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• WHY DOES EACH PROKARYOTIC CELL REQUIRE A COMPLETE SET OF MICRO-COMPARTMENTS ?
• WHY IS EACH ORGANELLE IN A EUKARYOTIC CELLS ABLE TO PERFORM A UNIQUE SET OF BIOCHEMICAL REACTIONS ?
Enzymes (it has a unique set of enzymes)
• WHAT IS THE CYTOPLASM OF A CELL ?
The part of the cell between the nucleus and the cell membrane.
The fluid like and gel like
• WHICH CHARACTERISTICS DEFINE A CELL ACCORDING TO THE CELL THEORY ?
The cell is the most fundamental unit of life because it is the smallest biological entity that can acquire and process energy, repair, and reproduce independently
CELLS ARE THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF LIFE
ALL SINGLE-CELL & MULTI-CELL SPECIES ARE COMPOSED OF CELLS
ALL CELLS ARE PRODUCED FROM PRE-EXISTING CELLS
• WHY AREN’T VIRUSES CONSIDERED THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL UNITS OF LIFE ?
They don't satisfy the criteria
• DESCRIBE SOME OF THE FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PROKARYOTIC CELLS AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS.
Prokaryotic cell- Single cell species
The majority of species are single cell species
Process energy , reproduce, repair independently
Even though they are single cell species they are very complex species
Eukaryotic cell- Multi cellular species consists of many cell types, each performing a unique set of functions that much interact in order to grow, develop, defend, maintain, repair and reproduce a fully functional organism
Each cell types perform specific functions
• WHAT IS AN ORGANELLE ?
Organelle – any of several membrane enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of eukaryotic cells
• DOES EACH ORGANELLE CONTAIN A UNIQUE SET OF ENZYMES AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES THAT DEFINES ITS FUNCTIONS WITHIN THE CELL ?
• WHY DOES A EUKARYOTIC CELL REQUIRE A COMPLETE SET OF FULLY-FUNCTIONAL ORGANELLES ?
Yes each organelle has specific functions for the organism can function properly
• WHAT IS A MICRO-COMPARTMENT ?
• DOES EACH MICRO-COMPARTMENT CONTAIN A UNIQUE SET OF ENZYMES AND OTHER BIOLOGICAL MOLECULE THAT DEFINES ITS FUNCTIONS ?
So it can exist, perform all the functions necessary for the cell to live
• DEFINE A TISSUE, A SIMPLE TISSUE, AND A COMPLEX TISSUE.
Tissue- is a group of cells organized into a functional unit
simple tissues- one cell type
Complex tissues – multiple cell types
• DO ADULT STEM CELLS DIVIDE RANDOMLY IN THE BODY ? WHY NOT ?
• WHAT CONDITIONS IN THE BODY WOULD RESULT IN THE DIVISION OF ADULT STEM CELLS ?
Injury, growth, maintenance, when body is under attack
• UNDER NORMAL CONDITIONS, DO ADULT STEM CELLS DIVIDE ONLY WHEN IT SERVES THE OVERALL NEEDS OF THE BODY ?
• DO ALL CELL TYPES IN THE HUMAN BODY CONTINUE TO DIVIDE AT MATURITY ?
• IS APOPTOSIS ESSENTIAL FOR NORMAL GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT SINCE IT CAN ELIMINATE DEFECTIVE, INJURED, SELF-REACTIVE, OR SURPLUS CELLS FROM THE BODY ?
• COULD CHEMOTHERAPY BE USED TO INDUCE APOPTOSIS IN SOME CANCER CELLS ?
• WHAT IS REQUIRED FOR AN ADULT STEM CELL TO PASS THE G1 CHECKPOINT ?
• DOES THE BODY NORMALLY PRODUCE A GO-SIGNAL ONLY WHEN IT NEEDS A SPECIFIC TYPE OF ADULT STEM CELL TO DIVIDE ?
• ARE GO-SIGNALS REQUIRED TO CULTURE (GROW) HUMAN ADULT STEM CELLS IN THE LABORATORY ?
• WILL GO-SIGNAL RECOGNITION CAUSE AN ADULT STEM CELL IN G0 TO RE-ENTER THE CELL CYCLE AT G1 ?
• WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE G2 CHECKPOINT ?
• WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE M (SPINDLE) CHECKPOINT ?
To ensure that the chromosomes are properly attached to the spindle and each daughter cell will receive a complete set of genetic instructions
· Why is it essential for each daughter cell get a complete set of genetic instructions?
so it has all t needs to perform its functions
– DNA IS REPLICATED DURING WHICH STAGE ?
– THE CELL DIVIDES TO FORM TWO IDENTICAL DAUGHTER CELLS DURING WHICH STAGE ?
– WHAT IS INTERPHASE ?
– DURING WHICH STAGE DOES THE ADULT STEM CELL MAKE THE COMMITMENT TO DIVIDE ?
Mitotic phase (mitosis and cytokinesis)
• WHY MUST MULTI-CELLULAR ORGANISMS PRECISELY REGULATE CELL DIVISION ?
•So that errors don't occur and result is disorders, diseases , cancer and so on
• DO SOME CANCER CELLS IGNORE ONE OR MORE CELL CYCLE CHECKPOINTS ?
• WHAT IS APOPTOSIS ? DO SOME CANCER CELLS FAIL TO SELF-DESTRUCT EVEN AFTER A CHECKPOINT IS ACTIVATED ?
•Apoptosis – cell death, cell self destruction
( apoptosis signal released and recognized>cell shrinks > nucleus and chromosomes disintegrate > cell disintegrates)
Cancer cells ignore one or more cells cycle checkpoints.
Come cancer cells have a mutation that can get it pass the G1 phase and no longer need a go signal to divide
• HOW DOES THE BODY USE GO SIGNALS TO REGULATE THE DIVISION OF ADULT STEM CELLS ?
For the Adult stem cells to go past the checkpoint must recognize the Go signal
Go signals- instruct the cell to divide, growth factor that is any protein that can stimulate
• WHY MUST OUR CELLS CONTINUOUSLY RECOGNIZE AND RESPOND TO INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL SIGNALS (LIGANDS) ?
Recognize and communicate signals
• HOW DO OUR BODIES INSTRUCT THE PROPER POPULATION OF ADULT STEM CELLS TO DIVIDE WHEN A NEW SUPPLY OF SPECIFIC CELLS IS REQUIRED ?
• WHAT IS SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION ?
Pathway of molecular events to allow the cell recognize the signal , process that enables cells to recognize the signal
• WHY ARE PROTEIN KINASES & PHOSPHATASES CALLED “MOLECULAR SWITCHES” ?
Can quickly activate an enzyme or inhibit an enzyme (quickly activate a process or deactivate a process
• HOW CAN THE ADDITION TO OR REMOVAL OF A PHOSPHATE GROUP FROM AN ENZYME IN A SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY CHANGE ITS FUNCTION ?
Causing a change in structure of enzyme – which can close or change the shape of the active site
• HOW DOES THE PROTEIN KINASE CASCADE INCREASE THE PROBABILITY THAT AN ADULT STEM CELL CAN RESPOND TO A SINGLE GO-SIGNAL ?
Magnifying the signal with in the cell
• HOW WILL AN ADULT STEM CELL IN G1 RESPOND TO GO-SIGNAL RECOGNITION ?
• WHAT ARE CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASES ?
Kinases that regulate transmission from one phase of the cell cycle to the next
• WHAT ARE CYCLIN PROTEINS ? WHAT DEGRADES THEM AT THE PROPER TIME ?
Proteins that bind to and activate, proteasomes
• PROTEASOMES COMPRISE ~1% OF ALL PROTEIN IN OUR CELLS. WHY ARE THERE MULTIPLE PROTEASOMES IN EACH CELL ?
To break down proteins
• IS CANCER RELATED TO ABNORMAL SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION ?
• HOW DO GO SIGNALS ALLOW THE BODY TO REGULATE THE DIVISION OF ADULT STEM CELLS ?
Our cells continuously collect and process multiple signals and generate the proper output response in order for us to develop grow renew repair defend and reproduce and respond to the environment effectively
• OUR CELLS ARE GENETICALLY PROGRAMMED TO RECOGNIZE AND RESPOND EFFECTIVELY TO WHICH TYPES OF LIGANDS ?
The human body uses “go signals” (some hormones and growth factors) to coordinate the division of its adult stem cells populations
Why must the cells in our bodies continuously recognize and respond to internal and external signals (ligands)
Make sure our cells adjust and do their proper functions and contribute to the overall functioning of the body
• WHAT ARE RECEPTOR PROTEINS ?
• WHAT IS A SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY ? WHAT ARE ITS COMPONENTS ?
• AFTER A RECEPTOR PROTEIN RECOGNIZES ITS LIGAND, WHY IS THE RECOGNITION SIGNAL AMPLIFIED IN THE CELL BY THE PROTEIN KINASE CASCADE ?
• CAN A MALFUNCTIONING SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY INCREASE THE PROBABILITY OF CANCER ?
• HOW DO KINASE ENZYMES AND PHOSPHATASE ENZYMES REGULATE ENZYME ACTIVITY ?
• Kinase adds phosphate group – changes the enzyme structure- deactivate or reactivate
• phosphatase- takes away a phosphate – changes the structure- deactivate or reactivate
• HOW DO CYCLINS REGULATE CYCLIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE ACTIVITY ?
• WHICH CELLULAR STRUCTURE DEGRADES PROTEINS, SUCH AS THE CYCLIN PROTEINS, IN A HIGHLY REGULATED MANNER WHEN THEY ARE NO LONGER NEEDED ?
proteasome-To break down proteins(no longer needed , old or dangerous) in a high manner
• WHY DO ALL OF OUR CELL TYPES REQUIRE RECEPTORS ?
So they can recognize and respond to signals
• WHICH TYPES OF RECEPTORS CAN ADULT STEM CELLS USE TO RECOGNIZE GO-SIGNALS ?
• WHY IS THE RECEPTOR FOR THE GO-SIGNAL TESTOSTERONE LOCATED IN THE ADULT STEM CELL ?
Testosterone is hydrophobic and diffuses directly across the cell membrane
• DO SOME PHARMACEUTICALS MANIPULATE SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS INVOLVING G PROTEINS ?
Yes 60 % manipulate the ability of cells to recognize signals
• ARE SOME CANCERS RELATED TO A CONTINUOSULY ACTIVATED GO-SIGNAL RECEPTOR ?
• WHAT IS A GENE ?
A gene is a nucleotide sequence that contains the information that makes a specific polypeptide or specialized RNA molecule
• DOES A GENE DETERMINE THE SEQUENCE OF AMINO ACIDS IN THE SPECIFIC POLYPEPTIDE IT ENCODES ?
• DOES A GENE THAT CODES FOR A SPECIALIZED RNA MOLECULE DETERMINE THE SEQUENCE OF NUCLEOTIDES IN THE RNA MOLECULE IT ENCODES ?
Do you think our bodies use these ligand gated channels to allow our muscle cells to contract ?
• WHAT ARE THE THREE TYPES OF RECEPTORS THAT ADULT STEM CELLS CAN USE TO RECOGNIZE SIGNALS (LIGANDS) SUCH AS GO SIGNALS ?
• DESCRIBE A G-PROTEIN COUPLED RECEPTOR AND THE ROLE IT PLAYS IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. WHAT IS A G-PROTEIN ?
relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a G protein coupled receptor, to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell.
The G protein self deactivates after it activates the enzyme
• DOES GO- SIGNAL RECOGNITION BY AN ADULT STEM CELL RESULT IN THE EXPRESSION OF GENES THAT REGULATE ENTRY INTO THE S PHASE OF THE CELL CYCLE ?
• WHAT IS A GENE ?
• WHAT PART OF A EUKARYOTIC GENE CONTAINS THE INFORMATION THAT DETERMINES THE AMINO ACID SEQUENCE OF A PROTEIN ?
– DESCRIBE THE FUNCTION OF EACH PART OF A EUKARYOTIC GENE.
Determine to turn off or turn on-promoter/intron
Where to stop reading the information on the gene - transcription stop site
Contain information that determines the sequence of amino acids- exon
• ARE GENES LOCATED ON BOTH STRANDS (WATSON & CRICK STRANDS) OF THE DNA DOUBLE HELIX ?
• CAN WE INTENTIONALLY ALTER THE NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE OF SPECIFIC GENES TO PRODUCE NEW PROTEINS OR RNA MOLECULES WITH MEDICAL VALUE ?
DNA REPLICATION OCCURS IN WHICH ORGANELLES?
Which enzyme is necessary to link this dna fragment to this dna fragment?
• DURING WHICH PHASE OF THE CELL CYCLE DOES DNA REPLICATION OCCUR ?
– IN WHICH ORGANELLES DOES DNA REPLICATION OCCUR IN ANIMAL CELLS & PLANT CELLS ?
Animal cells synthesized in the nucleus, mitochondria
Plant cells synthesized in the nucleus, mitochondria, and chloroplast
• DESCRIBE HOW EACH OF THE FOLLOWING CONTRIBUTES TO DNA REPLICATION – topoisomerase
• DESCRIBE HOW EACH OF THE FOLLOWING CONTRIBUTES TO DNA REPLICATION – helicase
• DESCRIBE HOW EACH OF THE FOLLOWING CONTRIBUTES TO DNA REPLICATION – primase
– an enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make a primer during DNA replication, using the parental DNA strand as a template
• DESCRIBE HOW EACH OF THE FOLLOWING CONTRIBUTES TO DNA REPLICATION – DNA polymerase
– an enzyme that catalyzes the elongated of new DNA by the addition of nucleotides to the 3’ end of an existing chain.
DNA polymerase begins adding dATP, dCTP, dGTP, or dTTP to the 3’OH end of the RNA primer to make the new DNA strand
Another DNA polymerase removes the RNA primer and replaces it with a new DNA strand
• DESCRIBE HOW EACH OF THE FOLLOWING CONTRIBUTES TO DNA REPLICATION – DNA ligase
– a linking enzyme essential for DNA replication, catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3’ end of one DNA fragment to the 5’ end of another DNA fragment
DNA ligase links the 3’OH end of the new DNA strand to the 5’-PO4 of the adjacent. Previously formed DNA strand to seal and complete the new DNA strand
– WHICH SOURCE OF ENERGY DRIVES DNA REPLICATION ?
– DOES DNA POLYMERASE ADD NUCLEOTIDES TO THE 5’ OR 3’ END OF A RNA PRIMER OR DNA MOLECULE ?
– WHY DOES DNA POLYMERASE HAVE PROOFREADING ABILITY ?
detects and removes mismatched nucleotides
• WHY ARE THERE OVER 130 DNA REPAIR ENZYMES IN THE NUCLEI OF OUR CELLS ?
Damage or replication errors cause cancer and other mutations.
• WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF TELOMERES ?
• WHICH ENZYME DO ADULT STEM CELLS USE TO MAINTAIN THE TELOMERES AT THE END OF OUR CHROMOSOMES AFTER DNA REPLICATION ?
• WHY ARE DRUGS THAT INHIBIT TELOMERASE ACTIVITY BEING USED TO TREAT CANCER PATIENTS ?
• DURING WHICH PHASE OF THE CELL CYCLE DOES AN ADULT STEM CELL DIVIDE BY MITOTIC CELL DIVISION ?
What are the two major processes or mitotic cell division?
• WHY IS MITOTIC CELL DIVISION ESSENTIAL FOR MULTI-CELL SPECIES ? FOR SINGLE-CELL SPECIES ?
Growth, repair, renewal, reproduce
DO WE HAVE TWO COPIES OF EVERY GENE – ONE FROM MOM AND ONE FROM DAD EXCEPT FOR THE SEX CHROMOSOMES IN MALES ?
• WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE SPINDLE ? WHICH PROTEIN FILAMENTS INTERACT TO FORM THE SPINDLE ? WHICH PROTEIN FORMS THESE FILAMENTS ?
To deliver two sets of chromosomes to opposite ends of the stem cell…..
• IS THE CENTROMERE A SPECIFIC NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE THAT IS NECESSARY FOR THE SPINDLE MICROTUBULES TO INTERACT WITH EACH SISTER CHROMATID ?
• WHAT IS A KINETOCHORE ?
Consists of the centromere DNA sequence and specific proteins
• ARE THERE “MOTOR PROTEINS” THAT ENABLE SISTER CHROMATIDS AND OTHER MATERIALS TO MIGRATE ALONG MICROTUBULES WITHIN THE CELL?
• WHAT IS A BENEFIT OF CHROMATIN FOLDING INTO CHROMOSOMES DURING PROPHASE ?
• WHY IS IT ESSENTIAL FOR THE NUCLEAR ENVELOPE TO DISMANTLE DURING PROMETAPHASE ?
Allow the spindle microtubules to attach to the kinetochores on the sister chromatids
• DURING WHICH PHASE OF MITOSIS ARE THE SISTER CHROMATIDS DELIVERED TO DIFFERENT ENDS OF THE CELL ?
How many sets of chromosomes will an adult stem cell have that completes mitosis but does not split during cytokinesis?
• DOES MITOTIC CELL DIVISION PRODUCE TWO, IDENTICAL CELLS KNOWN AS DAUGHTER CELLS ?
• WHY MUST DNA REPLICATION OCCUR BEFORE MITOTIC CELL DIVISION CAN OCCUR ?
Because the spindle will separate completely into two identical daughter cells
• WHAT ARE THE FIVE STAGES OF MITOSIS ? WHICH KEY EVENT(S) OCCURS DURING EACH STAGE OF MITOSIS ?
the spindle properly positions each pair of sister chromatids at the center of the cell to prepare for their delivery to opposite ends of the cell
the membrane vesicles reform the nuclear envelope around the chromosomes. The chromosomes unwind to reform chromatin
• WHY MUST THE NUCLEAR MEMBRANE DISASSEMBLE DURING PRO-METAPHASE ?
Allow the spindle microtubules to attach to the kinetocores on the sister chromadits
• WHEN DO SISTER CHROMATIDS SEPARATE DURING MITOSIS ?
• WHICH STRUCTURE DELIVERS THE CHROMATIDS TO EACH END OF THE ADULT STEM CELL DURING ANAPHASE ?
• HOW DO THE SPINDLE MICROTUBULES INTERACT WITH EACH SISTER CHROMATID ?
Coordinates the movement of our sister chromatids to ensure that 2 complete sets of each chromosome goes to each side of the stem cell to replicate (46 on one side and 46 on the other)
• THE KINETOCHORE FORMS AT WHICH SPECIFIC DNA SEQUENCE WITHIN EACH SISTER CHROMATID ?
• CAN SPINDLE CHECKPOINT FAILURE RESULT IN ANEUPLOIDY IN DAUGHTER CELLS ? CAN IT RESULT IN CANCER ?
aneuploidy (abnormal chromosome numbers)
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