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1. The layer of the heart that contains muscle is ___________.
2. When the aorta arches and begins descending down along the spine, then goes through the diaphragm, it is known as _____________.
2. abdominal aorta
1. Name the blood vessel that supplies the myocardium
2. The heart is composed primarily of _______.
1. coronary artery
1. Veins draining the arms and head merge into a larger vein which then transports the blood to the right atrium of the heart; this larger vein is the ____________.
2. The endocardium is made up of which type of tissue?
1. Superior Vena Cava
1. Veins have something that arteries do not. What is it?
2. During diastole, the ventricles are __________, the semilunar valves are __________, blood is prevented from flowing back into the ________and the heart rests.
2. relaxed, closed, ventricles
1. The ability of the arteries to withstand a sudden large increase in pressure is accomplished by the _______________.
2. The blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the lungs is called_________.
1. elasticity of the smooth muscles
2. pulmonary artery
1. The circulation which carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart is the ____________.
2. The artery found at the crook of the elobow is the _____________.
1. The left common carotid artery branches from the _____________.
2. The only heart valve with two cusps is the ___________.
3. The atrial appendage similar to a dog's ear is the ______________.
1. aortic arch
1. Which vessels have walls one cell thick?
2. The SA node sends an electrical impulse to the atria causng them to__________.
3. The pulmonary artery carries de-oxygenated blood from the____________.
3. right ventricle to the lungs
1. Arteries have walls made of three coats or tunics surrounding a hollow core known as a ___________.
2. Intestinal blood flows to the liver by way of _____________.
3. The right atrium receives blood from all parts of the body except of__________.
2. the hepatic portal system
1. The SA node, which initiates each cardiac cycle and sets pace for the heart rate, is also known as the ______________
2. Blood from the lungs returns where?
3. Another name for a stationary blood clot is_____________
2. left atrium
When comparing an artery to a vein, what is different about the tunica interna?
What is vasoconstriction?
Name an elastic artery.
Why are arterioles known as resistance vessels? Arterioles will branch into what vessels?
What substances in plasma or interstitial fluids can freely exchange through a sinusoid?
List the three types of veins. What is an example of a large vein?
How is blood brought to the heart despite low venous pressure?
-- Blood volume
From each glomerulus, one efferent arteriole leaves each nephron and empties
transports air between the outside of the body and deep inside the lungs
-noes, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree
to warm, clean, and humidify the air
when the air is very dry for long periods of time, the dry air dries out eh capillaries causing damage
-since the capillaries are so close to the surface, flesh breaks open and the capillaries break and blood leaks out
region surrounded by muscular tissue connecting the back of he nasal cavity to the back of the mouth and upper portion of the throat
-warms, cleans, humidifies air
keep food and drink out of lungs
-thick cartilage of throat
-contain true vocal cords
hollow tube traveling from the bottom of the larynx and toward the lungs
-cleans the air
-lined with cells that have cilia
hair like projections that beat like little oars moving mucus and debris away from lungs and toward pharynx
-once in phrynx, it's swallowed
division of trachia into R & L primary bronchus
-transport air to and from the R & L lungs
-bronchi divide into smaller and smaller bronchi once inside the lungs
-all bronchi are hollow and transport air to and from specific regions of the lungs
primary bronchi, secondary bronchi, tertiary bronchi, bronchioles, termnial bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles (smallest division and end of conducting division of respiratory system
the diffusion of gasses bt the air you inhaled and your blood
-occurs across the membranes of the alveoli
small hollow sacs
-provide an enormous surface area for gas exchange
-walls of each alveoli are one cell thick & surrounded by a basket of capillaries
cells of an alveolus meet hte cells of a capillary wall
-gas exchange occurs across this membrane
-blood carried to heart by vena cavas, enters R atrium and R ventricle, enters pulmonary arteries
-p arteries branch off and become smaller until blood travels through network of capillaries around alveoli
-O in air you inhaed enters alveolus and diffuses across resp membrane, then diffuses into blood carried by capillaries
-CO2 waste simultaneously expeled from blood into alveolus to be expelled from lungs
-oxygenated blood leaves heart thru pulm veins, enters L atrium and L ventricle
deficiency in sufactant
-occurs when infant is born before the cells in the alveoli start producing sufactant
-every time the infant inhales, the alveolus collapse
the amount of force something pushes against something else
-atmospheric: outsude air
-intrpulmonary: inside the lungs
>, air enters lungs
<, air leaves lungs
muscle shaped like a bell that forms the floor of your chest (thoracic cavity)
-plays big role in changing volume, and thus pressure, inside lungs
circuit of neurons in the base of te brain that control the rate and depth of your breathing
-motor neurons leaving resp control center innervate the diaphragm and chest muscles causing them to contract
h2co3 which breaks down to h2co3
-either breaks down to H2O and H20 or
-break down into one bicarbonate and 1 H ion
produce more CO2
-causes rxn to proceed to right to use up CO2 and gain HCO3- and H+
-rxn ontinues until new equil is reached
-acidity changes, pH decr=more acidic soln
CO2 concen in your blood is too high
-carbonic acid eq runs to the right
-increases the concen of H+ ions=more acidic blood
when blood is too acidic
-resp control center responds by incr how fast and deep you breathe
-CO2 diffuses into diffuses into lungs more rapidly whic decr CO2
-HCO3- and H+ decr bc rxn runs to left
conenc of CO2 is too low in your blood
-carbonic acid eq runs to left, H+ concen decreases as new equil reached
-decrease in H+ concen=less acidic
condition in which the blood is not acidic enough
-resp control center decre resp rate=CO2 builds up in blood stream
-CO2 oncen rises and carbonic acid equation will run to right again reversing alkalosis
H+ ion concen of fluid bathing brain
-most imp factor in controlling respiration
CO2 difuses into CSF
-carbonic eq runs to right incr H+ ion concen
-central chemoreceptors generate more APs that stimulate the respiratory control center
-diaphragm and resp muscles contract harder and faster
-breathe harder to allow more CO2 to diffuse out of blood into lungs and exhaled
-exhalation lowers co2 concen adn restores hemeostasis
resp control center neg feedback loop worsk to incr CO2 levels and restore homeostasis
-O chemoreceptors in arteries leaving heart, but only generate APs when blood O levels are extremely low
how much of the total air pressure is due to any one gas
O diffuses down concen gradient toward body cells
CO2 diffuses down concen gradient into blood
blod leaves tissues and returns to heart
capillary beds of lungs, CO2 diffuses downits concen gradient into lungs, to be exhaled
-O in alveoli diffuses down its own concen into blood
-highly oxygenated blood travels to tissues
Blood Flow through the kidneys
Renal artery>segmental artery>interlobar artery>arcurate artery>interlobular artery>glomerulus>efferent arteriole>
pertibular capillaries>venules>cortical radiate veins>arcurate veins>interlobular veins>renal vein.
Primordial follicles(created during fetal development)- Primary oocyte > Primary follicles> Secondary follicles (has primary oocyte and antrum)>Vesicular Follicle (formed from one secondary follicle each month)- Primary oocyte becomes secondary oocyte> Seconday oocyte expelled from vesicular follicle>Becomes corpus lutenum (produces estrogen and progesterone)>Fertilization or corpus albicans.
Semininiferous tubules>Epididymus> vas deferens>seminal vescicle>ejaculatory duct>prostic urethra>membranous urethra>penile urethra>picks up fluid from seminal vesicles, prostate and bulbo-urethral glands>becomes semen>out
All GI tract (absorption)Stomach (without goblet cells)
Name the structures that have nonkeratinizied stratified epithelium
Name the structures that have cuboidal epithelium
Name the structures that have transitional epithelium
Bladder, ureter (stretch) etc.
Differences in the structures of the following parts of the digestive system:
Differences in the structures of the following parts of the digestive system: stomach
(duodenum, jejunum, ileum). Simple columnar epithelium w/ goblet cells. Functions to finish the chemical digestion process. Responsible for absorbing most of the nutrients. Circular folds increase area.
Duodenum: Major and minor duodenal papilla are parts that receive bile and pancreatic enzymes.
Jejunum -Primary area for chemical digestion and nutrient absorption.
Ileum- Controls entry of materials into the large intestine
Functions to absorb most of the water and electrolytes from the remaining digested material. Solid material (feces) eliminated from the body with few nutrients remaining. Teniae coli act like elastic waist bands to help bunch up large intestine. Haustra are small sacs that allow expansion and elongation. Epipolic appendages (fatty sacs) hang off haustra.
production of bile, hepatocytes (detoxify drugs, metabolites and poisons.
Store excess nutrients and vitamins for release into the blood when needed. Synthesize blood plasma proteins required for blood clotting.) reticuloendothelial cells (Phagocytize debris in the blood. Break down and recycle erythrocytes and damaged/worn out formed elements)
Acinar cells and epithelial cells secrete pancreatic juice (alkaline- water, ions, and digestive enzymes) carried out through ducts that form the pancreatic duct (exocrine function). Islets of Langerhans (pancreatic islets)- secrete insulin and glucagonare endocrine function Parasympathetic (stimulates) and sympathetic (inhibits) activity controls the production of the pancreatic juice.
Bilanary apparatus- a network of “tubes” that transport bile and pancreatic juices to the duodenum. It includes: right and left hepatic duct (drains bile from liver and unite to form common hepatic duct), Gallbladder (contains cystic duct which joins with the hepatic duct and forms the common bile duct that connects with the pancreatic duct), common bile duct (opens into duodenum at the duodenal papilla where both bile and pancreatic juices are emptied).
If the apparatus is obstructed, bile fails to reach its proper destination. Gallstones are the most common cause of biliary obstruction.(?)
Peristalsis propels materials from one portion of the digestive tract to another.
Circular muscles contract behind, relax in front. Longitudinal muscles contract ahead- shorten adjacent segments.
Explain the difference in the mechanical and chemical digestion of food and where each occurs.
Mechanical digestion: teeth, palates of oral cavity proper, and mouth.
Chemical digestion: via the chemicals secreted into the oral cavity by the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands which all secreted saliva.
Removing waste products, regulating blood volume and pressure, regulating plasma concentrations of sodium and potassium, helping stabilize blood pH, conserving valuable nutrients, assisting the liver in detoxification.
Problems include- too much sodium/potassium loss through the urine, too much bicarbonate and hydrogen ions in urine, too much/too little water loss in urine- regulation of blood pressure.
Can you describe why kidney stones form
Form: build-up of salts or other solutes (calcuim, magnesium, etc)
Where: Within the kidney and ureter. Large enough stones block the ureatal passageway and cause swelling, pain in the abdomen, and decreased filtration of the blood
They can block the ureter thus causing a build up of fluid and increased pressure within the kidney.
Male: neck of urinary bladder-tip of penis. Divided into prostatic, membranous and spongy.
Females: Short. Near anterior wall of vagina.
Both: External urethral spincter.
What are the differences in adventitia and serosa?
Serosa- Serous membrane covering the muscularis externa along most portions of the digestive tract inside the peritoneal cavity.
Adventitia- Fibrous sheath covering where there is no serosa in the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and rectum. This is where a dense network of collagen fibers firmly attaches the digestive tract to adjacent structures.
6. Schwann cells surround axons and provide myelination in the PNS.
7. Which of the following glial cells aid in repairing damaged neural tissue and help provide nutrition to the nervous tissues?
8. Which layer of the protective covering of the brain is very delicate and closely adheres to the surface of the brain and spinal cord?
9. Your neighbor brings you his radiograph from the time he accidently shot himself in the head with a nail gun (he’s mostly ok now). Impress him with your ability to name the structures the nail penetrated (in order, superficial to deep) on its way in.
10. The subdural space is a potential space. What does this mean?Term
a. the subdural space isn’t really a space at all, normally. It can become a space in certain circumstances.
11. Arachnoid trabeculae are thin strands of connective tissue that stretch across the subarachnoid space, connecting the arachnoid layer to the pia.
12. Which of the following are functions of the cerebrospinal fluid?
a. provide buoyancy for the brain, helping support its weight.
b. provide cushioning for the brain’s delicate structures.
c. transport nutrients, chemical messengers and waste to and from the brain.
d. all of the above (right answer)
e. a and b
c. is formed in the choroid plexuses in the ventricles.
14. The ventricular system is filled with CSF and is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.
15. Arachnoid granulations:
a. are clusters of arachnoid villi
b. extend from the subarachnoid space into the dural sinuses (an example of which would be the superior sagittal sinus).
c. are one-way valves that allow the exit of CSF into venous circulation
d. a and c
e. all of the above (right answer)
17. Blood supply to the brain is supplied by:
a. internal carotid arteries
b. vertebral arteries
c. superior sagittal sinus
d. a and b *right*
e. a, b and c
18. The blood-brain barrier is formed by tight junctions between the endothelial cells of capillaries of the central nervous system. Its function is to isolate the nervous tissue in the central nervous system from the general circulation.
19. The blood-brain barrier is intended to keep lipid-soluble compounds like O2, CO2, steroids, and prostaglandins out of the interstitial fluid of the brain and spinal cord.
20. The cerebral cortex contains:
a. grey matter
b. neuronal cell bodies
d. a and b *correct*
21. The primary motor cortex is found in which lobe of the cerebrum?
22. The primary sensory cortex is found in which lobe of the cerebrum?
23. The precentral gyrus is separated from the postcentral gyrus by the:
d. central sulcus
24. Neurons of the primary motor cortex are:
a. Pyramidal cells
25. Each cerebral hemisphere receives sensory information from and sends motor commands to the same side of the body. In other words, the left side of the brain controls the left side of the body.
26. What is meant by “hemispheric lateralization”?
c. The left and right cerebral hemispheres do not perform the same functions. Each hemisphere is specialized to perform functions that the other side does not.
27. Your roommate slipped on the ice and fell down, knocking her head. She claims to be fine but you notice that she’s a little uncoordinated – even a bit ataxic. What part of her brain do you suddenly find yourself worrying about?
b. the cerebellum
28. What part of the brain filters and relays sensory information on its way to the sensory cortex? Hint: it’s also known as the “Gateway to the Cerebral Cortex”
29. The thalamus and hypothalamus are found in which part of the brain?
30. The limbic system is a functional group of structures that is known as the “emotional brain”.
31. Respiration, cardiac, vasomotor and reflex centers are found in this part of the brain. Autonomic reflexes are coordinated here.
d. medulla oblongata
32. There are nuclei found in the brain which are collections of nerve cell bodies. These serve many different functions but are always made of white matter.
33. The brainstem consists of the:
a. mesencephalon, medulla oblongata, pons
34. There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves that connect to the brain.
35. Name the cranial nerve shown in Figure 2.
36. Pick out the basic functions of the cranial nerve shown in Figure 2.
a. Mixed sensory and motor, responsible for touch, pain and chewing.
37. Name the cranial nerve shown in Figure 3.
38. Pick out the basic functions of the cranial nerve shown in Figure 3.
c. Sensory, smell
39. Name the cranial nerve responsible for sensing aortic blood pressure, slowing the heart rate and stimulating digestion.
40. Pick out the basic function(s) of the hypoglossal nerve (XII).
41. In Figure 4, the structure marked “X” is most correctly named:
b. gray matter
42. In Figure 4, the structure labeled “Y” is most correctly named:
b. arachnoid mater
43. In Figure 4, the structure labeled “Z” is most correctly named:
c. posterior root
44. In Figure 5, the structure labeled “Q” is most correctly named:
a. dorsal ramus
45. In Figure 5, the structure labeled “R” is most correctly named:
c. anterior cutaneous branch of the intercostal nerve
46. After emerging from the spinal column, each spinal nerve divides into a:
a. dorsal ramus
b. ventral ramus
c. meningeal ramus
d. a and b
e. a, b, and c
47. Within a plexus, fibers from the various ventral rami crisscross and become redistributed so that each branch contains fibers from several different ventral rami.
48. Which of the labeled areas in Figure 6 provide connections to the back, abdomen, groin, thighs, knees and calves?
49. What is the structure referred to in question #48 called?
c. lumbar plexus
50. A dermatome is:
d. an area of skin innervated by sensory fibers from a single spinal nerve
1. The central nervous system (CNS) refers to the:
c. brain and spinal cord
2. The peripheral nervous system (PNS) refers to:
a. all neural structures outside the CNS
3. Descending from the cerebrum to the medulla, brain functions become more complex and variable
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