BIO 1330 Study Guide (2013-14 Chandler)
- Texas State University-San Marcos
- Biology 1330
- BIO 1330 Study Guide (2013-14 Chandler)
Last Modified: 2014-05-01
Related Textbooks:Biology with MasteringBiology™ (8th Edition)
Express the sequence of amino acids using the three-letter abbreviations, separated by hyphens (e.g., Met-Ser-Thr-Lys-Gly).
DNA polymerase is very accurate and rarely makes a mistake in DNA replication. Occasionally, however, an error in replication, known as a point mutation, is introduced. There are two general categories of point mutations—frameshift mutations (also called base-pair insertions or base-pair deletions) and base substitution mutations (shown in the diagram). If a segment of DNA were replicated without any errors, the replicated strand would have the following sequence of nucleotides: 5' - ACTACGTGA - 3'
Sort the following replicated DNA sequences by the type of point mutation each contains (frameshift, base substitution, or neither), as compared to the correct sequence shown above. Sort the items into the appropriate bins.
a.) 5' - ACTTACGTGA - 3'--frameshift (insertion)
b.) 5' - ACTACGTGT - 3'--base substitution
c.) 5' - ACTAAGTGA - 3'--base substitution
d.) 5' - ACTCGTGA - 3'--frameshift (deletion)
When a base substitution mutation occurs, one nucleotide in a replicating DNA sequence is substituted for another, which results in the production of a mutant strand of DNA...Label the four mutated DNA segments shown below according to the type of point mutation each represents. Use the codon table above to determine how each mutation would affect the amino acid coding for each segment.
Drag the labels to their appropriate locations to identify the type of point mutation shown.
C instead of A = silent
T instead of G = nonsense
A instead of G = missense
Extra C = frameshift
What is the likely effect of a silent mutation on an organism?
- chlorophyll capture sunlight energy
- convert it into chemical energy stored in ATP and NADPH
- H2O splits apart and O2 released as a by-product
- carbon fixation
- the synthesis of G3P
- the regeneration of RuBP
- Photoautotrophs- use light as energy source to synthesize organic compounds in plants,algae,some other protist, and some prokaryotes.
- Chemoautotrophs- harvest energy from oxidizing inorganic substances, such sulfur and ammonia. UNIQUE TO PROKARYOTES
double membrane organelle
contains an outer and innermembrane with the intermembrane space between the two
Within theintermembrane space is the stroma
Within this space are thylakoid membranes, contain
the chlorophyll pigment so the thylaloids are green.
Thylakoidsare stacked into granum
Within the thylakoids is the thylakoid space.
2. In the Calvin cycle- Carbon fixation happens: fixed carbon is reduced with electrons provided by NAPH
2nd: Calvin Cycle reactions- produce sugar from CO2 (light independent)
- Phtoreactive, isoprene based pigment
- Mg in place of iron at the center
- long chain phytol group confers membrane solubility
- MAIN PIGMENTS IN MOST PHOTOAUTOTROPHS
- Chlorophyll A- absorbs more red wavelength (around 600-700nm)
- Chlorophyll B- Absorbs more blue (400-500nm)
- BOTH TRANSMIT GREEN LIGHT
- absorb blue-violet and blue green
- Reflect red,yellow,orange wavelengths
- 2 types:
- Carotenes= pure hydrocarbons
- Xanthophylls= contain oxygen
- lutein (yellow) found in plants
red wavelengths are the most effective for photosynthesis
- has reaction center chlorophyll a= absorption spectrum peak at 700nm
- reaction center chlorophyll a- absorbtion peak at 680nm
- Photoautotorphs - uses energy from the light (sun) and CO2 as a source of Carbon
- Chemoautotrophs: energy is inorganic chemicals and CO2 is the source of Carbon
1.G1 (cell Growth)(interphase)
2. S phase ( DNA replication)(interphase)
3. G2 ( Prep for division cell growth)(interphase)
4. M phase (division of chromasones) (mitosis)
5. cytokinesis (division of cytoplasim)(mitosis)
Mitotic phase: Nuclear Cell division.
A: G1, Non-dividing cells exit cell cycle.
B: G1 Checkpoint, At this point, the cell commits to go through the cycle.
C: S, DNA replicates
D: G2, Centrosome replicates
E: M, Mitotic spindle begins to form
F: M Checkpoint, Cell divides, forming two daughter cells
what is it?
where does it occur?
occurs in the nucleus: starts at the orign of replication where the two strands are separated
- corrects distortion of helix
- ex: T-T dimers from UV radiation
- UVrABC endonuclease, encoded by 3 genes (uvrA,B,C). cuts on both sides of damaged area.
- results in release of a 12 nucleotide ssDNA segment containing the damaged bases.
- The ssDNA gap is filled by polymerase I
- DNA ligase joins the fragments
- process whereby information coded in the base sequence of DNA is transcribed into a strand of mRNA, rRNA or tRNA (similar process to DNA replication)
- occurs in the nucleus
-store genetic info in DNA
Translation occurs in the _____.
Which of these is a tRNA?
the ribosome reaches the "stop" codon, there is no corresponding transfer RNA, instead a small protein called a "release factor" attaches to the stop codon.
The release factor cases the whole complex to fall apart: messenger RNA the two ribosome subunits the new polypeptide
The messenger RNA can be translated many times to produce many protein copies.
- 6CO2 is reduced to glucose
- 6H2O is oxidized to 6O2
- cell shrinks
- DNA breaks up and chromatin condenses
- the nucleus breaks up into condensed chromatin
- development of "blebs" which break into membrane-bound vesicles
- Vesicles are phagocytized by macrophages
Example: destruction of webs of skin between fingers and toes of the fetus
- Each nucleotide consists of
- Deoxyribose (5-carbon sugar)
- Phosphate group
- A nitrogen-containing base.
- phosphates on outside
- nitrogen bases on inside
- bound by hydrogen bonds between AT CG
- A-T: 2 H Bonds
- C-G: 3 H Bonds
- hydrophobic interactions of bases contributes to stability
- Breaking of the peptide bond, polypeptide unfolds and loses its shape. It is ineffective as an enzyme
- Heat, acids, enzymes, heavy metals, and alcohol may denature proteins
- Definition: Given a specific DNA, at a defined concentration, the temp at which 50% of the molecules are single stranded.
- 8-10 degree range
- This is melting BUT NOT related to Tm:
- Bubble formed between DNA strands
Mechanism of DNA replication
Mendelson-Staahl – used nitrogen 15 to separate whether or not semi-conservative or conservative
- early prophase I, Late prophase I, metaphase I, Anaphase I, telophase I and cytokinesis
- Prophase II, Metaphase II, anaphase II, telophase II and cytokenesis
- Both have DNA replication
- Mitosis: every cell of your body. 2 cells produces - 46 chromosomes.
- Meiosis: Egg/sperm. 4 cells produced. 23 chromosomes. Random assortment.
- nuclear membrane forms
- each chromosome still consists of sister chromatids jointed at the centromere
- cells are haploid
- cell divids via cytokinesis = 2 daughter cells
- nutrients sufficient
- growth factors present
- adequate cell size
- dna undamaged * mature cells do not pass this point
- attached at centromere, contains attachment site: kinetochore
G2: chromosome rep. completed, and no DNA damaged
Mitosis: division of nucleus
Cytokinesis: division of cytoplasm
tumor suppressor gene
- Proto-oncogene: unmutated gene involved in growth signaling pathways
- Oncogene- mutated form of normalcellular genes involved in growth signaling pathways
- apoptosis: programedcell death by blebs. Phagocytes ingest cell so to not release any toxins
- Necrosis: happens if cell is physically damaged- traumaticcell death by bursting
- Tumor Suppressor Gene: regulates apoptosis
- P53: stops theformation of tumaros
sister chromatids and non-sister chromatids
- chromosome: densly packed DNA molecules
- chromatin: complex of DNA associated with protein
- chromatid: 1 of the two identical DNA molecules joined by a centromere
- monad: A single-celled microorganism, especially a flagellate protozoan of the genus Monas
- diad:a pair of sister chromatids
- tetrad:A four-part structure that forms during the prophase of meiosis and consists of two homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids.
- Miescher and nuclein
- griffith and the transformation experiment
- avery,macleod,mcarty, and the transforming principle
- hershey and chases experiments
- rosalind franklins work
- watson and crick model
- isolated an organic acid that was high in phosphorus and called it nuclein- now DNA
- Attempting to develope vaccine- issolated two strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae
- roughstrain was harmless
- smooth starin was pathogenic
- harmless R cells can be transformed by material from dead s cells to be harmful
- DNA, not protein, transform Bacteria
- Radioactive sulfur labeled proteins and radioactive phosphorus labeled DNA
- *DNA was inside the bacterium
- Last two= structure of DNA, Rosalind actually proved double helix
- Deoxyribose (5-carbon sugar)
- Phosphate group
- a nitrogen containing base
- 4 bases: adenine, thymine &guanine,cytosine
- * review the strcuture of each one in notes
- melting temperature
- melting of doublestarnded DNA to generate two singleDNA strands- breaking of h bonds btw bases in the duplex, 80+C
- when temp id lowered the strands come back together
- temperature at which 50%of DNA molecule is in a duples
- leading strand
- lagging strand
- okazaki fragments
- each 2 stranded daughter molecule is only half new
- leading strand is toward replication fork
- lagging strand is away from replication fork
- discontinuous synthesis produces 5'-3' segments of Dna called okazaki frgaments
- every 100-200 base pairsanothers primer must be set.
1st repleciation created in the 14N medium produced band of hybrid- eliminating the conservative model
2nd replication produced both light and hybrid DNA-eleiminating the dispersive model
-the gametes fuse with other gametes to form the zygote and restore the diploid number
-the haploid spores germinate to form a new haploid gametophyte plant
-Adenine --> Uricil (NOT thymine)
-Guanine --> Cytosine
- mRNA- messenger; carries protein-building instruction
- rRNA- ribosomal; Major component of ribosomes
- tRNA- transfer; Delivers amino acids to ribosomes
- snRNA-small nuclear; components for the spiceoseome
secondary=stems and loops
tertiary and quaternary= varies
In eukaryotes, each time of RNA undergoes post-transcriptional processing and post-transcriptional processing allows for additional gene regulation
- have large and small subunits, both containing rNA molecules and protein
- can be attached to the rough ER or free in the cytosol
- p site
- e site
- a site
- large subunit
- small subunit
- mRNA binding site
polyribosomes- multiple ribosomes that can translate a single mRNA molecule simultaneously
they enable a cell to make many copies of a polypeptide very quickly
2 types of ribosomes:
1) free ribosomes (cytosol) - mostly synthesize proteins that function in cytosol
2) bound ribosomes (ER) - make proteins of the endomembrane systen and that are secreted from the cell
-Ribosomes are identical, can swith from free to bound
Can alter the way introns and exons are excised and spliced, change the promoter of a gene, resulting in altered gene expression, or alter the nature and stability of the header of the mRNA transcript
-Digitation fetus hands
-killing infected cells
agene that normally inhibits a function that promotes cancerformation (ie. growth), but homozygous inactivation results incancer development (recessive)
secondary= structure of DNA in the double helix
Hydrogen bonds form between nitrogenous bases of two strands.
2 hydrogen bonds between T and A
3 hydrogen bonds between G and C
AT: 2 BONDS
GC: 3 BONDS
- Double stranded
- Sugar phosphate backbone
- Bases on the inside
- Stabilized by hydrogen bonding
- Base pairs with specific pairing
- determined by Watson & Crick
- shift reading frame
- insertion- positive shifts to reading frame
- deletions- negative shifts to reading frame
- Prevent H-bonds from reforming
- Prevent single-stranded DNA from being cleaved
(a point mutation)
- silent mutation- does not change which amino acid is incorporated
(a point mutation)
arise from a base change that causes the incorporation of a different amino acid
(a point mutation)
arises from the formation of a termination codon
Difference between oogenesis and spermatogenesis
- due to the differences in gametes
- oogenesis: eggs are large and immobile
- spermatogenesis- sperm are small and mobile.
oogeneis starts and results in 1; spermatogenesis starts and ends with 4.
- prokaryotes- no modifications, a single mRNA contains the info for synthesis of many proteins, translation begins before transcription is completed; transcription and translation at the same time
Region that tells the polymerase where elongation (and thus transcription) should conclude.
If you ran the same experiment as Engelmann without passing light through a prism, what would you predict?