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the resulting fat, thus consists of 3 fatty acids linked to 1 glycerol molecule
(another name is triglyceride)
i. Precursor (building block) in synthesis of steroid hormones: sex hormones & steroid stress hormones.
1. Sex hormones are steroids.
ii. Synthesized in human body from saturated dietary fat
iii. Stabilizes biological membranes in animals
iv. Has a role in heart disease.
i. Acts as a temperature buffer
ii. Prevents hydrophobic chains from packing too closely together: increase fluidity at low temperatures.
iii. Limits lateral phospholipid movement and stabilizes membranes at high temperatures.
i.Small HYDROPHOBIC (nonpolar and noncharged) molecules cross directly through the phospholipid bilayer of membranes without help
ii.Hydrophilic, polar or charged molecules cannot slip through the bilayer; their transport from one side to the other requires PROTEINS that span the entire membrane
iii.Aquaporins: membrane-spanning protein channels allowing (polar) water to move across (hydrophobic) lipid membranesDefinition
1.For polar or charged, hydrophilic substances
2.For both uphill (pump) and downhill (channel) transport of HYDROPHILIC substances
1.Both Na+ and K+ are moved against their concentration gradient
2.Essential for nerve impulses and critical for mental health and learning
3.Functions in the thinking process and in heart rhythm
4.Requires presence of specific polyunsaturated fatty acids as components of membrane phospholipids
5.Deficiencies in these fatty acids lead to ADHD, dyslexia, autism, depression, aggression, heart arrhythmia and dementia
2H atoms share 2 electrons = chemical bond - forming H2 (held by single covalent bond)
-O Molecule - (involved in energy of life) bigger than H and 2 electron shells
2 Oxygen atoms form 2 single bonds = double bond
(O atoms prefer other elements to bond like H or C, O attracts more electrons more than H or C) hydrophilic, polar covalent-C Molecule - bigger than H and 2 electron shells, 4 electrons in outermost shell
Polarity of Water Molecule - polarity makes water “the solvent of life”
Polar= Hydrophilic=Soluble in Water- (O-H) and (C=O) bonds
Nonpolar=Hydrophobic=Insoluble in water(Fat soluble) (C-H) bonds
Equal sharing of electrons = Nonpolar
Unequal sharing of electrons = polar
The 4 Classes
Lipids (Fatty Acids)
Formation - dehydration synthesis - large molecules formed from small building blocks by removing water
Breakdown - hydrolysis - large molecules broken down by adding water
Be able to relate structural differences between saturated, monounsaturated, andpolyunsaturated fatty acids to their differences in shape, in fluidity, in energy content, and in their health effects.
Loose electrons = electrons in b/w molecules
Tight electrons = electrons wrapped around single moleculeNonpolar molecule=loose electrons=energy source
Fats = 3 fatty acid chains, C-H bonds (C-H bonds = energy)
vs.Phospholipids = 2 fatty acids chains, less C-H bonds = less energy
The key function of the biological membrane is to keep a balance of good and bad in the cell.
In biological membranes we have
Phospholipids: barrier that blocks hydrophilic/polar/charged
Protein Channels: selective and controllable passageways that span across the membrane
Membranes are Fluid-Mosaic meaning they are able to adjust the fluidityMosaic of phospholipids and proteins
In colder areas the membrane needs to be more fluid so it needs unsaturated fats, preferably polyunsaturated. In warm climates more saturated fats to help it from being too leaky.
Unsaturated = fluidSaturated = Viscous (not fluid)
Cholesterol serves as a ‘temperature buffer.’
In hot temperatures, cholesterol helps stabilize the membrane by minimizing the phospholipid movement
Water molecules use aquaporins
Fat-Soluble substances (non-polar, uncharged) can move freely through the barrier
Water-Soluble or hydrophilic substances (polar, charged) must have a protein that spans the whole membrane to cross the membrane. These proteins are generally specific to certain substances. Such as aquaporins being specific to transporting water molecules.Aquaporins = membrane spanning protein channels - allow (polar) water to move across (hydrophobic) lipid membranes
Be able to predict where hydrophilic versus hydrophobic components are found in membrane-spanning transport proteins.
Hydrophilic likes to be with Hydrophilic;
Hydrophobic likes to be with hydrophobicSo the hydrophilic molecule travels inside the hydrophilic protein to pass through, while the outside of the protein is hydrophobic.
ATP Energy is needed when travelling from a low to high gradient (*uphill*)-Only for substances that use a protein
Be able to predict when a protein is needed for movement of substances across membranes.
High Potential Energy - downhill - no energy
Low Potential Energy - anything that has to go uphill! - needs energy input
When the potential energy is high the protein needs no energy to move the protein through the protein channel, if the potential energy is low the pump will need to use ATP to move the protein.
Passive transport = downhillActive transport = uphill
Be able to apply the principal features and functions of an ATP-fueled ion pump to the Na+/K+ pump.
Sodium and potassium are both moved against their concentration gradient by the pump, therefore it is necessary for the na/k pump to use ATP
How Sodium/Potassium Pump Works
Na+ (Sodium ions) bind to transport protein → ATP transfers phosphate to protein (giving energy to transport Na+! → K+ (potassium) is then transported whilst the phosphate is released and then rinse and repeat!
Note: Na+ is transported one direction and then K+ is transported the other direction. Basically, a trade.This pump is critical in thinking, mental health, and heart rhythm
0mega three fatty acids inhibit immune response and cell division, too much immune response can lead to autoimmune problems and too much cell division could be related to cancer. eating omega threes helps learning, memory, attention, and heart regularity.
Omega three fatty acids are necessary to keep the Na+/K- pump working and this pump is critical in mental health and heart rhythm.
So a lack of this fatty acid leads to a dysfunction in the pump which leads to problems like:
Nitrogen containing base (thymine, cytosine, adeninde, glycocine) uracil for rna
-ATP powers a motor protein which vesicles have receptors for
-The motor protein is located on a track that is formed by the cytoskeleton-Vesicles receptors attach to the ATP powered motor protein on the cytoskeleton track and are then moved
-Relay messages via signal transductor pathway to gene regulatory protein.
-Move into nucleus & bind DIRECTLY to gene regulatory protein.-Fat soluble.
Be able to use presence or absence of certain cell components to predict to which domain of life the organism belongs.
Eukaryotes “real nucleus”
compartmentation by multiple inner membranes
nucleus (membrane around the DNA)
Prokaryotes “before nucleus”
LACK internal compartments
no nucleus (no membrane around the DNA)
Be able to identify four major groups of eukaryotes
role: to release energy from energy-rich molecules in order to gain ATP energy for cellular work
in all eukaryotes
role: photosynthesis -- conversion of solar energy into energy-rich sugars
most structures in animal and plant cells are the same except…
For every monosaccharide that you synthesize together, you lose one water molecule (dehydration synthesis).
Glucose Maltose (glucose+glucose)
Fructose Sucrose (fructose+glucose)
Galactose Lactose (galactose+glucose)
Be able to relate high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) to human sugar transporters and tofructose mal-absorption.
Sugar transporter is most efficient at taking 1 glucose + 1 fructose.
HFCS = 45%glucose + 55%fructose.Due to a higher level of fructose, your body is slow at taking it up. Which leads to fructose mal-absorption = causes flatulence and diarrhea (which removes microflora, initiates mineral deficiency, and interferes with oral contraception).
Populations who do not have a high dairy diet usually develop lactose intolerance. Their bodies are not used to breaking down milk sugar (lactose) and therefore are intolerant.
Northern Europeans = low lactose intoleranceSoutheast Asians = high lactose intolerance
Be able to relate the structures of starch, glycogen, and cellulose to their respectivedigestibility, their functions, and the organisms in which they occur.
-Long, unbranched strands
-Quickly digested (faster than sucrose)
Slowly digestible carbs, unsaturated fats, high fruits/veggies → F6 at burningSugar and some starches, saturated fats, low fruit/veggies → Fat storage
ATP transfers high energy phosphate group to motor protein; phosphorylated motor protein = energized
Example: Motor molecules (vesicle transport, muscle movement)
ATP phosphorylates transport protein, like Na+/K+ pump; phosphorylated pump = energized
Example: brain (Na+/K+ pump)
ATP adds phosphate group (P) to a reactant making it less stable
Example: increasing the number of enzymes for certain metabolic pathways in response to internal or external signals
amino acid production
Be able to link producers and consumers via energy and carbon flow.
The calvin cycle(process of carbon fixation) makes sugar
Be able to place ATP at the intersection between energy-providing and energy-requiringpathways.
ATP links the energy from the breakdown of energy-rich food molecules to cellular work, there is energy loaded onto ATP and also energy released from ATP.
ATP provided by the breakdown of energy rich sugars (in respiration) is used in photosynthesis and other cellular processes. The Regeneration of ATP from ADP and P- this is a reaction that requires energy.ATP serves as the main energy source for cell processes, it drives reactions. This is when ATP transfers a phosphate group to a specific reactant – this does not require energy.
Inputs: CO2 and H2O
Outputs: O2 and Sugars
Light reactions in inner membranes/thylakoids are in the chloroplasts
Light collection by chlorophyll & electron transport
Light collecting: Is to produce ATP to be immediately used by the plant or to convert the ATP into Sugar which can be stored
The oxygen produced in photosynthesis is taken from the Water molecule which is split to to harvest the electrons
Be able to relate light absorption, electron flow, and ATP and NADPH formation inchloroplasts to the concept of potential energy; be able to identify low- and high-energy states for each component.
Solar energy catapults the electrons extracted from H2O from low to high energy electrons, the electrons will spontaneously flow back down from high to low energy electrons, the energy released from the electrons flowing back down is captured in photosynthesis to make ATP and NADPH
- Solar energy thereby drives production of energy-rich ATP and of the electron donor NADPH.- NADPH property: energized electron donor, eager to get rid of electrons
Be able to apply the model of the hydroelectric dam to photosynthetic ATP formation by ATP synthase.
O2 and Sugar
CO2 and H2O
Respiration- Food to energy
Carbon Conversion cycles = Calvin Cycle and Citric Acid Cycle
Calvin Cycle occurs in Stroma Space - Citric Acid Cycle occurs in Cytoplasm and Mitochondrial MatrixElectron Transport Chain/ATP Synthase occurs in Thylakoid Membranes and Mitochondrial Inner Membranes
Be able to identify the terminal electron acceptor of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and its essential role in energy metabolism.
-The electron transport chain pumps protons against the concentration gradient; builds up a high H+ concentration in intermembrane space
-Protons flow downhill through the ATP synthase, driving oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP
-electron acceptor is O2
Eating fewer endothermic organisms (like mammals) and more ectothermic organisms would help feed more people on earth because there’s less energy lost as heat
Brown fat cells contain many mitochondria = turning all of the energy from food into heat in newborns and small mammals in cold climates. They use an uncoupling protein that provides a channel across the membrane through which protons flow back downhill without making ATP, releasing all energy as heat.
Know which classes of macromolecules can be used as fuels in cellular respiration.
Several classes of macromolecules can enter cellular respiration
Carbohydrates (from glycogen) provide quick energy (for sprint).
(Glycogen = main energy store in fast-twitch glycolytic fibers)
Fats provide sustained energy for extended exercise.
(Fat = main energy store in slow-twitch oxidative fibers)
Carbon source: CO2
Carbon Product: Sugar (C-H bonds)
H (electron + H+) source: Water
Ultimate energy source: Sunlight
Final energy-rich product: Sugar (C-H bonds)
Carbon source: Food molecule with C-H bonds
Carbon Product: CO2
H (electron + H+) source: C-H bonds
Energy source: C-H bonds
Be able to identify the principal roles of NADPH and NADH inphotosynthesis and mitochondrial respiration.
NADPH aids in the formation of glucose from CO2 in the calvin cycle by donating H+
NADH aids in the breakdown of glucose in respiration by accepting H+
Be able to compare and contrast the role of oxygen in, as well as the location, speed, andenergy-yield of, anaerobic and aerobic respiration.
Aerobic respiration occurs when oxygen is present and has the highest yield of ATP
Anaerobic respiration/fermentation occurs when no oxygen is present and has a very small yield of ATP, occurs in place of glycolysis in the cytosol
Be able to relate fast-twitch versus slow-twitch muscle fibers to anaerobic versus aerobicrespiration.
Be able to compare the role of environmental factors in the regulation ofenergy storage versus energy utilization in plants and animals.
Be able to identify the role of plants in the production of oxygen and ozone (and thereby in the evolution of multi-cellular terrestrial life), as CO2 sinks, and as producers of food, fuels, and materials.
Photosynthesis is the source of O2 on our planet. Without O2 on the planet, the ozone (O3) layer wouldn’t have formed.
Ozone layer protects us from fatal UV- ultraviolet radiation.
No O2 → No ozone layer → No life on Earth
Primary producers (plants): make energy rich molecules with C-H bonds.
Consumers (animals): eat em!
CO2 Sink: (plants and algae that capture CO2: act like sinks) CO2 cycle of life. CO2 levels decrease in summer and increase in winter due to photosynthesis.
Match the specifics of Mendel’s work with corresponding general steps in the
1) alternative versions of heritable ‘particles’ account for variations in inherited characters
- particulate inheritance
2) for each character an organism inherits two alleles, one from each parent
-allele for purple or white flowers
-F1 all purple, F2 some purple some white 3:1 ratio
3) If two alleles at a locus differ, then one determines the organisms appearance and the other has no noticeable effect on appearance
-dominant vs. recessive
4) Law of segregation- two alleles someone has for a heritable trait separate during gamete formation, each gamete end up with different traits
Predict patterns of heredity and trait expression for crosses involving
genotypes that have various combinations of dominant and recessive alleles
Suppose there are two alleles of a gene, called A and a, and A is dominant to a. In a cross, Aa x Aa, among the offspring there are _____ possible genotypes and _____ possible phenotypes
- 3 genotypes and 2 phenotypes
Use results on ratios of phenotypes produced from specific crosses to test hypotheses about (i) genotypes of parents, (ii) dominant vs. recessive traits and alleles, and (iii) gene linkage.
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