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What is the chromosome theory of inheritance?
What is a genotype?
Genotype: Alleles found in individuals…. Genotype= Genetic
What is a phenotype?
Phenotype: Individuals observable features… Phenotype= Physical
What are alleles?
Different versions of a gene→ responsible for variation in traits
What is a mutation?
What is incomplete dominance? What is an example?
One allele for trait is not completely dominant over other allele… Intermediate phenotype.
A kind of dominance occurring in heterozygotes in which the dominant allele is only partially expressed, and usually resulting in an offspring with an intermediate phenotype. Mixing the red snapdragon with a white snapdragon to produce a pink snapdragon
What is DNA polymerase?
What is the origin of replication?
Leading strand vs. lagging strand?
a) The leading strand, which is also known as the continuous strand is the enzyme’s product because it leads into the replication fork and is synthesized continuously in the 5’-> 3’ direction.
b) The lagging strand is the other DNA strand and it is synthesized discontinuously in the direction away from the replication fork (so it lags behind the fork). It does this because DNA synthesis must proceed in the 5’-> 3’ direction
What is gene expression?
What is gene expression?
Gene expression is the process of translating the information in DNA into functioning molecules within the cell.
What is a gene?
A gene is a specific stretch of DNA that contains the information to specify the amino acid sequence of one protein.
What is the central dogma?
The central dogma summarizes the flow of information in cells, it states that DNA codes for RNA which codes for proteins. It also says that an organism’s genotype is determined by the sequence of bases in its DNA while its phenotype is a product of the proteins it produces.
What are codons?
Codons are groups of three bases that specifies a particular amino acid.
What is the genetic code?
What is transcription?
Transcription is the process by which the hereditary information in DNA is copied to RNA
What is translation?
What are some exceptions to the Central Dogma?
Exceptions to the Central Dogma are the many genes that code for RNA molecules that do not function as mRNAs and are not translated into proteins. Instead these other RNAs perform important functions in the cell.
What are 4 important properties of the genetic code?
a) It is redundant. -All amino acids except two are encoded by more than one codon codon.
b) It is unambiguous.- One codon never codes for more than one amino acid.
c) It is nearly universal. - With a few minor exceptions, all codons specify the same amino acids in all organisms.
d) It is conservative. - The first two bases are usually identical when multiple codons specify the same amino acid
substitution- a substitution is a mutation that exchanges one base for another
Insertion- insertion are mutations in which extra base pairs are inserted into a new place in the DNA.
deletion-mutation in which a section of DNA is lost or deleted
What is a TATA box?
many of the eukaryotic promoters include a unique sequence, centered about 30 base pairs upstream of the transcription start site.
What are exons?
Exons are the parts of the gene that will represent the codons for creating the protein.
What are introns?
What do ribosomes do?
Ribosomes catalyze translation of the mRNA sequence into protein.
Transcription vs. translation
Transcription is the synthesis of RNA from a DNA template where the code in the DNA is converted into a complementary RNA code.
Translation is the synthesis of a protein from an mRNA template where the code in the mRNA is converted into an amino acid sequence in a protein
What is a tRNA?
The adapter mc. was later found to be a small RNA called tRNA.
What is a ribozyme?
ribozyme is rRNA catalyzes peptide bond formation and the ribosome.
What is constitutive?
constitutive gene expression means it is "always" expressed.
What is chromatin?
What is a nucleosome?
What is differential gene expression?
Differential gene expression is responsible for creating different cell types, arranging them into tissues, and coordinating their activity to form the multicellular society we call an individual.
What are regulatory sequences?
What are enhancers?
What are silencers?
1. genes that stop or slow the cell cycle, and 2. genes that trigger cell growth and division by initiating specific phases in the cell cycle.
What are plasmids?
a genetic structure in a cell that can replicate independently of the chromosomes, typically a small circular DNA strand in the cytoplasm of a bacterium or protozoan. Plasmids are much used in the laboratory manipulation of genes.
A restriction enzyme is an enzyme that cuts DNA at or near specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites.
What are transgenic animals?
one that carries a foreign gene that has been deliberately inserted into its genome.
What is pyrosequencing?
Method of DNA sequencing based on the "sequencing by synthesis" principle
What is bioinformatics?
What are transposable elements?
DNA sequence that can change its position within the genome, sometimes creating or reversing mutations and altering the cell's genome size
What would we use DNA fingerprinting for?
What is a use for DNA microarrays?
Gene expression profiling, alternative splicing detection, gene ID
Genomics: The study of an organism's genome and the use of its genes
Proteomics: The study of the full set of proteins encoded by a genome.Proteomics is far more complex
Put the steps of the process of signal transduction in the order they occur:
1. A conformational change in the signal-receptor complex activate a protein.
2. A signal molecule is released from the source
3. A signal molecule binds to a receptor.
4. Target proteins are phosphorylated leading to amplification and cellular response.
5. Second messenger molecules are released.
Which of thefollowing statements about the electron transport chain is true?
a. Electrons arereceived from NADH and FADH2.
b. Electrons arepassed from donor to recipient carrier molecules in a series ofoxidation–reduction reactions.
c. Usually theterminal electron acceptor is oxygen.
d. Most of theenzymes are part of the inner mitochondrial membrane.
e. All of the above
How are the light- dependent and independent reactions of photosynthesis related?
A) Products of the light- independent reactions are used in the light- dependent reactions.
B) Products of light- dependent reactions are used in light- independent reactions.
C) Products of light- dependent reactions must be present for light- dependent reactions to take place
D) They are not related.
28. The experimental determination of the effectiveness of light of different colors in promoting
photosynthesis is called the:
A) absorption spectrum.
B) action spectrum.
C) difference spectrum.
D) reflectance spectrum.
As electrons are passed through the system of electron carriers associated with photosystem II, they lose energy. What happens to this energy?
A. it excites electrons of the reaction center of photosystem II.
B. It is lost as heat.
C. It is used to establish and maintain a proton gradient which ultimately drives the ATP synthesis
D. It is used to phosphorylate NAD+ to NADH, the molecule that accepts electrons from Photosystem II.
Put the following steps of DNA replication in chronological order.
1. Single-stranded binding proteins attach to DNA strands.
2. hydrogen bonds between base pairs of antiparallel strands are broken.
3. Primase binds and creates an RNA primer.
4. DNA polymerase binds to the template strand.
Fewer different tRNA molecules exist than might have been expected for the complexity of its function. This is possible because
Organelle = mitochondria
Cellular respiration = the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into ATP, and then release waste products.
Is a hypothesis and a prediction the same? If not, what’s the difference?
A hypothesis is a proposed explanation for a set of observations. A prediction is something that can be measured and should be correct if the hypothesis is valid.
A phylogenetic tree reflects relationships between species. Branches that share a recent common ancestor represent species that are closely related; branches that don’t share recent common ancestors represent species that are more distantly related
Organisms are categorized by their rRNA sequences. There are three Domains. What are they? How many Domains are prokaryotes? How many are eukaryotes?
The three domains are Eukarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. Both Bacteria and Archaea are prokaryotes. The domain Eukarya are eukaryotes.
What are the makings of a good experiment?
Primary: sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. Stabilized by peptide bonds.
Secondary: formation of alpha-helices and beta-pleated sheets in a poly-peptide. Stabilized by hydrogen bonds between groups along the peptide bonded backbone.
Tertiary: Overall 3d shape of a polypeptide (includes contribution from secondary structures) and is stabilized by bonds and other interactions between R-groups.
Quaternary: Shape produced by combinations of polypeptides (thus is a combination of the tertiary structures) and is stabilized by bonds and other interactions between R-groups.
Have an understanding of competitive inhibition and allosteric regulation.
-Competitive Inhibition: occurs when a molecule similar in size and shape to the substrate competes with the substrate for access to the active site.
-Allosteric Regulation: occurs when a molecule causes a change in enzyme shape by binding to the enzyme at a location other than the active site. This can activate or deactivate the enzyme.
What are purines and pyrimadines?
Nucleotides, as well as proteins, are written in a specific order. What is it for each macromolecule?
nucleotide- 5’ to 3’
proteins- N’terminal to C’ terminal
How does DNA replicate?
DNA replication requires two steps: 1. separation of the double helix, and 2. hydrogen bonding of deoxyribonucleotides with complementary bases on the original template strand, followed by the phosphodiester bond formation to form the complementary strand.
Process for DNA Forming its template for synthesis: 1. strand separation, 2. base-pairing with template, 3. polymerization.
What are glycoproteins?
-Polysaccharides display information on the outer surface of cells in the form of glycoproteins - proteins joined to carbohydrates by covalent bonds.
-Glycoproteins are key molecules in cell-cell recognition and cell-cell signalling. Each cell in the human body has glycoproteins on its surface that identify it as part of the body.
Triglycerides – margarine
Steroids – cholesterol
Phospholipids - Phospholipid bilayer of the cellular membrane.
What does amphipathic mean?
Know the difference between diffusion and osmosis!
Diffusion = the net movement of a substance from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. This is also referred to as the movement of a substance down a concentration gradient.
Osmosis = the tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.
Cells are divided into prokaryotes and eukaryotes. What are some differences and similarities among them?
- prokaryotes do not have a nucleus, eukaryotes do
- prokaryotic cells lack some organelles and eukaryotic cells do not.
- prokaryotic cells are not found in humans and eukaryotic cells are.
- prokaryotic cells are always unicellular and eukaryotic cells are often multicellular.
- prokaryotic cells reproduce/divide by binary fission and eukaryotic cells reproduce/divide by mitosis/meiosis
What is a virus? Are viruses alive? If not, why are they not considered living?
An infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy, and is able to multiply only within the living cells of a host.
Alive? = Current understanding states that viruses are not living entities in their own right and that they must infect a host cell in order to generate copies. they can’t accomplish many of the major of functions of life on their own outside of the host cell.
Epidemic = a widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time.
Pandemic = (of a disease) prevalent over a whole country or the world.
(ECM) is the extracellular part of multicellular structure (e.g., organisms, tissues, biofilms) that typically provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
Most common = Collagens are the most abundant protein in the ECM.
Purpose = provide support, segregate tissues from one another, and regulate intercellular communication.
Cells communicate through their own language of chemical signals. Different compounds, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, act like words and phrases, telling a cell about the environment around it or communicating messages.
1. cell to cell recognition
A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other on a surface. These adherent cells are frequently embedded within a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substance.
2. Transition Reaction
3. KREBS Cycle
4. Electron Transport chain
What is metabolism? Know the difference between anabolic and catabolic reactions.
Metabolism = the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Anabolic = The phase of metabolism in which complex molecules, such as the proteins and fats that make up body tissue, are formed from simpler ones.
Catabolic = Biochemical reactions that break down molecules in metabolism. Molecules may be broken down to gain their energy or to prepare them for disposal from the body.
Photosynthesis is the process of using sunlight to produce carbohydrate. This process requires sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water, and produces oxygen as a by-product. This occurs in the chloroplasts.
What is the difference in genomics and functional genomics?
Genomics is the scientific effort to sequence, interpret, and compare whole genomes. Genomics provides a list of the genes present in an organism. Functional genomics looks at when those genes are expressed and how their products interact.
What is meant by shotgun sequencing?
Method used for sequencing long DNA strands. In this process, the genome is broken up into sets of overlapping fragments that are sequenced, and these sequences are then put in order.
What are ORFs?
Again, know what homologous means!!!!
What is lateral gene transfer? Is there evidence for this?
What are some products of DNA technology? How are we using science for our benefit?
cDNA library, DNA probe; mass production of the human growth hormone to treat children with pituitary dwarfism
Gene therapy – is it a reality?
Gene therapy is highly experimental, extremely expensive & intensely controversial Although gene therapy holds great promise for the treatment of a wide variety of devastating inherited diseases, fulfilling that promise is almost certain to require many years of additional research and testing, as well as the refinement of legal and ethical guidelines.
At what levels can gene expression be controlled in bacteria? In eukaryotes?
What is the difference between negative and positive transcriptional control?
Negative control occurs when a regulatory protein binds to DNA and shuts down transcription. Positive control occurs when a regulatory protein binds to DNA and triggers transcription.
Why is alternative splicing important? Does this happen in eukaryotes or prokaryotes?
Alternative splicing leads to production of different proteins( take gene to put different location to get different protein. It happens in eukaryotes because alternative splicing happens while the RNA is still in the nucleus before it is transported to the cytoplasm.
What is an operon? Are these found in prokaryotes or eukaryotes?
operon is a set of coordinately regulated bacterial genes that are transcribed together into one mRNA. thought only to be in prokaryotes but have been discovered in eukaryotes
Know some differences/similarities between regulating gene expression in bacteria and eukaryotes. Table 18.1 (4th edition) or 19.1 (5th edition).
Template vs. non-template strand
Template strand: RNA polymerase perform the synthesis of mRNA by transcribing only one strand of DNA.
Non-template strand: The other DNA strand which matches the sequence of the mRNA, except that RNA has U in place of thymine
What is meant by semiconservative?
Semiconservative replication describes the mechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells
What are promoters?
a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene
There are 3 stages of transcription – know them.
initiation , elongation, termination.
What is a hairpin structure?
What is the difference between introns and exons?
exons are coding regions of eukaryotic genes that will be part of the final mRNA product. introns are the intervening noncoding sequences , and not in the final RNA.
What is RNA splicing and adding a cap and tail?
At what location do transcription and translation occur (cytoplasm or nucleus)?
transcription occurs in nucleus and translation occurs in cytoplasm.
Does transcription and translation happen simultaneously in bacteria? In eukaryotes?
In bacteria, transcription and translation can occur simultaneously but in eukaryotes transcription and translation are separated.
What is an anticodon?
Briefly look over the differences between the A, P, and E sites.
What is rRNA?
What are the 3 stages of translation?
initiation, elongation and termination.
an extensive series most protein go through before they are ready to go to work in a cell.
What is the purpose of messenger RNA (mRNA)?
Messenger RNA (mRNA) carries information from DNA to the site of protein synthesis where it is translated into a protein.
What is the function of reverse transcriptase?
What is a reading frame? There are 64 codons that code for 20 amino acids and 3 stops. Know the start and stop codons.
a) Reading frame is a sequence of codons
b) one start codon is AUG
c) three stop codons are UGA, UAA, UAG
What is the primary structure of DNA?
1. The antiparallel strands twist to form a double helix.
2. The secondary structure is stabilized by complementary base pairing:
– Adenine (A) hydrogen bonds with thymine (T). – Guanine (G) hydrogen bonds with cytosine (C).
What are the major enzymes involved in DNA replication? (part 1)
Helicase: Unwinds a portion of the DNA Double Helix
RNA Primase: Attaches RNA primers to replicating strands.
DNA Polymerase delta : Binds to the 5' - 3' strand in order to bring nucleotides as well as create the daughter leading strand.
DNA Polymerase epsilon : Binds to the 3' - 5' strand in order to create discontinuous segments starting from different RNA primers.
Exonuclease (DNA Polymerase I): Finds and removes the RNA Primers
Nucleases: Remove any wrong nucleotides from the daughter strand
Know what the definitions are for genetics, heredity and trait.
Genetics: branch of biology that focuses on inheritance.
Hereditary: Transmission of traits from parent to offspring.
Trait: any characteristic of individuals.
Why did Mendel use the pea plant to study heredity?
Easy to grow
Reproductive cycle is short
Produces large number of seeds
Matings are easy to control
Easy recognizable traits
Is a phenotype dependent on a genotype?
What is the difference between a monohybrid and a dihybrid cross?
Monohybrid: mating between parents with one trait.
Dihybrid: Mating between two parents that are both heterozygous for two traits.
What is a P vs. F1 vs. F2 generation?
P generation: parental generation
F1 Generation: first offspring
F2 Generation: 2nd offspring
What are the classic phenotypic ratios you would expect to see in the offspring?
Know the difference between homozygous and heterozygous.
Homozygous: individuals with 2 copies of same allele… RR, rr
Heterozygous: Two different alleles… Rr
Know Mendel’s two laws: Law of segregation and law of independent assortment.
The Law of Segregation states that every individual contains a pair of alleles for each particular trait which segregate or separate during cell division for any particular trait and that each parent passes a randomly selected copy to its offspring. The offspring then receives its own pair of alleles of the gene for that trait by inheriting sets of homologous chromosomes from the parent organisms.
Law of Independent Assortment: Alleles of different genes are transmitted independently of one another.
What is a Punnett square? What is a testcross? What is its use?
Testcross: parent of homo recessive for a trait is mated with a parent that has dominant phenotype with unknown genotype→ used to find genotype of other parent… Used with Law of Independent Assortment
Know the difference between recessive and dominant.
Recessive: A gene masked by dominant gene→ homozygous condition
Dominant: A gene more pronounced within an organism→ dominant determines phenotype
What is codominance? Give an example.
Heterozygous organisms that displays phenotype of both alleles of single gene→ neither gene is dominant or recessive
Type AB blood. Both blood types are expressed.
Difference between pleiotropy and polygenic.
Pleiotropic: Genes that influence many traits → A common example of pleiotropy is PKU, PKU can cause mental retardation, and reduced hair and skin pigmentation and can be caused by a large number of mutations in a single gene.
Polygenic: Each gene adds a small amount to the value of phenotype→ genes that together influence trait. Example, human skin color is thought to be determined by 12 genes.
Autosomal inheritance: traits that are expressed in any individual with at least one dominant allele→ individual who are homozygous or heterozygous for that trait will display dominant phenotype.
Sex-linked inheritance: trait determined by an allele located on sex chromosome.
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