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What is the difference between a benign and a malignant tumor
Benign tumors do not metastasize; malignant tumors do.
Regulatory proteins that serve to prevent a cell from entering the S phase under conditions of DNA damage are also known as _____
Why are fermentation reactions important for cells?
They regenerate NAD+so that glycolysis can continue to operate.
Asexual reproduction takes place by which of the following processes
How are the light-dependent and light-independent reactions ofphotosynthesis related?
The products of light-dependent reactions are used in light-independent reactions.
glycolysis, the Kreb's cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation
The mitotic spindle is a microtubular structure that is involved in _____.
What happens when MPF (mitosis-promoting factor) is introduced into immature frog oocytes that are
arrested in G2?
The cells enter mitosis.
Some cells have several nuclei per cell. How could such multinucleated cells be explained?
The cell underwent repeated mitosis, but cytokinesis did not occur
Homologous chromosomes _____.
carry information for the same traits
Chromatin consists of ______.
DNA and protein
The summary equation for photosynthesis is
6 CO2+ 6 H2O + sunlight → C6H12O6 + 6 O2.
Crossover, the exchange of segments of homologous chromosomes, takes place during which of the
The chemiosmotic hypothesis is an important concept in our understanding of cellular metabolism in
general because _____.
it explains how ATP is synthesized by a proton motive force
Centromeres split and sister chromosomes migrate to opposite poles in _____.
Chlorophylls absorb light in which colors of the visible range?
blue and red
Homologous chromosomes are separated during _____.
Which of the following would enable you to detect aneuploidy?
In the snailPomacea patula catemacensis n = 13. What is the diploid number for this organism?
A duplicated chromosome consists of two ______.
Oxidation is the ________, and reduction is the ________.
loss of electrons . . . gain of electrons
If meiosis produces haploid cells, how is the diploid number restored for those organisms that spend
most of their life cycle in the diploid state?
The electron transport chain _____.
is a series of redox reactions
At what stage of meiosis does DNA replication take place?
None. DNA replication occurs before meiosis I begins.
Metaphase occurs prior to the splitting of centromeres. It is characterized by _____.
aligning of chromosomes on the equator
Genetic recombination takes place in which of the following processes?
The M-phase checkpoint is designed to make sure all chromosomes are attached to the mitotic spindle. If
this fails to happen, in which stage of mitosis would the cells be most likely to arrest?
The microtubule-organizing center found in animal cells is an identifiable structure present during all
phases of the cell cycle. Specifically, it is known as which of the following?
One difference between mitosis and meiosis is ______
mitosis produces cells genetically identical to the parent cell, but meiosis does not
CO2 enters and O2 escapes from a leaf via
What happens when an individual has an odd number of chromosome sets (e.g., triploidy
Their offspring are often sterile
A parent cell divides to form two genetically identical daughter cells in the process of mitosis. For mitosis
to take place _____.
the parent cell must first replicate its entire genome
What is the final result of mitosis?
genetically identical 2n somatic cells
Nerve cells lose their ability to undergo mitosis; they arrest. Instead, they are permanently stuck in _____.
Meiosis involves the creation of haploid cells from diploid cells. The haploid chromosome number is
created when _____.
homologous chromosomes separate
Substrate-level phosphorylation occurs within a metabolic pathway where sufficient energy is released
by a given chemical reaction to drive the synthesis of ATP from ADP and phosphate. In which of the
following metabolic pathways is substrate-level phosphorylation exhibited?
in both glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
Which of the following events takes place in the electron transport chain?
the extraction of energy from high-energy electrons remaining from glycolysis and the Krebs cycle
Where is chlorophyll found in a plant cell?
If pigments from a particular species of plant are extracted and subjected to paper chromatography,
which of the following is the most believable result?
Paper chromatography would separate the pigments from a particular plant into several bands.
Chromosomes and their homologues align at the equator of the cell during _____.
The light reactions occur in the ________, while the Calvin cycle occurs in the ________.
thylakoid membranes . . . stroma
Chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual are called ______.
The overall equation for the cellular respiration of glucose is
C6H12O6+ 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy.
What is a major difference between mitosis and meiosis I?
Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, and homologues separate in meiosis I.
For the duration of meiosis I, each chromosome is _____.
two sister chromatids joined by a centromere
Which of the following statements regarding cellular respiration isfalse?
Cellular respiration is a single chemical reaction with just one step.
Which of the following metabolic pathways is common in aerobic and anaerobic metabolism?
Mitosis is the process of chromosome separation. Cytoplasm is divided between the two daughter cells in
a process known as _____.
Which of the following statements most accurately compares photosynthesis and respiration?
Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules; respiration releases the energy
stored in complex organic molecules.
What is difference between an epidemic and a pandemic?
An epidemic is restricted to a local region; a pandemic is more global.
What is the correct order for the steps in signal transduction?
reception, processing, response, deactivation
use the host cell's machinery to make more copies of themselves and to make viral proteins
Which of the following statements about quorum sensing is not accurate?
Quorum sensing is particularly well studied because of its importance in understanding
interactions between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
Will treating a viral infection with antibiotics affect the course of the infection?
No; antibiotics do not kill viruses because viruses use host proteins to replicate and antibiotics
affect bacterial proteins.
The nucleoid region of a prokaryotic cell
contains the cell's DNA.
Microbiologists use the Gram stain to aid in the identification of bacteria. What is the major difference
between Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria?
presence or absence of outer plasma membrane (LPS)
The Golgi apparatus
stores, modifies, and packages proteins
Protein kinase is an enzyme that _____.
activates or inactivates other proteins by adding a phosphate group to them
The function of chloroplasts is
Which of the following accurately represents how intermediate filaments differ from actin filaments and
Only intermediate filaments play a purely structural role.
Which of the following statements regarding cells is false?
All cells have a cell wall.
Plasmodesmata are cell-cell junctions that are found between _____.
adjacent plant cells
What is the main structural difference between enveloped and nonenveloped viruses?
Enveloped viruses have a phospholipid membrane outside their capsid, whereas nonenveloped
viruses do not.
Which of the following cell structures is associated with the breakdown of harmful substances or
substances that are no longer needed by the cell?
Which of the following best describes the nuclear envelope?
It is continuous with the endomembrane system.
For a tissue or an organ to function as a unit, _____.
there must be cell-cell communication among the cells within a tissue or organ
What does it mean to say that a signal is transduced?
The physical form of the signal changes between the outside of the cell and the inside.
Spherocytosis is a human blood disorder associated with a defectivecytoskeletal protein in the red blood
cells (RBCs). What do you suspect is the consequence of such a defect?
abnormally shaped RBCs
What is the goal of bioremediation?
Clean up areas polluted with toxic compounds by using bacteria.
The virus genome and viral proteins are assembled into virions during _____.
the lytic cycle only
Relaying a message from a membrane receptor to a molecule that performs a specific function within a
cell is called
Why is the smooth endoplasmic reticulum unable to synthesize proteins?
because it has no ribosomes
The membranous compartmentalization of a cell
allows different metabolic processes to occur simultaneously.
Researchers have found a new type of bacteria, and they want to determine its phylum. What would be
the most reliable method to do so?
Determine the ribosomal RNA sequence of the bacteria.
Hormones are chemical substances produced in one organ that are released into the bloodstream and
affect the function of a target organ. For the target organ to respond to a particular hormone, it must
have receptors that recognize and bind the hormone molecule
Which of the following statements represents a major difference between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic
Eukaryotic cells tend to have much more extensive inner membrane systems and larger numbers
of intracellular organelles than do prokaryotes.
Integrins are integral membrane proteins. They are often attached to _____.
cytoskeletal proteins and proteins in the extracellular matrix
The endosymbiosis hypothesis proposes that
a small cell lived inside a larger cell to the benefit of both cells.
Of the following, where would you expect to find tight junctions?
in the epithelium of an animal’s stomach
HIV is inactivated in the laboratory after a few minutes of sitting at room temperature; the flu virus is still
active after sitting for several hours. What are the practical consequences of these findings?
HIV can be transmitted from person to person by sexual contact or injection of infected blood
products; the flu virus can be transmitted from person to person by contact with a contaminated
surface as well as by direct physical contact.
Bacteria and Archaea are most easily distinguished from each other by their _____.
cell wall composition
What does reverse transcriptase do?
It synthesizes DNA from RNA.
Not all intercellular signals require transduction. Which one of the following signals would be processed
a lipid-soluble signal
To establish a link between a specific bacterium and a skin disease, researchers have shown that
bacterium was present in sick persons but not in healthy individuals. They isolated the bacterium in a
pure culture and demonstrated that experimental healthy animals injected with this culture became sick.
What other experiment do researchers need to perform to be absolutely sure that the bacterium is
responsible for the disease?
Isolate bacterium from an infected sick animal and demonstrate that it is the same bacterium as
the one used for infection.
What do Bacteria have in common with Archaea but not with Eukarya?
absence of nucleus
Which are evolutionarily more closely related?
What is a major difference between the extracellular matrix (ECM) of a plant cell and the ECM of an
Plant ECM is primarily carbohydrate in nature, whereas animal ECM is mainly proteins.
One characteristic of life and living systems is that they are able to adapt. Toward this end, cells interact
with other cells and their environment through the action of their _____.
What is the function of the middle lamella in plant cells?
It allows adjacent cells to adhere to one another.
The receptors for steroid hormones are located inside the cell, instead of on the membrane surface like
most other signal receptors. Why is this not a problem for steroids?
because steroid hormones are lipid soluble so can readily diffuse through the lipid bilayer of the
The ________ of a mitochondrion is/are an adaptation that increases the surface area and enhances a
mitochondrion's ability to produce ATP.
Which one of the following would you fail to find in a prokaryote?
Which of the following supports the argument that viruses are nonliving?
The process of a white blood cell engulfing a bacterium is
Which of the following statements would best describe a cell that has an extensive area ofsmooth
It synthesizes large quantities of lipids.
It lacks a nuclear localization signal (NLS).
The function of mitochondria is
You just discovered a new virus. This virus infects heart muscle, where it causes inflammation. This virus
has a very high mutation rate. Which of the following is the best strategy for finding a treatment for this
Identify the receptor this virus uses and develop an enzyme that blocks the receptor
Of the following, which is earliest
step in the scientific process?
Which of the following mechanisms best describes the manner in whichlysozyme
Fatty acids with double bonds between carbons are said to be
Changes in DNA sequence from one generation to the next may result in offspring that are altered in fitness compared with their parents. The process of change and
Which of the following
neurodegenerative disorders as Alzheimer’s, Hntington’s, and Creutzfield-Jacob disease.
What is the ultimate fate of these disease-causing, misfolded proteins.
what name is given to the following reaction
galactose+ glucose -> lactose +water
varying the types of sugar monomers, linkages, and # of branches
ALL OF THE ABOVE
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