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-the smallest entity that displays all characteristics of life
3. All cells are derivd from other cells
-No spontaneous generation
-Protists, plants, fungi, animals
Form bodies of animals, plants, fungi, etc.
Bigger and more complex than prokaryotes
-Ancestral type of cell
-Bacteria and Archaea
To allow fast and efficient movement of molecules in and out of cell.
*Crucial for life. SPEED MATTERS!
A cell must be able to do everything
*Cells have many parts, each of which is responsible for one job.
Combination of structures that produce an internal framework.
Provides support, anchors structures, allows transport within cell
External strands that can move the cell or move things past cells
Produce glucose from sunlight
Rough- with ribosomes, makes proteins
Smooth- no ribosomes, makes lipids
-Occasionally, other tiny rings of DNA (plasmids)
-Neither inside a nucleus
A type of cell taht can divide (produce more stem cells) but is capable of maturing into more than one type of cell.
-Stem cells produce 2 or more types of cells
Eukaryotic cells that can divide
Capable of turning into more than one type of cell
Cells from a very yung embryo are TOTIPOTENT (all powerful)
They can become ANY of the 200+ types of cells in the body
Most promising for research designed to produce needed cells for medical problems
Lots of stem cells throughout adult body- PLURIPOTENT (multiple power)
Limited in what cell types that can become
Removal of cells destorys embryo but they're looking at removal of embryonic cells without destryoying the embryo.
Coax adult stem cells into becoming a wider variety of cell types ofr even turning back into embryonic cells (This could also prevent rejection issues)
Selectively permeable barrier around cell
-Allows correct things in/out of cell
-Prohibits incorrect things from entering/leaving
Flexible and dynamic
-Parts move around within membrane
Promotes communication with other cells
Primary component of membrane is a double layer of phospholipids.
Phosphate containing, hydrophilic(water-loving) "heads"
2 hydrophobic fatty acids "tails" attached (saturated and unsaturated any combo.)
Tails face inward, Heads face outward
Layers restrict movement through membrane
All animal cell membrane have cholesterol molecules
-Provides flexibility to prevent damage
-Brittle cells would break during noraml use
Many types of proteins embedded in membrane
Not anchored-move around membrane as needed
Nutrients (sugars, vitamins)
Gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide)
Cellular products (hormones)
Only very few/tiny, or non-polar molecules pass through phosopholipid bilayer
Large and polar molecules go through transport proteins
Passively (using a concentration gradient)
-No energy required
Actively (against a concentration gradient)
For really big items they use Endocytosis/Exocytosis
Molecules are always in motion
The higher the temperature the faster the molecule moves
Same diffusion- if molecules diffusion across PL bilayer
Facilitated diffusion-if molecules must pass through a transport protein (channel or carrier)
Osmosis- if the molecule difussing is water
When cells have to move molecules against the concentration gradient they use energy to this. Protein calls pumps use ATP to push molecules
(about 30%-40% of our metabolism)
Brings items into cell. Includes:
-receptor-mediate endocytosis (specific molecule only-that match receptor)
-phagocytosis (non-specific large particels)
- potential= stored energy not being used
- kinetic= energy of movement; light, heat, electricity; creates "work"
process that forms or breaks the chemical bonds between atoms through hydrolysis or dehydration synthesis; require activation energy; two types= exergonic and endergonic
reactants (starting) ------> products (ending)
- adenosine triphosphate; 2nd and 3rd carry most energy, when broken, fuel the cell
- most common energy-carrying molecule
- made up of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a phosphate
- ATP= nucleic acid
- enzyme structure is distorted (denatured) and function is destroyed when pH is too high (basic) or low (acidic)
- unfolding of protein= no longer works
- solar energy is trapped and stored as chemical energy in the bonds of sugar (glucose)
- endergonic reaction
- energy+carbon dioxide+water= glucose+oxygen
- two processes= light reactions and calvin cycle
- "photo"= capturing sunlight
- "synthesis"= refers to making glucose
- organelles with a double membrane enclosing a fluid; FLUID; like cytoplasm
- Calvin Cycle occurs here!
- embedded in the stroma; disk-shaped membranous sacs
- light-dependent reaction of photosynthesis
- chlorophyll captures sunlight energy and converts some of it into chemical energy
- stores in the energy-carrying molecules ATP and NADPH
plants have evolved to avoid photorespiration; two types:
1. C4 Pathway= uses special mesophyll and bundle sheath cells to minimize photorespiration (dry environment)
2. CAM= performs different activities based on the time
these plants can be subject to photorespiration during harsh conditions
*REGULAR= PLANT DIES!*
- absorption/ingetion of glucose
- absorption of organic molecules and its converted to glucose
*GLUCOSE MUST BE BROKEN DOWN TO RELEASE ENERGY!*
occurs in two stages:
2. cellular respiration
- splits glucose into two molecules of pyruvate and two molecules of ATP
- glucose ----> 2 pyruvate + 2 ATP
- occurs in cytoplasm
- anaerobic= no oxygen required
- occurs in mitochondria (powerhouse)
- aerobic= requires oxygen
- three steps= Krebs, electron-transport chain, and chemiosmosis
- pyruvate + oxygen ---> 34 or 36 ATP + carbon dioxide + water + heat
EXERGONIC! because it breaks down glucose, freeing its energy
- occurs if there is not enough oxygen
- does not produce ATP
- pyruvate stays in the cytoplasm and converts to either alcohol or carbon dioxide OR to lactate (lactic acid)
*DRIVES CELLULAR RESPIRATION!*
have an unequal distribution of electric charge
"Before the nucleus"
Form bodies of bacteria (simplest forms of life)
In plants and fungi
1. Every living organism is made of one or more cells.
2. The smallest organisms = single cells
3. All cells arise from preexisting cells
1. Must be small
2. Have different structures based on their function
3. Use energy to remain alive
4. Are complex in both structure and function
Function drives structure and vice versa.
Each cell has a unique function.
The shape usually determines what the cell does.
Extensions of the plasma membrane that can move
Cilia usually moves fluid past
A flagellum usually propels a cell
studded with biosomes
Sorts and alters (folds) proteins
Synthesizes some polysaccharides
Packages molecules and sends them to other parts of the cell or out for export
Like a post office
Proteins are modified as htey move through the cell.
Proteins made in rough Er -> travel through Golgi -> then exported through plasma membrane
to carry, store, and support
To carry enzymes
To carry nutrients
-fuse with lysosomes for enxyme digestion
"powerhouse of the cell"
Extracts energy from food and supplies energy to body
Found in both animals and plants
-Have few specialized structures
-Have simple internal structures compared to eukaryotic cells
Which distinguishes cnidarians from other animals?
Cnidarians have cnidocytes, stinging cells that injectpoisonous filaments into prey.
Among myriapods, what differentiates a millipede from a centipede?
Millipedes have more legs
between the organs and the body wall, complex animals have a body cavity called a
lancelete characteristics include:
posses a nerve cord and brain, have segmented muscles, are filter feeders, have a notochored all their life
reptiles are better adapted to land dwelling than amphibians because of their
shell amniote eggs
the major recent problem faced by amphibians includes:
habitat destruction, fungal infection, exposure to UV light, exposure to toxins
Which of the following animal phyla are most closely related?
Echinodermata and chordata
Some fungi are predators (not parasites) on what kind of organism
what class of anthropod is/are terrestrial and has/have 6 legs and three body parts
which phylum has both medusa and polyp stages in tis life cycles
members of this phylum are mostly small, have pseudocoelom and includes heart worms
Worms with a well developed circulatory system, including five pairs of hearts are
the major difference between protostomes and deuterotomes is
which of the following groups included members with amniotic eggs
which pair of invertebrates are most closely related to each other?
cephialization is closely associated with ____ development
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