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1. Abiotic (non-living)
shallow waters along shore, where flowing plants are rooted. (litto water)
Offshore, water that receives enough sunlight to suppor photosynthesis
decomposers are common here
contain indicator plants that only grow in saturate soils
swamps and marshes
bodies of water taht move constantly in one direction.
creeks: small streams
rivers: large streams
tend to have fewer types of organisms near source (mostly animals) and more varied types near end (algae, plants, and animals)
extends from intertidale zone to depths of about 200m.
What organisms are most numerous (abundant) on Earth?
To establish a link between a specific bacterium and a skin disease, researchers have shown that bacterium was present in sick persons but not in healthy individuals. They isolated the bacterium in a pure culture and demonstrated that experimental healthy animals injected with this culture became sick. What other experiment do researchers need to perform to be absolutely sure that the bacterium is responsible for the disease?
What is the goal of bioremediation?
Clean up areas polluted with toxic compounds by using bacteria.
Which of the following describe all existing bacteria?
Which are evolutionarily more closely related?
Microbiologists use the Gram stain to aid in the identification of bacteria. What is the major difference between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria?
Multicellularity and large body size of eukaryotic organisms requires high metabolic rates and efficient ATP production by aerobic respiration. How did bacteria change Earth's atmosphere to enable aerobic respiration?
They use different sources of carbon.
The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum grows best as a photoheterotroph. What are the most favorable sources of energy and carbon for this bacterium?
Encouraging the growth (via nutrient fertilization) of photosynthetic protists in marine environments may help reduce global warming. Why?
because photosynthetic protists fix atmospheric carbon dioxide, decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels
Plankton is comprised of photosynthetic protists and bacteria. What is the primary importance of plankton to humans?
Which of the following statements best describes the term synapomorphy?
A particular species of protist has obtained a chloroplast via secondary endosymbiosis. How can you tell?
Imagine there are 25 different species of protists living in a tide pool. Some of these species reproduce both sexually and asexually, and some of them can reproduce only asexually. The pool gradually becomes infested with disease-causing viruses and bacteria. Which species are more likely to thrive in the changing environment?
Alternation of generations occurs in some protists. Which of the following represents the correct sequence of events for this mode of reproduction?
What is necessary in order for symbiosis to occur?
Which of these time intervals, based on plant fossils, came last (most recently)?
Which set contains the most closely related terms?
What two major novelties allowed for the first colonization of terrestrial habitats by plants?
Which of the following innovations is not associated with angiosperm diversification?
Which of the following is true of stomata?
Which of the following is a correct element of alternation of generations?
The vast number and variety of flower species is probably related to various kinds of _____.
The herbicide 2,4-D affects the metabolism of dicots and kills most of them. What is a common feature of plants that are susceptible to 2,4-D?
The presence of which of the following would allow you to place a plant definitively in the Angiosperms rather than the Gymnosperms?
Which of the following is an important role for fungi in the carbon cycle?
Fungi that absorb nutrients from decaying plant matter are called _____.
Fungi have an extremely high surface-area-to-volume ratio. What is the advantage of this to an organism that gets most of its nutrition through absorption?
It has been hypothesized that fungi and plants have a mutualistic relationship because fungi provide critical nitrogen for the plants' use. How do we know this happens?
You observe the gametes of a fungal species under the microscope and realize that they resemble animal sperm. To which of the following group does the fungus belong?
Long, branching fungal filaments are called _____.
A fungal cell has two haploid nuclei. This means it is _____.
This group of fungi has the ability to penetrate its host's cell wall, thus increasing the efficiency with which materials are passed from fungus to host.
Some fungal species can kill herbivores while feeding off of sugars from its plant host. What type of relationship does this fungus have with its host?
Which tissue type, or organ, is not correctly matched with its germ layer tissue?
While looking at some seawater through your microscope, you spot the egg of an unknown animal. Which of the following tests could you not use to determine whether the developing organism is a protostome or a deuterostome?
Which of the following is most likely to be aquatic?
A radula is a specialized feeding organ, used to scrape material off of food for ingestion, much like a cheese grater scrapes shreds off of a block of cheese. Snails, which have this structure, are thus which kind of feeder?
Most fish deposit fertilized eggs, but some sharks keep the fertilized egg inside the female until she gives birth to a relatively well-developed pup. These sharks would thus be characterized as _____.
To reproduce, many plants produce seeds—structures containing embryonic offspring along with nutrients inside a tough case. These offspring develop after being released by the parent plant. To which animal reproductive strategy is seed production most comparable?
Which of the following attributes is true for both arthropod exoskeletons and mollusk shells?
The body cavity type for arthropods and mollusk can best be described as _____.
In adult arthropods, the hemocoel performs which of the following functions?
Which of these mollusk features substitutes for the coelom by providing a space for organ development and circulation of bodily fluids?
When considering the wormlike phyla within the protostomes, which feature is most useful in distinguishing groups?
Here is a statement from the text: "The ability to live in terrestrial environments evolved independently in arthropods (at least twice), mollusks, roundworms, and annelids." What logical conclusion would you make from this statement?
If you wanted to identify an unfamiliar protostome with a limbless, wormlike body, which characteristic would not be helpful in differentiating one species from another?
Which adaptation is unique to insects among all protostomes?
Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates at some point during their life cycle?
How are hemichordates, urochordates, and cephalochordates similar?
You believe that an adult animal you are examining is a vertebrate but concede that it may be an invertebrate chordate. Which of the following would ensure that you are indeed looking at a vertebrate?
What would you expect to happen if the midbrain of a fish became damaged?
How did the development of the jaw contribute to evolutionary diversification of early vertebrate lineages?
What is believed to be the most significant result of the evolution of the amniotic egg?
Which structure of the amniotic egg most closely surrounds the embryo?
Which of the following is found in tetrapods and not in fish?
A virus that has a single strand of RNA which it transcribes into complementary DNA is a _____.
use the host cell's machinery to make more copies of themselves and to make viral proteins
What is difference between an epidemic and a pandemic?
When people die from HIV infections, it is usually because _____.
What is the main structural difference between enveloped and nonenveloped viruses?
Which of the following viruses would be the most likely to have reverse transcriptase?
Some human viruses require a type of replication that human cells do not normally do. For example, humans normally do not have the ability to convert RNA into DNA. How can these types of viruses infect humans, when human cells cannot perform a particular role that the virus requires?
Which type of modified stems are typical of plants that historically have needed to protect themselves from mammalian herbivores?
What is not a function of modified leaves?
Which of these actions describes secondary growth?
The main source of water necessary for photosynthesis to occur in the leaf mesophyll is _____.
Which of these statements is not true about plant sclerenchyma cells?
What is true about all types of plant meristematic cells?
Which of these statements is true about xylem and/or phloem?
What part of the root is responsible for water and nutrient absorption?
Where are the youngest wood and the youngest bark in a tree trunk?
Monocot vascular bundles do not have a vascular cambium between the xylem and phloem. This means that _____.
Wood is an accumulation of _____.
Two lateral meristems in plants are _____.
Girdling is a procedure to kill unwanted tress by cutting a groove into the bark of the tree. The groove must completely encircle the trunk and should penetrate into the wood to a depth of at least 1/2 inch on small trees, and 1 to 1-1/2 inches on larger trees. Why does this procedure cause tree death?
The surface area of a plant's root system is substantially larger than the surface area of its shoot system. Which hypothesis best explains the extensive surface area of roots?
Loss of water from the aerial parts of plants is called _____.
Which of the following cross-membrane transport mechanisms occur without any expenditure of energy by the cell?
Which of the following features of plant cells allows for symplastic movement of water?
Which of the following features of plant cells allows for apoplastic movement of water?
Formation of menisci, such as occur in a tube filled with water, is an important factor in plant water movement. A meniscus is created by _____.
Which of the following observations provides the strongest evidence against root pressure being the principal mechanism of water transport in the xylem?
Which of the following would be expected to contribute to relatively high rates of transpiration?
Which of the following would not be expected to contribute to high rates of transpiration?
Which of the following structural features of plants would not be expected to reduce transpiration?
Which of the following supports the finding that sugar translocation in phloem is an active (energy-requiring) process?
A) Sucrose occurs in higher concentrations in companion cells than in the mesophyll cells where it is produced.
D) H+-ATPases are abundant in the plasma membranes of the mesophyll cells.
Answer: A or D
Which of the following is not a net sink for products of photosynthesis in a deciduous angiosperm tree? (Hint: deciduous trees shed their leaves in the fall and must grow new leaves in the spring.)
While hiking in a forest, you notice an unusual plant growing on the branches of a tree. What will help you to determine if this plant is epiphytic or parasitic?
Both ectomycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia are able to supply plants with usable forms of nitrogen. From what sources do rhizobia and ectomycorrhizal fungi that are associated with plants obtain nitrogen?
What major benefits do plants and mycorrhizal fungi receive from their symbiotic relationship?
What is the primary function of proton pumps localized in the plant plasma membrane?
Which criteria allow biologists to divide chemicals into macronutrients and micronutrients?
Which of the following is not true about an essential nutrient?
Which of the following signals indicates shade to a plant?
In the fall, the leaves of some trees change color. This happens because chlorophyll breaks down and the accessory pigments become visible. What hormone is responsible for this?
B) abscisic acid
Answer: D – causes the chl breakdown; B – causes leaf to drop
Accepted both answers
Which of the following cannot be sensed by plants?
E) none of the above
Also accepted B – only because we didn’t talk about pathogens. Plants are able to sense them, so if you see this question again (hint, hint), remember that!
If cells in the _____ are removed, roots will no longer respond to gravity.
Upon exposure to blue light, plants not only begin to grow toward the light, but move their chloroplasts to the sunny side of each cell. Why would it be advantageous to move chloroplasts within cells?
Suppose a plant had a photosynthetic pigment that absorbed far-red wavelengths of light. In which of the following environments could that plant thrive?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of plant hormones?
You have a small tree in your yard that is the height that you want it, but not as many branches as you want it to be. How can you prune it to trigger it to increase the number of branches?
What do phototropin and ABA have in common?
You buy some fresh fruit at the grocery store. When you get home you are in a hurry, and you put the fresh fruit in the crisper with some overripe fruit. At the end of the week you are disappointed to find that your new fruit has already become overripe. What happened?
Research indicates that certain plants that are adapted to shady habitats do not respond to far-red light by growing taller. Which of the following would be a logical hypothesis for why these plants do not respond to far-red light?.
Mammalian eyes sense light because they contain cells having molecules called opsins, which change structure when exposed to light. Which of the following plant molecule(s) would be analogous to mammalian opsins in their light-sensing ability?
Which of the following correctly identifies the function of the flower part named?
Home flower gardeners in northern latitudes like to grow plants that flower only in the spring or flower only in the late summer and fall. They are planting flowers that are most sensitive to _____.
What is the male gametophyte made of?
Which of these events occurs first in seed germination?
What is an essential part of alternation of generations in plants?
What is the similarity between spores and gametes?
While looking at a flower in your garden, you notice that it has carpels with very long styles and stamens with very short filaments. This plant most likely to reproduce by _____.
What is not true about the carpel of a flower?.
The egg of a plant has a haploid chromosome number of 12 (n = 12). What is true about the number of chromosomes in the cells of other tissues of this plant?
The endosperm has 36 chromosomes.
Angiosperms are unique in having double fertilization that forms endosperm. What is true about double fertilization in angiosperms?
One sperm combines with the egg to form the zygote, and one sperm combines with the polar nuclei to form endosperm.
There are advantages and disadvantages to adaptations. Animals that are endothermic are likely to be at a disadvantage in which of the following environments?
Which one of the following is not a good strategy for increasing the surface area of an object relative to the volume?
When the mammalian brain compares the actual temperature of the body to the preferred temperature of the body, which general component is being used?
An elephant and a mouse are running in full sunlight, and both overheat by the same amount above their normal body temperatures. When they move into the shade and rest, which animal will cool down faster?
Which of the following is a true statement about body size and physiology?
Which term best describes an animal that, although generating a significant amount of heat through metabolism, nonetheless does not maintain a constant body temperature?
Which of the following structural features of epithelial tissues are related to the function of these cells?
A researcher is setting up an experiment to measure basal metabolic rate in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster – a small rodent). Which of the following would be the best set of conditions for the voles immediately before and during the measurement?
Marine vertebrates are _____ to their environment.
What is the function of the shark rectal gland?
A) It is involved in osmoregulation.
D) It concentrates electrolytes necessary for homeostasis in a hypertonic environment.
Answer: A or D
The force driving simple diffusion is _____ while the energy source for active transport is _____.
Terrestrial organisms lose water through evaporation. In what ecosystem might an entomologist find a good study organism to examine the prevention of water loss?
A) concentration of cations
B) concentration of anions
C) concentration of water
D) all of the above
The products of filtration in the renal corpuscle enter the renal tubule through which of the following structures?
The loop of Henle dips into the renal cortex. This is an important feature of osmoregulation in terrestrial vertebrates because _____.
Malpighian tubules form pre-urine, which is further processed by which of the following anatomical structures?
Why are the renal artery and renal vein critical to the process of osmoregulation in vertebrates?
The filtrate formed in the renal corpuscle is analogous to the _____ formed in Malpighian tubules.
A potassium ion gradient is set up in the Malpighian tubules through an active transport process. As a result, potassium concentration is higher in the lumen of the tubules than in hemolymph. How would the potassium gradient affect water movement?
If you found a skull in the woods and the teeth were fang-like, what type of food would you expect this animal to eat?
The chemical digestion of proteins begins in the _____; the major enzyme involved is _____.
When a patient has his gallbladder removed, which of the following food types would a doctor recommend this patient consume in lower quantities?
Over-the-counter medications for acid reflux or heartburn block the production of stomach acid. Which of the following cells are directly affected by this medication?
The active ingredient orlistat acts to decrease the amount of fat that is absorbed by attaching to enzymes that digest fat. Which of the following are potential targets of orlistat?
What is the purpose of the villi and microvilli in the small intestine?
The villi and microvilli increase the surface area to increase the efficiency of nutrient
After a large meal the production of _____ will increase. After fasting the production of _____ will increase.
Which of the following best describes the process of ventilation?
the movement of air through lungs or gills
Why is it more difficult to obtain enough oxygen via respiration from water than from air?
In what way does hemoglobin act as a buffer against changes in blood pH?
You are a physician, and you are seeing a patient who complains of abnormal fatigue during exercise. You find that the immediate problem is a buildup of carbon dioxide in the tissues. What is the most likely cause?
Which of the following mechanisms are used to regulate blood pressure in the closed circulatory system of vertebrates?
A) changing the force of heart contraction
B) constricting and relaxing sphincters in the walls of arterioles
C) adjusting the volume of blood contained in the veins
D) all of the above
Which of the four muscular chambers of the human heart directly propels blood into the pulmonary circulation?
Which of the following mechanisms play(s) a role in regulating heart rate?
The total cross-sectional diameter of the arterial circulation increases with progression from artery to arteriole to capillary, leading to a reduced blood pressure.
Blood is pumped at high pressures in arteries from the heart to ensure that all parts of the body receive adequate blood flow. Capillary beds, however, would hemorrhage under direct arterial pressures. How does the design of the circulatory network contribute to reducing blood pressure to avoid this scenario?
If you experimentally increase the concentration of Na+ outside a cell while maintaining other ion concentrations as they were, what would happen to the cell's membrane potential?
Which of the following statements about action potentials is false?
In multiple sclerosis the myelin sheaths around the axons of the brain and spinal cord are damaged and demyelination results. How does this disease manifest at the level of the action potential?
If twice as many inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) as excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) arrive at a postsynaptic neuron in close proximity, is the integration of signals by the postsynaptic neuron likely to produce an action potential?
Neurotransmitter is released _____.
A large meal is likely to result in activity in which set of nerves?
Deafness caused by loud sounds often results from damage to which receptor cells?
Hair cells in the vertebrate ear are responsible for transducing sound pressure waves. Ion channels in the hair cell membrane open when _____.
A person able to hear only high-frequency sounds would probably have which of the following structural problems in the ear?
When a neurobiologist is interested in determining if an animal can see in color what structures are they looking for in the eye?
Compared to human eyes, the eyes of cephalopods (squid and octopus) _____.
What would happen to people exposed to a chemical agent that blocked acetylcholine from binding to muscle receptors?
A cluster of tumor cells that produces and secretes growth factors to induce surrounding cells to grow and divide are showing which type of cell-to-cell signaling?
If a biochemist discovers a new molecule, which of the following pieces of data would allow her to draw the conclusion that the molecule is a steroid hormone?
A) The molecule is lipid soluble.
B) The molecule is derived from a series of steps beginning with cholesterol.
C) The molecule acts at a target tissue some distance from where it is produced.
D) All of the above would indicate this molecule is a steroid hormone.
Which of these glands is located within the abdominal cavity?
Predict the effects of a drug that increases adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) synthesis.
Which of the following statements correctly describes the relationship between the hypothalamus (H) and the anterior (AP) and posterior (PP) lobes of the pituitary?
Tadpoles must undergo a major metamorphosis to become frogs. This change includes reabsorption of the tail, growth of limbs, calcification of the skeleton, increase in rhodopsin in the eye, development of lungs, change in hemoglobin structure, and reformation of the gut from the long gut of an herbivore to the short gut of a carnivore. Amazingly, all of these changes are induced by thyroxine. What is the most likely explanation for such a wide array of effects of thyroxine?
Which of the following is not an example of asexual reproduction?
In an animal that switches between sexual and asexual reproduction, when is sexual reproduction more likely to occur?
What makes sexually reproduced offspring genetically different from their parents?
On a submarine expedition to the ocean bottom, you discover a population of fish that are only female. What type of reproduction does this fish use?
Which of the following correctly describes a difference between spermatogenesis and oogenesis?
Aquatic animals that rely on external fertilization for reproduction have a low probability of successful fertilization. Which one of the following is not used by aquatic animals to increase the success of external fertilization?
What are the primary functions of gonadal steroids in humans?
You and a friend are in line for a movie when you notice the woman in front of you sneezing and coughing. Both of you have been equally exposed to the woman's virus, but over the next few days, only your friend acquires flu-like symptoms and is ill for almost a week before recovering. Which one of the following is a logical explanation for this?
You cut your finger, and after putting pressure on the wound for several minutes, you notice that it is still bleeding profusely. What may be the problem?
physically trapping pathogens
Lymphocytes are formed in what organ(s)?
Which of the following is true of the humoral immune response and not true of the cell-mediated immune response?
= N x r
The rate of change (increase or decrease) of a population on a per capita basis
Populations increase in size
when average per capita birth rate (natality)
–is greater than average per capita death rate
difference between birth rate and death rate per individual
r = b − d
Intrinsic Rate of Increase ( r max)
K = maximum number of individuals in a population that can be supported in a particular habitat over a sustained period of time; can change depending on conditions
a change in growth rate that occurs as a function of population size (it’s density dependent)
rate should be proportional to (K – N)/K:
logistic growth equation:
DN/Dt = rmaxN((K – N)/K)
Logistic Growth Is Dependent on Population Size
a population of populations
If individuals from a species occupy many small patches of habitat so that they form many independent populations
3.In large forest: metapopulation structure
range of resources that a species is able to use or the range of conditions it can tolerate.
resources a species uses or conditions it tolerates in the absence of competitors
OVER LAP HALF WAY
resources a species uses or conditions it tolerates when competition occurs.
NO OVER LAP
are produced only when prey are threatened
are efficient energetically, but they are slow – it takes time to produce them
predation or disease limits herbivore population sizes
nitrogen limitation, and effective defense are all important factors in limiting the impact of herbivory
Why Is It Important to Understand Disturbance Regimes?
reef-building corals to expel their photosynthetic algae
coral usually dies
6 CO2 +12 H2O (light energy, chlorophyll) → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O → 6 CO2 + 12 H2O + energy (36 to 38 ATP)
What an animal does and how it does it
–usually in response to stimuli in environment
–genetic, developmental, physiological
–permit animal to carry out specific behavior
–answer how questions
–explains why a certain behavior occurs
• Benefits contribute to direct fitness
–animal’s reproductive success
–measured by number of viable offspring
• If benefits outweigh costs, behavior is
• Natural Selection is essentially a cost-
An automatic behavior (or, Fixed Action
–once activated by sensory stimulus, continues
to completion regardless of sensory feedback
• Can be triggered by a specific unlearned
• An animal learns a behavior to receive
positive reinforcement or to avoid
• Important in many natural situations
–(young herring gulls perfecting pecking
behavior to obtain food)
• Basis for most animal training
Establishes a parent–offspring bond during
a critical periodearly in development
–ensuring that offspring recognizes mother
• Process of gaining knowledge
–thinking, processing information, learning,
–awareness of thoughts, perceptions, self
•Periodic long-distance travel from one
location to another
- physiological responses triggered by environmental changes
–benefit of leaving area that seasonally
becomes too cold, dry, depleted of food
–moving to more hospitable area
-time, energy, greater risk of predation
• Requires both compass sense and map
sense(awareness of location)
–Some birds navigate at night using stars as
–Some birds, other animals use Earth’s
magnetic field to navigate
Most efficient strategy for animal to get food
–Animal eats that which give most energy with
least amount of energy invested
–can enhance reproductive success
the defensive behavior
• Occurs when individuals vary in ability to
compete for mates
–a type of natural selection
• Individuals with reproductive advantages
are selected over others of same sex and