dissolved fibrous proteins become visible as ________ when blood clotting occurs.
We are able to consistently maintain our RBC #’s because ______released from the kidneys and it TARGETS the ________ to trigger new RBC formation.
transports most of the oxygen and some carbon dioxide in blood
Subdivision of Leukocytes
Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a __________, toxic gas produced during the incomplete combustion of fuel, including gasoline, diesel, propane, CNG, charcoal, kerosene, wood, etc.
· weakness or excessive sleepiness
· nausea and/or vomiting
· general confusion
· respond quickly. Turn off the appliance and open doors and windows in order to ventilate the area thoroughly. Transport the victim immediately to a clinic, hospital, or medical doctor if you suspect that any of the above mentioned symptoms might be due to an exposure to carbon monoxide. Certain individuals are at a higher risk than others.
a yellow-colored pigment of red blood cells.
Blood carries _____ from the body cells to the lungs for exhalation.
It also transports wastes to the ______ for elimination from the body as sweat.
Maintaining appropriate _______ by absorbing and distributing heat throughout the body and to the skin surface to encourage heat loss.
_______ shifts pH of blood when needed to bring body back into homeostasis.
______ and blood ______ act to prevent excessive fluid loss from the bloodstream into the tissue spaces.
transport iron, lipids, and fat-soluble vitamins.
prod in higher amts with vaginal infections/problems
1) blood clotting.
2) coagulation cascade
1. Red blood cells (RBC’s)
2. White blood cells (WBC’s) – buffy coat
3. Platelets –buffy coat
4. eosinophils ,5. basophils
mediate the immune response, including antibody-antigen reactions.
form platelet plug in hemostasis (blood clotting).
The process of erythropoiesis starts in the ____________________ with a precursor cell in response to the hormone _____________.
Mature RBC’s usually develop within _______ after the reticulocyte is released from the RBM.
Normally _____ and _____ destruction proceed at roughly the same pace.
3) Globin is broken down into ______________
6. Iron is needed for the ______ of the hemoglobin molecule, whereas amino acids are needed for the _____.
6. When iron is removed from heme, the non-iron portion of heme is converted to _______(green pigment) and then into ______(yellow-orange pigment).
Bilirubin enters the blood circulation and is transported to the _____.
Within the liver, bilirubin is secreted by liver cells into _____, which passes into the small intestine and then into the large intestine.
Oxygen delivery may fail in other cases such as anemia, which has many causes:
1. Lack of iron (Fe++)
2. Lack of certain amino acids
3. Lack of Vitamin B12
Keep in mind that all types of anemia are characterized by reduced numbers of _______ or decreased amounts of ________in the blood.
Pt. feels fatigued
Skin appears pale
aplastic anemia usually results from exposure to ______ that inhibit enzymes needed for ______
Initially platelets migrate to the site of injury and stick to parts of the damaged b.v. This process is called
If blood clots too easily, the result can be ______, clotting in an undamaged b.v..
3rd Stage of clotting-Thrombin converts soluble fibrinogen (another plasma protein formed by the liver) into insoluble ___
cardiac muscle: forms the walls of the atria and ventricles
occurs when CA ions floods into the cytoplasm and binds to the thin filament; CA is the trigger for the contraction.1 Cross bridge formation – myosin attaches to actin Powerstroke – myosin head pulls actin filament toward M line. Cross bridge detachment - ATP attaches to myosin head and the cross bridge detaches Cocking of the myosin head – energy from the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP cocks the myosin head into the high energy state
Relaxed state of muscles = thin and thick filaments overlap slightly
1) Acetylcholinesterase breaks down Acetylcholine 2) Cal++ pump is activated and Ca++ is returned to the Terminal Cisternae of the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum 3) Actin – myosin crossbridge formation is terminated
4) Tropomyosin returns to the Actin binding site. 5) Sarcomeres return to resting state
all cells, at rest, exhibit a potential difference across their membranes
-Resting Membrane potential generated by diff in concentrations of various ions on either side of the membrane (K and Na) both influence ionic concentration gradients
-Na: comes from inside cell to go out
-K: comes from outside cell to go in
-Both meet at pump to create ATP
Action potential generated spreads along the sacrolemma and down T tubules. 2 Action Potential triggers Ca2+ release. 3 Calcium ions bind to troponin; actin active sites exposed. 4 Contraction; release of energy by ATP hydrolysis powers the cycling process.5 Removal of Ca2+ by re-uptake. 6 Tropomyosin blockage restored; contraction ends and muscle fiber relaxes
The origin of a muscle is on a stationary bone (usually proximal bones)
-The insertion of a muscle is on the bone that moves (usually distal bones)
-When muscles contract, the muscle’s insertion moves toward the immovable bone, the muscle’s origin.
hollow, elongated tube at the level of each Z Disc and runs betweenterminal cisternae
- Responsible for rapidly conducting nerve impulses to sarcomeres andbringing extracellular materials to deeper parts of muscle fiber
found during anaerobic exercise bc needs to be processed through oxygen; is converted into lactic acid
by-product of glycolysis- releases H+; occurs from muscle fatigue; during recovery period liver converts lactic acid to glucose. 5
muscle shortens because muscle tension exceeds the load
concentric and eccentric contractions; equal tension through out a contraction.
Refers to when a muscle produces the same amount of tension throughout contraction event.
Different length throughout the contraction but same tension.
no shortening; muscle tension increases but does not exceed the load
muscle doesn't change length.
Muscle gets tension
Magnitude of tension=to opposition, no movement produced.
Holds joints steady while moving
(Isotonic) the muscle shortens and does work;
muscle shortens in length during contraction.
Muscle can produce more tension than the opposition
A concentric contraction is the only way a muscle can cause movement
they cause movement
dark fibers, high blood supply, high myoglobin, high mitochondria,fewer sarcoplasmic reticulum, have oxygen carrying pigment, fibers contract for long periods without fatiguing. Marathon runners. Aerobic ATP generation
transparent structure that helps refracts light. Changes focal distance of eye. Brings rays of light into focus on the retina. Constriction of pupils. Convergence of two eyes. Increase in curvature of the lens.
Pulls on hair cells in the otolithic membrane. Sense gravity and movement. Inner ear.
Inner Ear-->Bony Labyrinth-->membranous Labyrinth-->vestibule; central egg shaped cavity of the bony labyrinth. Two sacs: saccule and utricle.
occurs in marked Vit A deficiency. Impaired function of rods in the retina.
-Light rays of this area cannot be seen
-Small circular area of the posterior part of the eyeball
-Fibers emerge here from the eyeball as the optic nerve
small depression in the macula lutea. Visual acuity is highest.
yellow area. Exact center of posterior retina. Contains Fovea Centralis
something hampers sound conduction to the fluids of the inner ear (e.g., impacted earwax, perforated eardrum, osteosclerosis of the ossicles)
far-sightedness. Near objects seen as blurred images. Focuses rays from an object at a point behind the retina. Eyeball to short, lens too thin. Convex glasses.
transfers sound energy to the middle ear ossicles. Boundary between outer and middle ear. Eardrum.
malleus, incus, and stapes. Transmit vibratory motion of the eardrum to the oval window.
cochlear hair cells. Causes hair cells to bend or shear. Sound.
inside BL. Contains endolymph. Contains utricle, saccule, cochlear duct, and membranous semicircular ducts/canals.
(osseous)- surrounds, protects ML. Contains perilymph 3 parts: Vestibule, Cochlea and Semicircular Canals
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