A lipid consisting of a glycerol bound to two fatty acids and a phosphate group.
fluid mosaic model
The plasma membrane is described to be fluid because of its hydrophobic integral components such aslipids and membrane proteins that move laterally or sideways throughout the membrane. That means the membrane is not solid, but more like a 'fluid'.
A protein molecule or protein assembly permanently attached in biological membrane.
A protein that temporarily adheres to the biological membrane, either to the lipidbilayer or to integral proteins by a combination of hydrophobic, electrostatic, and other non-covalent interactions.
A type of protein that actively transports materials across a plasma membrane that would not otherwise allow this to occur.
proteins with covalently attached sugarunits, either bonded via the OH group of serine orthreonine O glycosylated) or through the amide NH2 of asparagine (N glycosylated).
oligosaccharides covalently attached to lipid as in the glycosphingolipids found inplasma membranes of all animal and some plantcells.
A feature and a function of the plasma membrane that is essential to maintain homeostasis by regulating the passage of some substances while preventing others from entering the cell.
The passivemovement of molecules or particles along a concentrationgradient, or from regions of higher to regions of lower concentration.
Diffusion of a solvent (usually water molecules) through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lowsoluteconcentration to an area of high soluteconcentration.
Diffusion of a solvent (usually water molecules) through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low soluteconcentration to an area of high soluteconcentration.
The gradual difference in the concentration of solutes in a solution between two regions. In biology, agradient results from an unequal distribution of ions across the cell membrane. When this happens, solutesmove along a concentration gradient. This kind of movement is called diffusion.
The condition in which all acting influences are balanced or canceled by equal opposing forces, resulting in a stable system.
Pertains to a muscular contraction in which the muscle remains to be in a relatively constant tension while its length changes, as in isotonic muscle.
A solution that has higher osmotic pressure (or has more solutes) than another solution to which it is compared.
refers to any solution which has a lower osmotic pressure than another solution (that is, has a lower concentration of solutes than another solution)
The pressure exerted by water inside the cell against the cell wall (plant cells only).
A protein responsible for mediating the passive transport of molecules from one side of the lipid bilayer to the other.
channel through a membrane that can be opened or closed by chemical or electrical events.
A protein that transports specific substance through intracellularcompartments, into the extracellular fluid, or across the cell membrane.
Transport of substances across a biological membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration by means of a carrier molecule. Since the substances move along the direction of their concentration gradients, energy is not required.
A kind oftransport wherein ions or molecules move against a concentrationgradient, which meansmovement in the direction opposite that of diffusion – or – movement from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. Hence, this process will require expenditure of energy, and the assistance of a type of protein called a carrier protein.
The linked, simultaneoustransport one substance across a membrane, coupled with the simultaneoustransport of another substance across the same membrane in the same direction.
A kind of transport by which ions or molecules move along a concentration gradient, which means movement from an area of higherconcentration to an area of lowerconcentration.
When materials leave the cell by the membrane "spitting it out"
A process in which cell takes in materials from the outside by engulfing and fusing them with its plasma membrane.
The process of engulfing and ingestion of particles by the cell or a phagocyte (e.g. macrophage) to form aphagosome (or food vacuole), which in turn fuse with lysosome and become phagolysosome where the engulfed material is eventually digested or degraded and either released extracellularly via exocytosis, or released intracellularly to undergo further processing.
A process of taking in fluid together with its contents into the cell by forming narrow channels through its membrane that pinch off into vesicles, and fuse with lysosomes that hydrolyze or break down contents.
clathrin coated pits
Specialised regions of the cell membrane composed of pits coated with a bristlecovering made of theprotein clathrin. These pits are the entryroute for macromoleculesbound by cellsurfacereceptors. The pitsare then internalised into the cytoplasm to form the coated vesicles.
Any substance (e.g. hormone, drug, functional group, etc.) that binds specifically and reversibly to another chemical entity to form a larger complex.
ratio of inside versus outsideconcentration of potassium, sodium, chloride and other ions in diffusibletissues or cells. Also called transmembrane and resting potentials, they are measured by recording electrophysiologic responses in voltage-dependentionicchannels of (e.g.) nerve, muscle and blood cells as well as artificialmembranes.
electricpotential or potential difference, expressed in volts.
A single protein or proteincomplex that traverses the lipid bilayer of cell membrane and form a channel to facilitate the movement of ions through the membrane according to their electrochemical gradient
Simple diffusion is the net movement of substances from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration. Generally, simple diffusion of water, gases, and other small, uncharged molecules across plasma membranes can occur in the absence of transport proteins. Facilitated diffusion involves plasma membrane and vacuolar protein channels and transporters.
A transport mechanism that drives a single compound or ion across a membrane, not coupled with transport of any other compound or ion.
A mechanism for the coupled transport of two different molecules or ions through a membrane in opposite directions.
A mechanism of transport across a membrane in which two different molecules move in the same direction.
receptor mediated endocytosis
molecule gets recognized by receptor and process is initiated to take in that molecule
A type of homogenousmixture in which the particles of one or more substances (the solute) are distributed uniformly throughout another substance (the solvent).
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