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all living things are both complex and highly ordered.
all organisms respond to stimuli
Growth, development, and reproduction
all organisms are capable of growing and reproducing and they all possess hereditary molecules that are passed to their offspring are the same species.
all organisms take in energy and use it to perform many kinds of work.
the maintenance of a relatively stable internal physiological environment in an organism
all organisms maintain relatively constant internal conditions that are different from their environment.
all organisms interact with other organisms and the nonliving environment in ways that influence their survival, and as a consequence, organisms evolve adaptations to their environments.
when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
atoms of opposite charges attract each other
what is an ionic bond?
when electrons are stripped from one to another. attraction with charge
a weak association formed with hydrogen in polar covalent bonds
hydrogen bond, what is it?
weak bond, binder to electronegative molecule s
rule to describe patterns; eight electrons to complete their outer electron shell
loss of an electron by the atom or molecule
what is a nonpolar covalent bond?
equal sharing of electrons
what is a polar covalent bond?
not equal sharing of electrons
the tendency of water to cling to other polar compounds due to hydrogen bonding
the amount of heat that must be absorbed or lost by 1g of a substance to raise or lower the temp to 1c
the medium of which one or more solutes dissolved
a molecule dissolved in some solution. only dissolve in similar polarity.
water fearing. nonpolar substance. not water soluble. form droplets
water loving. water soluble. polar or charged
the weight of a substance in grams that corresponds to the atomic masses.
any substance that dissociates in water to increase the hydrogen ion. lower then 7 pH
hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
theory of evolution
the differential reproduction of genotypes, caused by factors in the environment, leads to evolutionary change
applies general principles to predict specific results. math and philosophy, tests validity of ideas.
I.e. all mammals by definition have hair, animal that doesn't have hair is not a mammal.
specific to general. uses specific observations to construct general scientific principles.
I.e. poodles have hair, terriers have hair, observed dogs have hair. all dogs have hair
the logic flows opposite direction from specific to general. It uses specific observations to construct general specific principles.
2)Responsiveness/ sensativity (response to enviroment)
3)Homeostasis (regulate- stable)
4)Energy Utilization (transfer it - metabolism)
7)Growth & Development
characteristics of living things
growth, development and reproduction
the entire DNA sequence of an organism
basic unit of heredity;sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosome that encode protein.
basic unit of heredity, sequence of DNA nucleotides on a chromosomes that encode protein, tRNA, rRNA or regulates the transcription of such a sequence
basic unit of heredity
novel properties arising from the way in which components interact.
each step upward in the hierarchy of biological order new properties emerge. They cannot be deduced just from looking at the parts themselves.
smallest unit of an element that contains all characteristics of that element. building blocks of matter
specialized part of a cell, a small cytoplasmic organ
discrete macromolecular structure in the cytoplasm specialized for a particular function
basic unit of life
a group of similar cells organized into a structural and functional unit.
a body structure composed of several different tissues grouped into a structural and functional unit.
a group of individuals, usually of a single species, occupying a given area at the same timr
a kind of organism
all of the species inhabiting a common environment and interacting with one another
a major interacting system that includes organisms and their nonliving environment
genetic change in a population of organisms, leads to progressive change from simple to complex
the membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell; consists of a single phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins.
regulates what passes into and out of cell; cell to cell recognition; connection and adhesion; cell communication
in atoms, the central core, containing positively charged protons, neutral neutrons; in eukaryotic cells, the membranous organelle that houses the chromosomal dna
the membranous organelle that houses the chromosomal DNA
instructions for protein synthesis and cell reproduction; contains genetic information
a chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
the second highest commonly used taxonomic category
a distinct modular region of a protein that serves a particular function in the action of the protein
a bacterium; a cell lacking a nucleus or membrane bonding organelles
a cell characterized by membrane bounded organelle, most notably the nucleus, DNA associated with proteins
hierarchical organization of living things
cellular- atoms, molecules, macromolecules, organelles, cells
organismal- tissue, organ, organ system, organism
population- population, species, community, ecosystem, biosphere
+observation- raises a question.
+hypothesis- suggested explanation
+experiment- tests of the hypothesis
establishing controls- "controled " is unaltered; "test experiment" altered.
hypothesis vs theory
theory is pretty much proven
hypothesis needs to be proven or tested
Darwin's decent w/ modification
evolution, natural selection.
all living things are made of cells
°all organisms are made of one or more cells
°cells are the smallest living things
°cells are made from existing cells
deoxyribonuceic acid. makes genes, heredity, genomes
3 taxonomic domains
which domains are prokaryotic?
bacteria and archaea. single celled, little internal structure
which domains are eukaryotic?
eukarya. complex, organized cell or multiple complex cell
inspiration for Darwin, populations increase geometrically
negatively charge part of the atom, outside of nucleus
positively charged part of an atom, found in nucleus
neutral charge, nucleus
positively charged ion
negatively charged ion
different forms of the same element with the same atomic number of protons by it different number of neutrons
a stable condition; no further net charge in the concentration of products and reactants
a property of atomic nuclei that refers to the affinity of the nuclei for valence electrons, greater pull of electrons
what I'd electronegativity?
strong affinity of electrons
a tautness of the surface of a liquid, caused by cohesion of the molecules of liquid.
heat of vaporization
the amount of energy required to change 1g of a substance from a liquid to a gas
any substance that dissociates in water to absorb and therefore decrease the hydrogen ion. higher then 7 pH
a substance that resists charges in pH. releases hydrogen ion
what is a buffer?
maintains pH, minimize change
any substance in the universe that has mass and occupies space.
number of protons
any substance that cannot be broken
sum of the mass of their protons and neutrons.
the measurement of mass of atoms and subatomic particles
number of electrons does not equal protons
how atoms of a molecule are joined
single covalent bond
one pair of atoms is shared
double ionic bond
two pairs of shared electrons
triple ionic bond
three pairs of electrons are shared
example H-H or H=H, etc.
example H2 or O2, etc.
equally shared electrons
unequal sharing of electrons
where electrons spend 90% of there time, energy level, most likely to find electrons
types of orbital
s shaped ( sphere)
dumbbell shaped ( p orbital)
ionic bond in water?
water has strong bonds, makes ionic bond weak and dissolves
atoms found in organic molecules that are very electronegative
oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine
rank bonds from strongest to weakest
van der waals interaction
the factors that influence the occurrence of chemical reactions
temp, concentration, catalysts
water and high specific heat?
takes energy to break bonds
water and high heat of vaporization
liquid to vapor, breaks hydrogen bonds
water and low density of solid state?
expands water further apart
water and ion formation?
disaccociates, hydroxide OH-
water and acid
H+ donor, ionizes
water and base
H+ acceptor, equilibrium
pH scale range
pH, neutral, acidic, basic?
basic>7, neutral=7, acid<7
one of a group of molecules identical in atomic composition but differing in structural arrangement
a molecular group attaches to hydrocarbon that confers chemical properties or reactivities.
two molecules join to form a bigger molecule, simultaneously splitting out a molecule of water. one loses a hydrogen atom, the other a hydroxyl group (-OH)
a reaction that breaks a bond by the addition if water. reverse dehydration
a extremely large biological molecule. specifically protein, nucleic acids, polysaccharides, lipids, and complexes of these
smallest subunit of the polymer
a molecule composed of many similar or identical molecular subunits
monosaccharide (simple sugar)
a simple sugar hat can not be decomposed into smaller sugar molecules
a carbohydrate formed of two simple sugar molecules bonded covalently
a carbohydrate composed of many monosaccharide sugar subunits linked together in long chains
an organic compound consisting of a chain or ring of carbon atoms to which hydrogen and oxygen atoms are attached, 2:1, include sugar, starch, glycogen and cellulose
an insoluble polymer of glucose ; chief food storage substances of plants
animal starch, a complex branched polysaccharide that serves as food reserve in animals, bacteria, and fungi
the chief constituent of the cell wall in all green plants, some algae, and few other organisms. insoluble carbohydrate formed of microfibrils of glucose molecules
a single unit of nucleic acid, composed of a phosphate, a five carbon sugar, and purine or pyrimidine
a nucleotide polymer; DNA and RNA
DNA, the genetic material of all organisms; composed of two complementary chains of nucleotides wound in a double helix.
RNA, a class of nucleic acids characterized by the presence of the sugar ribose and the pyrimidine uracil, m/r/t
a RNA molecule that can behave as an enzyme, sometimes catalyzing its own assembly, acts as ribosome in polymerization of amino acids to form proteins
a larger of the two general kinds of nucleotide base found in DNA and RNA; a nitrogenous base with double ring structure , such as adenine and guanine.
a smallest of the two general kinds of nucleotide base found in DNA and RNA; a nitrogenous base with single ring structure , such as cytosine, thymine, or uracil.
between to sugars in the backbone of the nucleic acid molecule; the phosphate group connects the pentose sugars through a pair of ester bonds
the subunit structure from which proteins are produced, consisting of a central carbon atom with a carboxyl group, amino group, hydrogen and a side group.
an isotope that is unstable and undergoes radioactive decay, releasing energy
the type of bond that links amino acids together in proteins through dehydration reaction
a molecule consisting of many joined amino acids; not usually as complex as a protein
the specific amino acid sequence of a protein
encloses a cell and separates its contents from its surroundings.
encases prokaryotic cells and their plasma membrane. rigid layer in plants, some protists and most bacteria
long, threadlike structures protruding from the surface of a cell that are used in locomotion.
carries protein synthesis , the most complicated aggregation of proteins in a cell, contains three different rRNA molecule
sites of protein synthesis
semifluid matrix that feels he interior of the cell
the part of the cytoplasm that contains organic molecules and ions in solution
where prokaryotes store their genetics, bear the center if the cell
bounds the nucleus and is made up of two phospholipid bilayers
the vehicle by which heredity information is physically transmitted from one generation to the next; in a bacterium, single naked circle of DNA ; in eukaryotes, linear DNA and associated protein
contain hereditary information and direct synthesis of proteins
the vehicle by which hereditary information is physically transmitted through generations
the complex of DNA and proteins of which eukaryotic chromosomes are composed , highly uncoiled and diffuse in interphase nuclei, condensing to form the visible chromosomes in prophase.
one of the two daughter strands of a duplicated chromosomes that is joined by a single centromere
in eukaryotes, the site or rRNA synthesis; a spherical body composed chiefly of rRNA in the process of being transcribed from multiple copies of rRNA genes.
synthesis of rRNA and ribosomes assembly
a system of connected membranous compartments found in eukaryotic cells
regions of the ER with relatively few bound ribosomes
pebbly surface, site if protein synthesis
function in collection, packaging, and distribution of molecules synthesized in the cell
packages proteins for export from cell; forms secretory vesicles
in chloroplasts, a complex, organized internal membrane composed of flattened disks, which contain the photosystems involved in the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis
a microbody that plays an important role in the breakdown of highly oxidative hydrogen peroxide by catalase
proposes that eukaryotic cells evolved from a symbiosis between different species of prokaryotes
the organelle called the powerhouse of the cell. supports electron transport and chemiosmotic synthesis of ATP and a soluble matrix containing Krebs cycle enzymes
the process that results in the complete oxidation of glucose using oxygen as the final electron acceptor.
the process that results in the complete oxidation of glucose using oxygen as a final electron acceptor. oxygen acts as a acceptor for an electron transport chain that produces a proton gradient for the chemosmotic synthesis of ATP
a cell like organelle present in algae and plants that contains chlorophyll and carries out photosynthesis
site of photosynthesis
the membrane surrounding the central vacuole in plant cells that contains water channels, helps maintain the cells osmotic balance
used for storage or digestion purposes in different kinds of cells.
specialized membrane bounded structure. water balance, storage of useful molecules and waste products
in chloroplasts, the semiliquid substance that surrounds the thylakoid system and that contains the enzymes needed to assemble organic molecules from co2
a type of anchoring junction that links adjacent cells by connecting their cytoskeletons with cadherin proteins
in eukaryotic cells, a long, hollow protein cylinder, composed of the protein tubulin; these influence cell shape, move the chromosomes, in cell division, and provide the functional internal structure of cilia and flagella
in eukaryotic cells, a long, hollow protein cylinder, composed of the protein tubulin; move the chromosomes in cell division
divides and organizes spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis
a cytoplasmic organelle located outside the nuclear membrane; identical in structure to a basal body; found in animal cells and in the flagellated cells of other groups, divides and organizes spindle fibers during mitosis and meiosis
a short cellular projection from the surface of a eukaryotic cell, having the same internal structure of microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement as seen in a flagellum
a self reprodocing , cylindrical, cytoplasmic organelle composed of nine triplets of microtubules from which the flagella or cilia arise
one of the two major proteins that make up vertebrates muscle; the other myosin
any group of cell surface proteins involved in adhesion of cell substrates. critical to migrating cells moving through the cell matrix in tissues such as connective tissue
in plants, cytoplasmic connections between adjacent cells
a junction between adjacent animal cells that allows the passage of materials between the cells
region of actual fusion of plasma membranes between two adjacent animal cells that prevents materials from leaking through the tissue
similar structure to a fat, but having only two fatty acids attached to the glycerol backbone, with the third space linked to a phospholated molecule; contains a polar hydrophilic head end, and a nonpolar hydrophobic tail end
protein molecule modified with in the Golgi complex by having a short sugar chain attached
lipid molecule modified within the Golgi complex by having a short sugar chain attached
condition in which a membrane is permeable to some substances but not to others
the net movement of dissolved molecules or other particles from region where they are more concentrated to a region where they are less concentrated
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, in the absence of differences in pressure or volume , the net movement of water is from the other side containing a lower concentration to a side with higher concentration
the potential pressure developed by a solution separated from pure water by a differentially permeable membrane. the higher the solute concentration, the greater the osmotic potential.
a stable condition; chemical reaction in reverse direction. no more net change
a protein located just inside the plasma membrane on eukaryotic cells, in indentations called clathrin coated pits
a solution having the same concentration of solutes as a cell. a cell in this solution will take in and lose the same amount of water
a solution with a higher concentration of solutes than a cell. cell in this solution tend to lose water by osmosis
a solution with a lower concentration of solutes then the cell. a cell in this solution tends to take water by osmosis
the internal pressure inside a plant cell, resulting from osmotic intake of water, that presses its cell membrane tightly against the cell wall, making the cell rigid.
a transmembrane protein with a hydrophilic interior that provides an aqueous channel allowing diffusion of species that cannot cross the membrane. usually allows passage of specific ions
a membrane channel that allows water to cross the membrane more easily than by diffusion through the membrane
carrier assisted diffusion of molecules across a cellular membrane through specific channels from a region of higher concentration to one of lower concentration; the process is driven by the concentration gradient and does not require ATP
the pumping of individual ions or other molecules across a cellular membrane from a region of lower concentration to a higher concentration. usually needs ATP
sodium potassium pump
transmembrane channels engaged in thebacrive transport of NA+ exchanging then for K+. both moved against concentration gradient. maintains the resting membrane potential of neurons and other cells
the movement of substances across a cells membrane without the expenditure of energy
a type of bulk transport out of cells in which a vacuole fuses with the plasma membrane, discharging the vacuoles contents to the outside
endocytosis of a solid particle; the plasma membrane fold inward around the particle and engulfs it to form a vacuole
the process of fluid uptake by endocytosis in a cell
a signaling molecule that binds to a specific receptor protein , intiating signal transduction in cells.
a carrier protein in cells that transports only a single type of molecule or ion
a carrier protein in a cells membrane that transports two molecules in opposite directions across the membrane
a carrier protein in a cells membrane that transports two molecules or ions in the same direction across the membrane
receptor mediated endocytosis
process in which specific macromolecules are transported into eukaryotic cells at clathrin coated pits, after binding to specific cell surface receptors
energy that is not being used, but could be, energy in a potentially usable form. energy of position
energy of motion
the study of transformations of energy, using heat as he most convenient form of measurement of energy
first rule if thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed, but only undergo conversion from one form to another, thus, the amount of energy in the universe is unchangeable
second rule of thermodynamics
a statement concerning the transformation of potential energy into heat; it says that disorder(entropy) is continually increasing in the universe as energy changes occur, so disorder is more likely than order
the measurement of the random motion of molecules , the greater the heat, the greater the motion. heat is kinetic
a measure of the randomness of disorder of a system, a measure of how much energy in a system has become so dispersed that is no longer available to do work
the sum if all chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism
the biosynthetic or constructive part of metabolism, those chemical reactions involved in biosynthesis
in a cell, metabolic reactions that result in the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler compounds, often with the release of energy
describes a chemical reaction in which the products contain less free energy than the reactants, so that free energy is released in the reaction
describes a chemical reaction in which the products contain more energy than the reactants, free energy needed for reaction from the outside source to allow it to proceed
chemical reaction resulting in the addition of a phosphate group to an organic molecule. ATP yields ADP. many proteins are also activated or inactivated by this.
a protein that is capable of speeding up specific chemical reactions by lowering the required activation energy
a foundation to which an organism is attached
a molecule on which an enzyme acts
enzyme substrate complex
the complex formed when an enzyme binds with its substarte . this complex often has an altered configuration compared with the nonbound enzyme
the region of an enzyme surface to which a specific set of substrate binds, lowering the activation energy required for a particular chemical reaction and so facilitating it
one or more nonprotein components required by enzymes in order to function; many cofactors are metal ions, other organic coenzymes
a nonprotein organic molecule such as NAD the plays an accessory role in enzyme catalyzed processes, often by acting as a donor or acceptor of electrons
control mechanism whereby an increase in the concentration of some molecules inhibit the synthesis of that molecule
a part of an enzyme, away from its active site, that serves as an on/off switch for the function of the enzyme
as assembly consisting of several enzymes catalyzing different steps in. a sequence of reactions. close proximity of these related enzymes speeds the overall process, making it more efficient
an inhibitor that binds to location other than active site of an enzyme, changing the enzyme shape so that it cannot bind the substrate
an inhibitor that binds to the same active site as an enzymes substrate , thereby competing with the substrate
chemical reaction involving the loss of an oxygen atom. combines loss of proton and electron
the metabolic harvesting of energy by oxidation, ultimately Dependant on molecular oxygen, carried out by Krebs and oxidative.
the anaerobic breakdown of glucose. this enzyme catalyzed process yields 2 pyruvate and 2 atp
oxidation of pyruvate
produces acetyl CoA. uses NAD+ to accept electrons, reducing NADH. acetyl CoA feeds acetyl units into Krebs cycle, then its recycled for oxidation of pyruvate
also known as citric acid cycle. starts with acetyl coenzyme a and end with 2 CO2, 3 NADH, 1FADH2, 1 ATP, occurs in mitochondrial matrix, 2 turns per glucose cycle
electron transport chain
the passage of energetic electrons through a series of membrane associated electron carrier molecule to proton pumps embedded within mitochondria and chloroplast membranes.
the mechanism in which ATP is generated into mitochondria and chloroplast. synthesis of ATP.
intercellular compartments forms transport vesicles; participates in lipid synthesis and synthesis of membrane or secreted proteins
digest worn out organelles and cell debris; digest material taken up by endocytosis
isolate particular chemical activities from rest of cell
"power plants" of the cell; sites of oxidative metabolism
structural support, cell movement, movement if vesicles within cells
flagella or cilia
motility or moving fluids over surfaces
what are microfilaments(actin)made of? function?
two globular proteins, cellular movement
what are microtubles made of? function?
alpha beta protein, facilitating movement, organize cytoplasm, moving material within cell
what are intermediate filaments made of? function?
overlapping staggered proteins, structural stability
cleaves off one of pyruvates three carbons. carbon departs as CO2. the remaining 2 carbon compound
regenerate NAD+ without decarboxylation. use enzyme lactate dehydrogenase to transfer electrons from NADH back to the pyruvate that is used in glycolysis.
a molecule that becomes reduced ( NADH) as it carries high energy electrons from oxidized molecules to ATP producers.
a 3 carbon molecule that is the end product for glycolysis, each glucose molecule yields 2 pyruvate.
the enzyme responsible for producing ATP in oxidative phosphorlation, uses energy for reaction of ATP + Pi = ATP
an organism able to build all the complex organic molecules it requires as its own food source using only simple inorganic compounds.
the use of electron transport to generate a proton gradient from chemosmotic synthesis of ATP using a final electron acceptor other then oxygen
the product of the transition reaction between glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. the product pyruvate is oxidized to acetyl CoA by NAD +, also producing CO2 and NADH
get energy from other organisms, gets chemical energy by organic molecules
any of several iron containing proton pigments that serve as electron carriers into transport chains of photosynthesis and cellular respiration
the enzyme catalyzed extracting of energy from organic compounds w/o involvement of oxygen
the removal of an organic group, part of the degradation of proteins into compounds that can enter the Krebs cycle
chemical reaction involving the loss of a hydrogen atom, proton and electron
any of the 8 proteins with an overall positive charge. the DNA duplex coils around a core of eight histone proteins, held by its negatively charged phosphate groups, forming a nucleosome
a complex consisting of a DNA duplex wound around a core of eight histone proteins
any of the cells of a multicellular organism except those that are destined to form gametes
any of the cells of a multicellular organism except those that are destined to form gametes. (germ shaped cells)
a haploid reproductive cell
the diploid (2n) cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes
the diploid cell resulting from the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization)
having only one set of chromosomes in contrast to diploid
having two sets of chromosomes: in animals, twice the number of characteristic of gametes; in plants, the chromosome number characteristic of the sporophyate generation
having two sets of chromosomes. in animals, twice the number characteristics of gametes; in plants, the chromosomes number characteristics of the sporophyate generation; in contrast to haploid
the repeating sequence of growth and division through which cells pass each generation
the phase of the cell cycle after cytokinesis and before the DNA replication called the first gap phase. primary growth phase of the cell
between DNA replication and mitosis. cell prepares for mitosis.
the stage occupied by cells that are not actively dividing
somatic cell division; nuclear division in which the duplicated chromosomes separate to form two genetically identical daughter nuclei
the phase of cell division that begins when the condensed chromosomes become visible and ends when the nuclear envelope breaks down. the assembly of the spindle
the transitional phase between prophase and metaphase during which the spindle attaches to the kinetochores of sister chromatids.
the stage of mitosis or meiosis during which microtubules become organized into a spindle and the chromosomes come to lie in the spindles equatorial plane.
in mitosis and meiosis II, the stage initiated by the separation of sister chromatids, during which the daughter chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell; in meiosis I, marked by separation of replicated homologous chromosomes
the phase of cell division during which then spindle breaks down, the nuclear envelope of each daughter cell forms, and the chromosomes uncoil and become diffuse.
division of the cytoplasm of a cell after nuclear division
the constriction that forms during cytokinesis in animal cells that is responsible for dividing the cell into two daughter cells
the structure that forms at the equator of the spindle during early telophase in the dividing cells of plants and a few green algae.
one of two identical copies of each chromosomes , still linked at the centromere, produced as the chromosomes duplicate for mitotic division; similarly, one of the two present in the tetrad at meiosis
a visible point of constriction on a chromosome that contains repeated DNA sequences that bind specific proteins. these proteins make up the kinetochore to which microtubules attach during cell division
disk shaped protein structure within the centromere to which the spindle fibers attach during mitosis an meiosis
in animal cells mitosis, a radical array of microtubules extending from the centrioles toward the plasma membrane, possibly serving to brace the centriole for retraction of the spindle
any of a number of proteins that are produced in synchrony with then cell cycle and combine with certain kinases, the cycling dependent kinases. at certain points during cell division
asexual reproduction by division of one cell or body into equal or nearly equal parts
the period between two mitotic or meiotic divisions in which a cell grows and its DNA replicates, includes G1, S and G2 phases
the phase of cell division during which chromosomes are separated. the spindle assembles, binds to the chromosomes, and moves the sister chromatics apart
DNA replication occurs
condition in which one or more entire sets of chromosomes is added to the diploid genome.
the first round of cell division in meiosis; it is referred to as a "reduction division" because homologous chromosomes separate, and the daughter cells have only the haploid number of chromosomes
the second round of cell division in meiosis; during which the two haploid cells from meiosis I undergo a mitosis like division without DNA replication to produce four haploid daughters cells
refers to a pair of the same kind of chromosome in a diploid cell.
the point by point alignment (pairing) of homologous chromosomes that occurs before the first meiotic division; crossing over takes place during synapsis
I'm meiosis, the exchange of corresponding chromatid segments between homologous chromosomes; responsible for genetic recombination between homologous chromosomes
an x shaped figure that can be seen in meiosis. evidence of crossing over, where two chromatids have exchanged parts, chiasmata move to the ends of the chromosomes arms as the homologues seperate
the position on a chromosome where a gene is located
the process by which an individual inherits all of its chromosomes from a single parent; thus being genetically identical to that parent; cell division is by mitosis only.
the process of producing offspring through an alternation of fertilization and meiotic reduction in chromosome number.
a chromosome that is related to sex, in humans, the sex chromosomes are the x and y chromosomes
any eukaryotic chromosomes that is not a sex chromosomes, autosomes are present in the same number and kind in both males and females of the species
the fusion of two haploid gamete nuclei to form a diploid zygote nucleus.
a permanent change in a cells dna; includes changes in nucleotide sequence, alternation of gene position, gene loss or duplication, and insertion of foreign sequences.
one of two or more alternative states of gene
the realized expression of the genotype; the physical appearance or functional expression of a trait.
the genetic constitution underlying a single trait or set of traits
in genetics, a characteristics that has alternative forms, such as purple or white flower color in pea plants or different blood type in humans
an allele that is expressed when present in either the heterozygous or the homozygous condition.
an allele that is only expressed when present in the homozygous condition, but being "hidden" by the expression of a dominant allele in the heterozygous condition
the process by which alternative forms of traits are expressed in offspring rather than blending each trait of the parents in the offspring
being a homozygote, having two identical alleles of the same gene; the term is usually applied to one or more specific loci
having two different alleles of the same gene
law of segregation
Mendel's first law of heredity, stating that alternative alleles for the same gene segregate from each other in production of gametes
law of independent assortment
states that genes located on homologous chromosomes assort independently of each other
rule of addition
for two independent events, the probability of either event occurring is the sum of the individual probability
rule of multiplication
the probability of either event occurring is the product of the individual probabilities
all organisms consists of one or more cells.
The Cellular Level of hierarchical organizing:
Atoms are joined together into clusters called molecules. Complex biological molecules are assembled into organelles within membrane-bounded units we call cells.
The Organismal Level
1Tissues are groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit.
2Organs are body structures composed of several different tissues that act as a structural & functional unit.
3Organ Systems are organs grouped together to form a system.
The Populational Level
(Individual organisms can be categorized into several hierarchical levels.)
Population: a group of organisms of the same species living in the same place.
Species: formed when all populations of a particular kind of organism are together with its members similar in appearance & are able to breed.
Consists of all the populations of different species living together in one place.
The Ecosystem Level
A biological community & the physical habitat within which it lives together (ex. the soil, water, & atmosphere of a mountain interacts w/ Biological community of a meadow)
the entire region of the Earth's surface, the sea, and the air that is inhabited by living organisms. (the entire planet)
List 2 emergent properties
Steps of Scientific Process
Write the complete reaction for Photosynthesis and explain what photosynthesis means
Carbon dioxide is REDUCED to GLUCOSE
Water has been OXIDIZED to OXYGEN
What is the site of photosynthesis in plants?
What are the 2 stages of photosynthesis?
Light dependent and light independent
Where do we get the oxygen we breathe?
from the oxidation of water in photosynthesis
range of wavelengths over which Electromagnetic radiation extends. Longest waves=LEAST energetic (radio). Shorter=MOST (gamma)
visible light is represented between 400-700nm
What is a photon and how are they related to the color of light?
a particle of light that acts as a discrete bundle of energy.
what is a pigment and how are they related to the colors we see?
a molecule that absorbs light energy in the visible field range. the color that we see is the color. that is NOT absorbed, that is reflected.
How is absorption spectrum obtained?
when the efficiency of different wavelengths of light for Photosynthesis is measured.
an ex: the absorption spectrum of chlorophyll.
What is an accessory pigment?
a secondary light absorbing pigment used In photosynthesis; including chlorophyll b & the carotenoids that compliments the absorption spectrum.
Where in Chloroplasts are light dependent reactions occurring?
Where in the chloroplasts is carbon fixation(Calvin cycle) occurring?
Describe Photosystem II
one of 2 light capturing units in a chloroplast's membrane; it has 2 molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center, makes ATP and uses electrons from light.
uses P700, makes NADH and doesn't take place first!
How does noncyclic electron flow work?
The electrons ejected from the Photosystems do NOT return, instead they end up in NADH.
What is produced by noncyclic electron flow?
ATP, NADH, & Oxygen
What is cyclic electron flow?
electrons are returned back tot the reaction center thus they are recycled.
What is produced in cyclic electron flow?
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