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Unlike plant cells, animal cells move during development. Which of the following terms describes the reorganization of undifferentiated
cells which results in the formation of an
embryonic structure with multiple layers?
cell adhesion molecules, a mechanism of communication, bulk transport capability
Exact copy of genetic material to each daughter cell - Occurs in mitosis.
Change from diloid to haploid - Occurs in meiosis.
Spindle apparatus - Occurs in both mitosis and meiosis.
Starts with replicated chromosome - Occurs in both mitosis and meiosis.
Crossing over - Occurs in meiosis.
Reduction division - Occurs in meiosis.
Cytokinesis - Occurs in both mitosis and meiosis.
Which one of the following best describes why genome sequencing can be complicated by repeated sequences?
Repeated sequences make DNA sequencing challenging for of all of the following reasons EXCEPT:
Whole genome sequencing is often approached by a shotgun sequencing approach in which:
They have a protein coat called a capsid
They must infect a host cell to reproduce
duplication of a complete set of chromosomes in a single species
hybridization between related species followed by duplication
A new nucleotide can only be added to the ____ of a growing DNA strand. DNA therefore always grows in the _____ direction.
a) 3'; 5' to 3‘
b) 5'; 5' to 3‘
c) 3'; 3' to 5‘
d) 5'; 3' to 5'
The leading strand is the daughter strand that has its ____ end pointed toward the replication fork and is therefore synthesized ______.
a) 3'; in a series of segments
b) 3'; continuously
c) 5'; in a series of segments
d) 5'; continuously
e) None of the answer options are correct.
Lack of telomerase activity limits what?
a) the rate of DNA replication
b) the number of replication bubbles that form during replication
c) the number of times a cell can divide
d) the number of Okazaki fragments that can be linked together
e) the rate of meiosis
The following enzymes play important roles in DNA replication: DNA polymerase, Primase, Ligase, Helicase. In what order do they work during replication?
a) DNA polymerase, primase, ligase, helicase
b) Primase, helicase, ligase, DNA polymerase
c) DNA polymerase, helicase, primase, ligase
d) Helicase, primase, DNA polymerase, ligase
e) Ligase, helicase, DNA polymerase, primase
Which of the following reasons explain why bacteria can continually divide?
a) Because they are so simple.
b) Because their DNA is circular so it never shortens after replication.
c) Because DNA replication is much quicker in bacteria than in eukaryotes.
d) Because they have plasmids.
e) Because they only have one chromosome.
Mitochondria contain their own DNA and replicate on their own. Why is it that they don't suffer the same consequences as our cells in terms of limited division?
a)Because they have high telomerase activity.
b) Shortening of the DNA is only a problem with nuclear DNA; shortening of mitochondrial DNA isn't catastrophic.
c) Mitochondrial DNA is circular, so it doesn't shorten when it replicates.
d) Since mitochondrial DNA only contains a few genes, it can last a lot longer.
e) Because they have high telomerase activity and their DNA is circular and so doesn't shorten in replication.
A graduate student wants to create a recombinant DNA molecule and introduce this molecule into bacteria. What is the proper order of steps that he should follow?
a) Choose plasmid/donor DNA, Cut with restriction enzymes, Join fragments via DNA ligase, Transform bacteria
b) Choose plasmid, Cut with restriction enzymes, Join fragments with DNA ligase, Introduce donor DNA, Transform bacteria
c) Ligase plasmid and donor DNA, Cut with restriction enzymes, Transform bacteria
d) Transform bacteria, Choose plasmid/donor DNA, Join fragments with DNA ligase
e) Cut plasmid/donor DNA with restriction enzymes, Transform bacteria, Isolate donor DNA/plasmid, Join fragments with DNA ligase
You are studying biology with your classmate when he asks what the difference is between Sanger sequencing and PCR with regard to the materials needed to perform these reactions. You tell him:
a) In PCR, primers are needed but not in Sanger sequencing.
b) In PCR, DNA polymerase is needed but not in Sanger sequencing.
c) In Sanger sequencing, primers are needed but not in PCR.
d) In Sanger sequencing, DNA polymerase is needed but not in PCR.
e) In Sanger sequencing, dideoxynucleotides are needed, but not in PCR.
Which of the following best describes Sanger sequencing?
a) By using dideoxynucleotides that don't have a triphosphate group, there is no energy to add it to the growing nucleotide strand and hence it stops replication.
b) By using dideoxynucleotides, it stops the addition of another nucleotide after it. This can then be run on a regular gel to determine the sequence.
c) By using dideoxynucleotides, it stops the addition of another nucleotide. These are known as chain terminators and have been labeled with a specific probe to allow for detection and hence the sequence
d) By using dideoxynucleotides, you can tell where they have been incorporated by using microarray analysis.
e) By using dideoxynucleotides, you can tell where they have been incorporated by the difference in weight.
An experiment is performed where the RNA primers are labeled with a fluorescent marker that glows when viewed with a microscope. How could this technique distinguish the leading strand from the lagging strand of a replication fork?
a)The leading strand would glow more.
b) The lagging strand would glow more.
One of the DNA replication proteins/enzymes is altered in a way the results in an increased rate of single base changes in the newly synthesized DNA strand. Which function is most likely to be disrupted?
a) the unwinding function of helicase
b) the winding stress relief function of topoisomerase II
c) the fragment joining function of DNA ligase
d) the proofreading function of DNA polymerase
e) the strand separation function of single-stranded binding protein
What percentage of the human genome actually codes for proteins?
Sequences of genomic DNA and its corresponding messenger RNA (mRNA) are often compared to obtain valuable information for genome annotation. Why is this comparison useful?
Which one of the following statements about transposable elements is correct?
Which of the following statements provides evidence that organelles (e.g., mitochondria and chloroplasts) originated billions of years ago as a result of primitive eukaryotic cells engulfing free-living bacterial cells? (Choose all that apply)
Imagine that a researcher is comparing the sequence of several protein-coding genes between mice, rabbits, and humans. She finds that, for most of these genes, the rabbit sequences are more similar to the human sequences than are the mouse sequences. What can she deduce?
Which of the following statements is true regarding sequence motifs?
Only 2.5% of the human genome actually codes for proteins. The other 97.5% includes:
The two organelles that contain their own nuclear genome are:
HIV once only infected nonhuman primates and now infects humans as well. Likewise, the avian flu only infected birds but now infects humans. What causes the host range of a virus to increase?
Viruses are the cause of various diseases such as polio, HIV, or the flu. However, viruses are also very helpful to our environment. In what way can viruses be beneficial to the environment?
Which of the following would be found in DNA sequences but not in mRNA sequences?
The human genome has 23 distinct types of chromosomes. How many individual DNA molecules would be present in the nucleus of a human skin cell just before mitosis?
The graph here shows the results of Jacob and Monod's first experiments with beta-galactosidase and lactose in E. coli. If beta-galactosidase were unstable in the absence of lactose (one of the hypotheses they tested), what results would you expect to see?
A) the results shown in the graph
B) an increase in beta-galactosidase after lactose is removed
C) a decrease in beta-galactosidase after lactose is removed
D) an initially high level of beta-galactosidase at the beginning of the experiment, with a steady decline over time
E) None of these choices are correct
Suresh and Gail are students in a lab working on mice with defects in the function of the HOX3A gene. In the special mouse line they are working on, no sequence changes are present in the genomic DNA of HOX3A, but the gene is not expressed properly and a mutant phenotype results. In one mouse line, an mRNA is produced in normal amounts, but no HOX3A protein can be detected.
Suresh thinks the absence of protein results from a change in RNA processing that prevents the inclusion of an exon in the final mRNA. Gail thinks the absence of protein results from some second gene that produces a protein that binds to the 3'UTR. Which of the two could be correct?
A) Only Suresh could be correct.
B) Only Gail could be correct.
C) Both Suresh and Gail could be correct.
Which of the following kinds of data could distinguish between the hypotheses posed by Suresh and Gail?
a. (T/F) sequencing of the genomic DNA of the gene
b. (T/F) analysis of the length of the mRNA produced by the gene
c. (T/F) analysis of ribosome binding to the mRNA
d. (T/F) analysis of RNA polymerase binding to the gene
A second set of experiments are performed that show that ribosome binding to the mRNA is normal, but translation produces a very small protein that breaks down very quickly. Is this result consistent with Suresh's hypothesis?
A mutation is found that prevents transcription of the HOX3A gene, which is known to be on chromosome 12. Genetic mapping of the mutation suggests that it is located on chromosome 11. Which of the following could make these two observations possible?
a. (T/F) The mutation affects a transcription factor that binds to HOX3A gene sequences.
b. (T/F) The mutation changes the DNA sequence of an enhancer of the HOX3A gene.
c. (T/F) The mutation prevents ribosome binding by altering sequences of the HOX3A mRNA.
d. (T/F) The mutation increases transcription of an miRNA that has sequence homology to the HOX3A gene.
Humans with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia have defects in the formation and function of their sweat glands. Males have reduced ability to sweat over their entire body. Females lose the ability to sweat only in patches of skin. Where must the gene that encodes this trait be located?
A) on the Y chromosome
B) on the X chromosome
C) on an autosome
Which of the following changes could cause the production of a shorter-than-normal protein from a gene?
a. (T/F) prevention of RNA polymerase binding
b. (T/F) prevention of in ribosome binding
c. (T/F) changes in RNA processing
d. (T/F) changes in RNA editing
e. (T/F) production of an siRNA
Lysosomes are organelles normally associated with how enzymes normally break down proteins to help with protein recycling in the cell. A family of genetic disorders, called lysosomal storage disorders, has defects in this system. In some of these diseases, proteins that normally move to the lysosomes fail to be transported properly in the cell. As a result, lysosomes do not properly recycle proteins.
Which of the following could produce this kind of disorder?
A) blockage of ribosome binding
B) blockage of post-translational modification
C) blockage of transcription
D) blockage of translation
In prokaryotic genes, some repressor proteins block transcription. Which of the following could achieve that block of gene expression?
a. (T/F) binding to the DNA sequence that normally binds activator
b. (T/F) binding to the DNA sequence that normally binds RNA polymerase
c. (T/F) binding to the DNA sequence that normally binds to the ribosome
You identify a mutation affecting the lac operon and find the following:
Lac Z is expressed whether lactose is present or not.
Lac I is expressed normally.
What could be wrong in this mutant?
A) Lac Y is deleted.
B) Lac O is deleted.
C) Lac Z is deleted.
D) Lac I is deleted.
If you were to try to develop a strain of bacteriophage lambda that could only execute the lytic pathway, where would you most expect to find the phage DNA in the bacterial cell?
A) integrated into the bacterial chromosome
B) in independent circular molecules called plasmids
Results from analysis of the defective HOX3a gene show that the mRNA is shorter than normal. Which of the hypotheses can be ruled out?
A) Suresh's hypothesis
B) Gail's hypothesis
C) Neither hypothesis can be ruled out.
When a mixture of debris from killed virulent bacteria and living non-virulent bacteria are injected into mice:
the mice are killed because the non-virulent bacteria are transformed into virulent bacteria.
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