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- defines a species as the smallest group of individuals on a phylogenetic tree
- tool used to infer evolutionary relationships; the closer together, the more closely related
is the existence of biological factors (barriers) that impede two groups from producing viable, fertile offspring
the study of this biological diversity in an evolutionary context. Involves building phylogenetic trees
Disease transmission – understanding origins and predicting future movement
– SARS, HIV and avian influenza
• Understanding the origins of life and biodiversity
...even though organisms are from very different evolutionary lineages
- a visual representation of a phylogenetic hypothesis
- used to describe evolutionary relationships
- if a leopard and house cat are directly related and then their grouping is related to a wolf, the cat and leopard are more closely related and they are equally related to the wolf
grouping consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of the descendants
! thrive in VERY hot environments
* Sulfolobus in sulfur-rich volcanic springs at ~90°C
* Pyrolobus fumarii in deep-sea hydrothermal vents ~113°C ! sources of heat-stable molecules useful in biotechnology
extreme halophiles ( = salt-lovers)
! tolerate or thrive in extremely salty waters
!anaerobic, chemoautotrophs that obtain energy by oxidizing hydrogen with CO2.
1) Eukaryotic (domain Eukarya)
2) Multicellular with multiple cell types
4) No cell wall
5) Early development characteristics
- division of labor among cells
a longitudinal, flexible rod located between the nerve cord and and digestive tube
- would later be organization for the nervous system
365 mya – Devonian Period Paleozoic Era
Fossil found in Greenland Adapted to life on water and land Lobe fins became more limb-like
- used to be used mainly for walking under water
Which of the following is NOT a part of the theory of natural selection?
Suppose you are studying a recently discovered population of rock pocket mice with dark-colored fur that lives on volcanic rock. You take a DNA sample from a member of this new population and determine the DNA sequence of a gene known to play a role in fur color. The sequence you get is identical to that of the same gene in another rock pocket mouse population with dark- colored fur that lives on a different patch of volcanic rock. Which of the following could explain this observation?
a. The mice in the two populations evolved from the same ancestral population. AND c. The same mutation spontaneously arose in the two different populations.
Why hasn’t natural selection eliminated heart disease from the human population?
Heart disease doesn��t reduce reproductive output (heart disease typically kills you after you reproduce, so the genetic component is already passed on before you succumb to heart disease)
Changes an individual experiences within its lifetime are subject to evolution.
The biological species concept is inadequate for grouping
Organisms that reproduce without sex
Which of following situations is an appropriate use of the morphological species concept?
a) Grouping lions into species according to mane size
b) Identifying different human species according to hair color and texture
c) Grouping adult horse fossils from a particular era according to bone shape
Grouping adult horse fossils from a particular era according to bone shape
You have collected small dark brown beetles from seven islands in the South Pacific. You want to know whether they are different species.
The data you have to work with is:
-- microscopic observations of their external anatomy -- gene sequences
-- description of the habitats where they were found
Data that you can’t obtain are:
-- tests of whether they would cross-breed in the lab
Which of the following species concepts are you UNABLE to apply to answering your question?
several species of amphibians are able to read each other's mating rituals and understand them, tend to be fertile at the same time and are usually similar in size. However, when they attempt to mater, they never produce offspring. Which of the following barriers is most likely the cause of this?
Which of the following is NOT a way Continental Drift can facilitate the evolution of biodiversity?
continental drift can increase mutation rates, resulting in gametic isolation
Two populations of cave organisms separated for a long time are reunited. However, individuals from the two populations can no longer mate to form fertile and viable offspring (i.e., they are reproductively isolated). If we find out that the habitats occupied by these populations were EXACTLY the same, even during the period of geographic separation, which of the following processes are most likely responsible for the current incompatibility?
This figure from your book [fig 23. 9] portrays two groups of frogs that diverged into many species as a function of continental drift. What may have played a role in these speciation events?
a) Allopatric speciation
b) Adaptation to new environments
c) The different continents caused
d) A and B
If we found another planet with the same exact geologic record, environmental conditions and early life forms, would we expect current biodiversity to be exactly the same on that planet compared to what we see on earth?
No, different mutations would arise in each of the populations of early life which would result in differences in evolution through both selection and drift
After the decrease in biodiversity immediately following mass extinction events does biodiversity tend to increase or
A) tends to increase B) tends to decrease
Which of the following are ”challenges to survival and reproductive" that can lead to the evolution of adaptations?
b. availability of food c. disease
d. climate variability e. All of the above
A biologist named Rookie discovered a living ichthyosaur - previously thought extinct! However, Rookie incorrectly classified the ichthyosaur as a dolphin because their body shape and flippers are very similar. Rookie made the mistake of analogous traits to group organisms the same species! What species concepts did Rookie erroneously try to use in this situation
Which of the following does NOT belong (i.e., has a different meaning)?
You find a eukaryote with a membrane-bound organelle inside its cell. Inside the organelle you find evidence of a nucleus. This observation would suggest that
Mutations related to cell aggregation and specialization appeared within a population and were favored by natural selection
What was NOT a key characteristic of the common ancestor of all life?
It lacked complex compartmentalization and membrane-bound organellesIt contained its DNA in a protected nucleus
Through transcription and translation, its DNA made RNA which then coded for proteins
Which is NOT true about Eukarya?
All of its members have protective cell walls made from peptidoglycanThey arose by the process of endosymbiosis
They have membrane-bound organelles
Which is a true difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Which statement about protists is false?
Which statement about the genomes of prokaryotes is correct?
Prokaryotic chromosomes are sometimes called capsules.
Prokaryotic cells have multiple chromosomes, "packed" with a relatively large amount of histone proteins.
The prokaryotic chromosome is contained within a membrane called the plasmid.
Prokaryotic cells are diploid throughout most of the cell cycle.
The evolution of complex multicellularity in eukaryotes:
occurred only once, in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes
occurred only once, originating in the prokaryotes
occurred independently in several different eukaryotic lineages
occurred only once, in the animal lineage
is not documented by the fossil record
Which is FALSE about endosymbiosis/endosymbiont theory?
It is a symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives inside the body or cell of another organism
It is hypothesized that endosymbiosis accounts for the origin of the eukaryotes
Plastids probably arose form an engulfed cyanobacterium
Only led to the origin of animals and plants, but not single-celled protists
Many lines of evidence support the endosymbiotic origin of mitochondria and plastids
Given the 3 domain system of classification, Prokaryotes are not monophyletic because
Place the following terms in the correct sequence of events in the evolution of life on Earth (from earliest to most recent).
2. Multicellular eukaryotes
5. Plant symbioses with fungi
According to the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells, how did mitochondria originate?
Plants, fungi, and animals all have EUKARYOTIC cells. This is due to:
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of all animals?
They are multicellular
They are heterotrophic (ingest their food)They are all eukaryotes
They may exhibit asymmetry, radial symmetry, or bilateral symmetry
The most recent common ancestor of all animals was probably a:
Which of the following statements about animals is FALSE?
Which is a shared characteristic of all chordates?
Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary adaptation?
All deuterostomes have a coelom.
All deuterostomes are triploblastic and have three tissue layers.
All deuterostomes exhibit radial symmetry in their bodies.
All deuterostomes have a similar pattern of early embryonic development.
Which structure is not an innovation that occurred during vertebrate diversification?
All vertebrates have jaws with which to catch their prey.
The development of an amniotic egg and internal fertilization allowed vertebrates to reproduce away from water.
The development of more efficient surfaces for gas exchange in reptiles stimulated expansion into terrestrial habitats.
Birds are more related to mammals than to dinosaurs.
What is NOT true about all chordates? (you can also use figure 27.10 in your book)
B. They are in the MetazoansC. They are in the Bilateria
The notochord is
B. The primitive umbilical chordC. A homologous characteristic that arose in the chordates
Why is the amniotic egg considered an important evolutionary breakthrough?
Negative feedback control of a system means:
One of the main disadvantages of being an endotherm is:
The primary function of the small intestine is:
The accessory digestive organ that produces enzymes that break down all food groups:
speciation takes place in geographically overlapping populations; can result from the appearance of new ecological niches or different mate-selection preferences
naming and classification of species and groups of species
Taxonomy provides universal names for all biological organisms and is a reference for identification
Systematics refers to the relationships among organisms and evolutionary history of organisms
Which of the following is true of ectotherms?
a. they obtain their heat from the environment
b. they require less energy per unit mass than
c. the group includes reptiles and amphibians
d. they can use behavior to regulate body
e. all of the above are true of ectotherms
How do capillaries facilitate exchange of gases and micronutrients?
a) Material is moving really quickly through them, exchanging gases and micronutrients really fast
b) Capillaries are covered in smooth muscle which helps with diffusion
c) Capillaries are thin in diameter so blood moves through them slowly, facilitating diffusion
d) Capillaries are thick in diameter with large surface area: volume ratios which helps with diffusion
Which of the following is NOT true of bird and mammalian lungs?
a) Bird lungs are more efficient than mammalian lungs
b) Bird lungs use a continuous flow system
c) Mammalian lungs are made up of alveoli
d) Mammalian lungs contain anterior and posterior air sacs
Where does gas and nutrient exchange take place in open vs. closed circulatory systems?
a) Hemolymph exchanges directly with other tissues in open systems, blood exchanges directly with interstitial fluid in closed systems
b) Interstitial fluid exchanges directly with other tissues in open and in closed circulatory systems
c) Hemolymph exchanges directly with other tissues in closed systems, blood exchanges directly with interstitial fluid in open systems
d) Blood exchanges directly with tissues in both open and closed circulatory systems
The difference between T and B cells is:
A. BcellsproduceantibodieswhereasTcellsdo not
B. BcellsattachtoinfectedcellswhereasTcells attach to free-living invaders
C. B cells attach to free-living invaders whereas T cells attach to infected cells
What is true of a secondary immune response?
It is brought about by memory cells.
It is less effective than primary immune response.
It includes a humoral response but not a cell-mediated response.
After it occurs, immune system only responds to reinfection with the same antigen by mounting another primary immune response.
It lasts longer than a primary immune response.
vaccines help the acquired immune system become primed so that it can rapidly respond to an actual attack by a given pathogen. what can we make vaccines out of?
A. components of non-functional viruses
B. components of non-living bacteria
C. toxins produced by bacteria
When a mycelium infiltrates an unexploited source of dead organic matter,
what are most likely to appear within the food source soon thereafter?
Which of the following is NOT a direct function of the cell cycle and mitosis in humans?
B.Repair of damaged tissues
C.Development of organs
D.Production of gametes (eggs or sperm) E.Replacing cells that are old
the division of a diploid cell leading to the eventual production of haploid cells
Which of the following is a common but incorrect idea that doesn’t apply to plant life cycles?
A. Meiosis always involves crossing over
B. Meiosis always produces haploid cells
C. Meiosis reshuffles the genetic material that an individual inherited from his/her parents
D. Meiosis produces eggs and sperm
E. Meiosis has important consequences for evolution due to its role in generating new combinations of alleles
Which of the following is TRUE about meiosis and sexual life cycles?
a)the haploid stage in a sexual life cycle is always just a unicellular gamete
b)meiosis halves the number of chromosomes; fertilization restores the diploid number
c)meiosis is unique to sexually reproducing animals
d)all diploid organisms reproduce strictly sexually
What is a true difference between human and plant life cycles?
A. Human life cycles involve meiosis but not mitosis
B. Plant life cycles involve more rounds of meiosis than human life cycles do
C. Human life cycles involve more rounds of meiosis than plant life cycles do
D. Plant life cycles have more distinct life stages produced by mitosis than human life cycles do
E. Human life cycles have more distinct life stages produced by mitosis than plant life cycles do
If there were no mycorrhizae, then which of the following would be true?