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the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today
the scientific study of life
5 unifying themes of Biology
Organization, Information, Energy & matter, Interaction, Evolution
zooming into biological organization to reduce complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study. Ex: looking at an organisms organs, tissues that make up those organs, and cells that make up those tissues.
zooming out on biological organization. It is the property where living things become more complex as they go from cellular level to organ system. The whole is greater than the composition of its parts. Ex: a heart is made of cells only, but if you just have heart cells (sum of its parts) it won't do anything but if the whole heart is there, it will perform the function of pumping blood (the whole is greater). Because of the arrangement and interaction of the parts, complexity increases.
the exploration of a biological system by analyzing interactions among its parts.
all are membrane enclosed& have a nucleus. Some organelles such as chloroplast are specific to certain types of eukaryotic cells. Ex: Plants and animals.
Domain Eukarya includes all eukaryotic organisms- 3 cellular kingdoms:
-Plants, which produce their own food by photosynthesis
-Fungi, which absorb nutrients
-Animals, which ingest their food
chromosomes inside cells that contain genetic material
encode info for building molecules synthesized within the cell; genes are the units of inheritance
This entire process by which the information of a gene directs the manufacture of a cellular product
the entire library of genetic instructions that an organisms inherits
the study of sets of genes within and between species
the study of whole sets of proteins and their properties. The entire set of proteins in a cell is known as a proteome)
the use of computational tools to process a large volume of data
Negative feedback means that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it slows and less of the product is produced. Ex: body heat during exercise
means that as more of a product accumulates, the process that creates it speeds up and more of the product is produced
Organisms are divided into three domains:
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Domain Bacteria and domain Archaea
----the mechanism behind descent w/ modification
the search for information and explanations of natural phenomena
draws conclusions through the logical process of induction
for example- the sun always rises in the east
a tentative answer to a well-framed scientific question
uses general premises to make specific predictions i.e. If the dead battery hypothesis is correct, then the flashlight should work if you replace the batteries with new ones. Initial observations may give rise to multiple hypotheses
one designed to compare an experimental group with a control group
what is being changed/manipulated
what is being measured
----Broader in scope than a hypothesis
----General, and can lead to new testable hypotheses
----Supported by a large body of evidence in comparison to a hypothesis
An atom is the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
number of protons in the nucleus
Life’s fundamental unit and function. Organisms are single or multi cellular. A single cell performs all the functions of life; a multi cellular has division of labor among specialized cells.
a group of cells that work together to perform a specialized function.
Organs are organized into organ systems, which are each a team of organs that work together to perform a larger function. Tissues make up organs.
individual living things
consists of all the individuals of a species living within a specific area. Example: a population of sugar maple trees in a forest. A community is the set of populations that inhabit a particular area.
the array of organisms in a specific ecosystem; example: the many kinds of trees and plants in a forest. Each form of life is called a species.
consists of all living & non living (soil, water, gases, light) things in a particular area (grasslands, deserts, coral reef, etc)
consists of all life on Earth & where that life exists
Individuals in a population vary in their traits
Many of these traits are heritable
More offspring are produced than survive, and competition is inevitable
Species generally suit their environment
Darwin inferred that: Individuals that are best suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce. Over time, more individuals in a population will have the advantageous traits
“Unity in diversity” arises from “descent with modification”
For example, the forelimb of the bat, human, and horse and the whale flipper all share a common skeletal architecture
o Collection and analysis of data without the need for a preconceived expectation
o Goal is to gather information
The simplified scientific method implies that:
-----scientific studies follow an unvarying, linear recipe but actually, scientists engage in many different activities in many different sequences (often repeating the same steps many times)
-----science is done by individual scientists working through these steps in isolation but science depends on interactions within the scientific community
-----science concludes. Scientific investigations are often ongoing, raising new questions even as old ones are answered.
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
a substance consisting of two or more elements in a fixed ratio
About 25 of the 92 elements are essential to life (Humans need 25) (Plants need 17)
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen make up 96% of living matter
Most of the remaining 4% consists of calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur
Trace elements are those required by an organism in minute quantities
Copper is a trace element
Too much cobalt and chronium can be toxic
sum of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus
the atom’s total mass
two atoms of an element that differ in number of neutrons
decay spontaneously, giving off particles and energy
They are useful in research because they can be used as tracers to follow particular atoms and molecules through metabolic pathways
the capacity to do work
the energy that matter has because of its location or
the quantity of heat a liquid must be absorbed for 1 gram of it to be converted into a gas.
Why sweating has a cooling effect
Stores water, nutrients, responsible for turgor pressure
Description: Contain chlorophyll; surrounded by a double unit membrane
Function: sites of photosynthesis... plant cells
Passive Transport (diffusion applies to all)
•No protein ---simple diffusion
•Channel protein –limits size and timing
•Carrier protein –ONLY specific compounds
system of internal membranes within eukaryotic cells that divide the cell into functional and structured components
solid rods composed mainly of globular proteins called actin that are arranged and twisted in a double chain. They form a 3D network inside the plasma membrane that helps support the cell’s shape.
-solid rods composed mainly of globular proteins called actin that are arranged and twisted in a double chain. They form a 3D network inside the plasma membrane that helps support the cell’s shape.
- also called ACTIN FILAMENTS a globular protein
-bear tension (pulling forces)
-CORTEX, the semisolid consistency of a gel, in contrast of cytoplasm
-help supports cell's shape.
-thousands of microfilaments made of protein called MYOSIN, contraction of muscle cells.
used by the amoebae; usually have a front or leading end (pseudopod forms, thickening of ectoplasm into a gel-like (‘gel’) state that contains no organelles, and the more soluble (‘sol’) endoplasm flows towards this cap (which is anchored).
ATP energy is used for this transformation between sol and gel states. Somewhere else in the cytoplasm, sol is converted into gel (endoplasm into ectoplasm) to provide the ectoplasm needed at the leading end
ropelike fibers composed of a variety of proteins
Functions in: Structure and Support
the study of cell structure
microscopes are the most important tools of this
-type of cell
membrane bound organelles
-protists, plants, animals, and fungi
-membrane enclosed organelles
a warehouse for receiving, sorting, shipping and even some manufacturing
--products of the ER such as proteins are modified and stored then sent to other destinations
-Consists of CISTERNAE (stacks of pita bread.
-TRANSPORT VESICLES COME HERE AFTER ROUGH ER.
-CIS near ER, vesicle that buds from ER can adds its membrane contents of the lumen to the CIS face by fusing w/ GOLGI MEMBRANE
TRANS- gives rise to vesicles hat pinch off and travel to other sites
a warehouse for recieving, sorting, shipping and even some manufacturing
--products of the ER such as proteins are modifed and stored then setnt to other destinations
allows specific things to get through the membrane
-ex. glucose is too big so won’t let it in - has to go through a channel
-uses energy (ATP) to move molecules across a membrane.
breaks down/releases energy
builds things/ requires input of energy
-conservation of energy- energy cannot be created or destroyed, only transformed from one form to another
- all reactions will release heat which increases the entropy
-adenesine (adenine + ribose) triphosphate
-initial input of energy required to start reaction
-unstable condition where bonds are able to break
substrate binds and the enzyme changes shape to fit the substrate better
-product of the reaction shuts down its own pathway by binding to the enzyme
phage actively self replicates in host until cell breaks
kills by lysing (rupture)