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What must and organism do to stay alive and not go extinct?
· Acquire Energy
· Exchange Gases
· Process and Remove Waste Products
· Maintain correct balance of salts and water in the body
· Coordinate activities inside the body
· Cellular specialization reflects differences in function
· Cells are organized into groups of cells with common structure and function (tissues)
· Epithelial Tissue: Covers surfaces
· Muscle Tissue: Contraction, movement
· Nervous (nerve) Tissue: Signal conduction
· Connective Tissue: Blood, Bones, Ligaments, Tendons etc.
· Body Coverings (skin)
· Lining of Cavities (line abdominal cavity)
· Tubes and Sacs (blood vessels, gut, lungs, bladder)
· Cells that are suspended in a non-cellular matrix
- Matrix may be . . . Liquid (Blood Plasma), Jelly-like (Adipose Tissue), or Solid (Bone)
· Blood-Transport nutrients and gases to cells
· Bone, Cartilage-Support Structures
· Fibrous Connective Tissue-Ligaments and Tendons
· Adipose Tissue-Padding, Stores Fat
· Loose connective Tissue-Padding, Connect Body Parts
· Function (Transmits electrical signals, Secretes neurotransmitters, and Stimulates hormone release from endocrine glands)
· Cell Types (Neurons, Glia(supporting cells), Neuro-secretory Cells (translate neural signals into chemical stimuli)
· 3 Types of Vertebrate Muscles- 1.Skeletal (striped or voluntary) 2.Smooth (involuntary) 3.Cardiac (heart)
· Function- Cpntraction, movement
· Individual Cells- Contain overlapping filaments of 2 proteins (Actin, and Myosin)
answer: smooth muscle
Organs, cells, organ systems, tissues
answer: cells, tissues, organs, organ systems
Liver and Pancreas
Secrete Enzymes that begin to digest food
Salivary->saliva (Amylase - Enzyme)
Long muscular tube that transports food to the stomach
movement occurs by peristalsis
Long coiled tube where enzymes digest food and nutrients are being absorbed.
Has large surface area for absporption.
Large tube where waste is compacted and dried
· Provides a home to E coli and other bacteria
Up to 70% of feces mass is dead bacteria
Contains cells that are packed with ER. These organs secrete enzymes and other molecules that aid digestion
· Animals are Heterotrophs
· We use food as: Fuel for oxidative metabolism, Building materials, and Catalysts in biochemical reactions
· Improper nutrition can cause deficiencies.
· Bad Nutrition: Diet that lacks one or more essential nutrients
· You can consume adequate calories, yet be malnourished with regards to other essential nutrients.
· Calcium: Can lead to poor bone growth, osteoporosis.
· Iron: Anemia - But Iron is deadly if in excess.
· Iodine: Goiter – enlarged thyroid gland
· Inadequate protein intake, but more or less adequate calorie intake
· Lethargy, weakness, irritability
· Loss of muscle mass
· Protuberant belly, brittle hair
· Susceptible to infectious diseases
· Children will not attain full potential in height, and if severe, IQ is affected.
· Proteins are made from 20 amino acids
· 8 amino acids are essential for humans
· We can get all 8 by Eating meat, or by Eating a balanced vegetarian diet.
· From diets low in Vitamin C
· Weakness, spongy and inflamed lips, loose teeth, swollen and tender joints, blood in tissues, anemia.
· Common among sailors who spent long months at sea
· British sailors issued lime juice hence the nickname Limeys
· Solely intracellular in unicellular animals
· Becomes extracellular in multicellular animals
· Food comes in the cell, it gets digested by enzymes that get added to the vesicle. Then the waste gets kicked back out.
· The prey gets digested in the stomach and then the smaller pieces get sucked into the gut and digested further at a smaller level.
· Starts extracellular goes intracellular
· Lid to prevent food going to the stomach instead of the trachea.
· Muscles contract to push food down the gut. Ripple of contraction and relaxation.
the name of the complex fluid mixture found in the human stomach that results from digestion
· Pancreas secretes digestive enzymes
o Amylases (for starches)
o Protease precursors (for proteins)
o Lipases (for fats)
· Secretions very alkaline (sodium bicarbonate)
o Neutralizes chyme (acidified food from stomach)
· Starches: Amylases, From salivary glands, pancreas, lining of duodenum
· Proteins: HCl from the stomach, Proteases (secreted as precursors), From the pancreas and lining of the duodenum.
· Fats: Bile: Emulsifier, Lipases: from the pancreas
· Nucleic Acids: Nucleases, Nucleotidases, Phosphatases, From pancreas and lining of duodenum.
· Homeostatic Level 90 mg/100 mL of glucose in blood. As blood sugar level rises the pancreas realizes this and makes insulin to stimulate the liver to store glucose. The liver becomes a sponge and sucks it up and turns it into glycogen.
· If the level drops too low. The pancreas releases glucagon which does the opposite of insulin. It promotes breakdown of glycogen in the liver and the release of glucose into the blood thus increasing the blood sugar level.
answer: food particles are captured by specialized cells in the gastrovascular cavity, but these food particles are digested intracellularly.
A. calcium-weak bones
D. vitamin C-scurvy
answer: B: goiter is associated with iodine deficiency.
o Oxygen is used in aerobic respiration in cells mitochondria.
o CO2 is produced as a waste gas.
· Diffusion is the random movement of molecules.
· Gases Diffuse From a high gas concentration to a low gas concentration.
· The greater the concentration gradient (the steeper the gradient) the greater the diffusion rate.
· Provides fresh air or water access to respiratory surfaces.
o (very easy for small animals)
· When the diaphram contracts, the lungs expand and air is inhaled.
· When the diaphram relaxes, air is exhaled.
is the iron-containing oxygen-transport protein in the red blood cells of vertebrates. It is what transports oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body where it releases the oxygen for cell use, and collects CO2 to bring back to the lungs.
·Respritory Pigments: Proteins + Bound Metal Atoms
- Hemocyanin: Contains Copper, Many invertebrates, Less efficient at O2 transport.
- Hemoglobin, Contains Iron, Vertebrates and others
· Keeping one’s self the “same”
· Maintenance of constant conditions in the body
· Temperature, dissolved gas levels, nutrients, nitrogenous wastes, ions, and water.
· total concentration of all solutes in a liquid.
o Do not actively adjust internal osmolarity.
Isotonic with environment
Regulate by choosing habitat. (conforming to surroundings)
Confined to marine, salty environments
Most marine invertebrates
o Actively adjust internal osmolarity.
Actively regulate osmolarity of tissues
More habitats available; marine, freshwater, land
But it requires energy
· Arthropods: Waxy coating on the exoskeleton, Internal respiratory organs (tracheae), Small spiracles
· Vertebrates: Oily secretions decrease water loss, Internal respiratory organs (lungs), Small nostrils
answer: from a higher to a lower gas concentration
D. all of the above
answer: glucagon stimulates the release glucose from animal starch (glycogen)
answer: A. Nucleotidases will degrade nucleic acids.
A. iron (Fe)
B. magnesium (Mg)
C. sulfur (S)
D. carbon (C)
answer: A. iron
answer: thick chitinous cuticle; small spiracles; internal respiratory organs
A. right atrium
B. right ventricle
C. left atrium
D. left ventricle
answer: D. left ventricle
answer: oxygen exchange in the fish gill; heat exchange in the flipper of a dolphin.
answer: False. The diaphragm contracts, creating a vacuum inside the chest cavity, and inflating the lungs.
· Aid in salt and water balance
· Filter blood and body fluids
· Remove nitrogenous wastes
· Maintain constant blood volume.
Kidney, Ureter, bladder, urethra
· Removes nitrogenous wastes (urea)
· Adjusts the amount of water in blood and body tissues.
· Adjusts blood volume, blood pressure.
· Fishes – Ammonia
· Mammals, sharks, amphibians – Urea
· Reptiles, Birds, Insects – Uric Acid
answer: False. Pumping salts and other solutes is an active transport process that requires ATP.
answer: The filtrate first enters the nephron by being collected in Bowman's capsule, and it then moves through the proximal tubule to the rest of the nephron.
A. renal cortex
B. renal medulla
C. renal pelvis
answer: Renal pelvis.
C. uric acid
answer: C. uric acid
· Chemical Signals
· Secreted into extracellular fluids
· Regulate body conditions
·Chemical and Signals secreted into extracellular fluids and then travel to and act upon target cells.
·Produced by endocrine cells located in parts of other tissues or organ systems, or Produced by endocrine cells that are grouped into ductless endocrine glands
·Effective at extremely low concentrations
·Action is amplified through changes in gene expression, or activation of enzymes.
o Amino acid derivatives
· Water soluble and Water insoluble.
· Steroids are lipid soluble.
· Polypeptides and amino acid derivatives are not lipid soluble.
· Non steroid hormones are not lipid soluble, and don’t enter the cell.
· The hormone instead binds to a cell surface receptor, which activates a G protein.
· The G protein activates a membrane protein that catalyzes the formation of a second messenger.
· The second messenger leaves the membrane to activate enzymes located inside the cell
· A cascade of enzyme activation occurs, producing the cells response to the hormone.
· Steroid hormones are small lipids that slip easily through the membrane.
· Receptors for steroid hormones are inside the cell
· The receptor has a DNA binding domain
· The hormone binds to the receptor, altering its conformation
· The activated receptor binds to the hormone response element which causes genes to be transcribed.
answer: proteins, amino acid derivatives, steroids
answer: all steroid hormones
answer: True. ADH makes the collecting duct more permeable to water, thereby allowing the kidney to retain more water.
D. polar body
answer: C: blastocyst
answer: B: zona pellucida
D. A and B
E. all of the above
answer: D: thyroid and parathyroid
answer: pituitary and hypothalamus
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