much larger than the male sperm cell (usually found in mammals)
______is when the sex cells are similar in all ways except size (female cell usually the larger one)
______ is when both sex cells are identical
Green algae include:
Ulva –Sea lettuce (multi-Cellular)
Chara – Stonewort
Volvox (Colonial organization, they can reproduce asexually and sexually)
The Class Charophyceae includes ____ that are thought to be most similar to the ancestor of land plants. More specifically the genus _____.
Land Plants Include:
Seedless Vascular Plants
Gymnosperms (Seed Vascular plants)
Angiosperms (Seed Vascular Plants)
Pores or stomata with guard cells
Land plants have an __________ life cycle with complex ______
Dermal, ground, and vascular tissue systems
Vascular tissue system (xylem tissue and phloem tissue)
Dominant Sporophyte generation
Ligrin comprises the secondary cell walls of certain cells
Seedless Vascular plants include:
Psilotum nudum (Whisk fern)
Lycopodium (Club Moss)
Selaginella (Spike Moss)
Equisetum (Scouring rushes and horsetails)
________ – The oldest known vascular plant. Its stem was 6.5cm tall, and its sporangia were round. It became extinct in the mid-Devonian period ~___million years ago.
Plants Need Resources for Photosynthesis! The resources required are obtained through the vascular plant’s ____ (above ground stuff) and ___ (below ground stuff) systems.
The materials are transported internally by the _________. Water nutrients come from the roots and head up the plant towards the shoot system, and sugar goes both ways throughout the plant.
_____ of most plants only open during the day when light is available for the energy capturing reactions (don’t want to lose water during the night). Once inside, the gases diffuse through _______ between the cells without the need for transport organs.
________ – Cells that control the opening and closing of stomata to ensure maximum water retention. Most of the leaf surface is covered by cuticle (waxy substance that helps prevent water loss)
Almost all of the water taken from the soil enters through the young parts of the roots where the ______ provide enormous surface area.
They move either passively (facilitated transport) or actively if pumped in using ATP (active transport). Since this movement _____ creates a gradient, water will move into the plant through osmosis.
From the root hairs, the water moves through the _____ (outer most layer of the plant), ______ (another selective membrane layer), _____, and into the _____.
The pathway it takes can be…
From cell membrane to cell membrane (transmembrane)
From cell to cell via plasmodesmata (symplastic)
From cell to cell via cell walls (apoplastic)
Plants may use a combination of these three but the main pathway across the epidermis and cortex is _________
Once in the xylem, the water moves up the plant and into the _____.
_______ - the formation of water droplets on leaf tips during the night due to root pressure pushing the water up the plant.
______ – carries water and dissolved nutrients from the roots up the plant.
______ – Carries sugars form the leaves down (and up)
______ – Elongated cells, dead at maturity (same thing as Tracheids, only cell wall remains) _______ at both ends pass water with nutrients. They stack end to end so that they form a hollow tube. Vessel elements have a larger diameter than tracheids.
_______ – Living cells, but lacking nucleus and ribsomes at maturity, allowing for the passage of sugars. Arranged end to end with porous sieve plates between them.
_______ – Nonconducting, nucleated cells, alongside sieve tube members, with many plasmodesmatal connections to sieve tube members.
The sugars manufactured during photosynthesis move out of the leaf in the ____ to sites where they are _____, such as growing shoot and root tips, and to the sites of _____ such as fruits, seeds, and the storage cells of stems and roots.
This movement is said to follow a _______ (grown leaves producing it, the sources, and it flows to the growing leaves at the top and growing roots at the bottom), and is explained by the pressure-flow hypothesis.
This decreases the ________ in the sieve tube and causes water entering the leaf in the xylem to move into the sieve tube by osmosis.
The removal of sucrose results in an ______ in the sieve tube at the sink and the subsequent movement of water out of the sieve tube there. It normally returns to the xylem.
The number of stomata varies; however, the leaves of the tobacco plant have _____ stomata per square centimeter.
Stomatal movements result from changes in the _______ within the guard cells. Opening occurs when ____ are actively accumulated in the guard cells. This results in the movement of water into the guard cells.
Closing of the stomata results from the opposite procedure. The major solute responsible for this is the _____. The surrounding cells provide the required Potassium Ions.
_____ occurs when water moves into the guard cells.
_______ occurs when water moves out of the guard cells.
Plants lose water vapor more quickly when…
Stoma are open
It is less humid out
The wind is blowing (blows the water vapor off the leaves)
_____ – Horizontal underground stems (EX: Grasses)
_____ - Horizontal above-ground stems (EX: Strawberries)
_____ – Formed at the margins of the leaves (EX: Air Plant)