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Know what gasses were present in the earth’satmosphere before 2 bya.
Know relative proportions
Gasses that were present: nitrogen (N), carbondioxide (CO2), methane (CH3), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H) , and hydrogensulfide (H2S).
Proportions: Low O2, High N and CO2
Know what autocatalytic RNA molecules are
RNA that self replicated and could catalyze
Where was the first hereditary information found?
RNA, it can carry genetic info and also be autocatalytic
Why would the evolution of life switch to DNA tocarry the genetic code?
Switched from RNA to DNA b/c DNA is morechemically stable and replicates with fewer errors
What allowed earth’s early chondrites to surviveand also allowing the earth’s original amino acids.
Know what the source was
The early atmosphere was dense, slowing down thechondrites which contained at least 80 different amino acids
Determining absolute dates by radiometric dating requires what things?
Accumulation of daughter isotopes; loss of parent isotopes
What role did cyanobacteria play in earth’s development?
Cyanobacteria contributed the most to developingthe earth’s early atmosphere; made oxygen later it’s why the atmosphere is whatit is
What effects or causes does 2 continental landmasses have when they converge?
In regards to morphology, how would Linneusclassify organisms differently than modern biologists would
Linneus would have classified the Hawaiiansliver swords as multiple species
What would you expect from an organism with a large number of hox genes?
Hox genes are responsible for the growth of bodyparts, where they grow, and how big. Ifyou have more hox genes you will be more complex organism. Provides positioning information
Know what Homeotic genes are
Basic features of positional information hoxgenes are type of homeotic genes
Understand For example: feathers were used for warmthbefore they were used for flight. Or that a lung can be used as a swim bladderwhen fish evolve. Lung changed into swim bladder in fish. This is called EXAPTATION
the roles that different anatomical features may have.
For example: feathers were used for warmthbefore they were used for flight. Or that a lung can be used as a swim bladderwhen fish evolve. Lung changed into swim bladder in fish. This is called EXAPTATION
What does exaptation mean?
When a body part is utilized for a new purposethan it was before
Know why plants, fungi, and prokaryotes areplaced in different Taxa
Their cell walls are made of different stuff
What is plasmolysis?
When the cell membrane pulls away from the cellwall due to loss of water
Where is peptidoglycan most commonly found?
Gram + bacterial cell walls, more peptidoglycan+ less peptidoglycan -
What are the unique characteristics ofendospores?
They can survive harsh climates for long periodsof time. BUT endospores are NOT present in all bacteria
Understand and know what structures/processesare involved in conjugation
Sex pili and stuff
Know what is produced by Gram – bacterial cell walls
Only in gram negative ENDOTOXINS are released
Know the characteristics of cyanobacteria
What are ways that prokaryotes protect an enzyme from oxygen?
The mitochondria get a lot of their genes fromthe human chromosome
Characteristics of bacteria lackingpeptidoglycan (archae).
Know and understand why prokaryotes have been so successful on earth
Know how intestinal bacteria play a role inour nutritional absorption
Produce vitamins and protect us
Know that protists are
What are some examples of strong evidence thatthere are endosymbiotic organisms are in eukaryotes?
Know what a mixotrope is and what allows it to survive
They combine photosynthesis and heterotrophicnutrition. So if a mixotroph loses its plastids it can still survive by eatingother organisms. Mixotrophs survive byphagocytosis and absorption.
What is plasmodium and trypanosome? What makes humans so susceptible to them?
What are dynoflagellates?
Understand why convergent evolution is taking place between the water molds and fungus hyphae
Common need for the decomposers to absorbnutrients by increasing surface area through hyphae (long projectiles)
Know what caused the Irish Potatoe famine
Oomyctes (water molds)
What is Silica and where is it found most
Marine sediments consisting of radiolarianshells; built on cilica backbone (CLIFFS OF DOVER)
Know what Foraminifera are
Protists, eukaryotic, tests or porous shells andhave pseudopodia that extend and function in swimming, test formation, andfeeding.
Know how colors are projected and how that pertains to algae
Know the 5 (or so) main points about protists.
Extremely diverse collection, photoautotrophs,heterotrophs, mixotrophs, so diverse because of endosymbiosis
Know the general characteristics of fungi.
Know what they do, and how they absorb food
Decomposers, they throw up/ secrete hydrolyticenzymes and then absorb nutrients. Cellwall composed of chitin
Know what the fungal enzymes do.
They secrete enzymes through hyphae hydrolyticenzymes and then absorb nutrients
Know groups or phylum that have protectivechitin shells or coverings
Arthropods, Insects, Fungi
Know what hyphae are as they pertain to fungi
Projections that create mycillium, and secretehydrolytic enzymes
Know what pheromones are and what roles they play.
Pheromones are sexual signaling molecules
Know what chytridiomycota is
This is the phylum that contains organisms thatmost closely resemble the ancient fungi and there are a ton of them
Know what zygomycota is.
Fast growing molds/ food molds
Know examples of basidiomycota
Shelf Fungi, Toadstools , Mushrooms, FairyRings, Puffballs
Know what arbuscular mycorrhizae are, and whatphylum they are in.
Fungus with specialized hyphae that allow themto feed on living animals/ live on the plant roots; PHYLUM: Glomeromycota
Know what mycelium is and how it applies totime and location and mycellium’s relation to fungal enzymes
Interwoven mass of hyphae they spread to openareas, enzymes secreted through tips slow growing
Know the growth patterns of mycelium and howit relates to skin mycosis
There will be 3 questions on fairy rings. Know where they grow
Know what lichens are.
Hyphae with cyanobacteria that photosynthesize;symbiotic association; grow on surface of rocks, rotting logs, trees, etc.
Symbiotic relationship between a cyanobacterium (blue-green algae) or chlorophyta (green algae)
and a fungus (often ascomycete)
What do fungi provide for lichens andmycorrhizae?
Overall shape and structure and mass
Know what a mutualistic relationship is
The example that will be used is the associationof roots and fungi. They help each other survive
They fix nitrogen from the atmosphere whichhelps plans grow LARGER
· If the mycrorrhizae were taken away then mostvascular plants would be stunted in their GROWTH
sexually reproduce with a fruiting body that contains asci which contain 8 ascospores
Reproduce using basidioma (basiocarp) which form basidia and basidiospores
Know the role of mycorrhizae and plantdevelopment.
They fix nitrogen from the atmosphere whichhelps plans grow LARGER
Know what endophytes are.
Fungi that live inside leaves or other plantparts w/o causing harm. Benefit grassesand nonwoody plants by making toxins
includes green algae, charophytes, and plantae.
charophytes are the closest relatives to what?
shared traits between charophytes and land plants
1. chlorophylls a & b
3. flagellated sperm
4. formation of sporopollenin
do charophytes have alternation of generations?
what good does sporopollenin do?
prevents the zygote from drying out.
4 traits in plants that are not in charophytes
1. alternation of generations
2. walled spores in sporangia
3. multicellular gametangia
4. apical meristems
what are the two spots with apical meristems?
roots and shoots
475 million years ago
plants were on land at least
2 kinds of seedless vascular plants
lycophytes and terophytes
– Apical Meristem
• Primary Plant Body
– Lateral Meristem
• Vascular cambium
• Cork Cambium
– Secondary Plant Body
living cells ,with a thin primary cell wall
they provide the plant with strength. They have rigid structure; they are thick secondary walls that are strengthened by lignin. They are dead when at full maturity.
What is the primary difference between the anatomy of roots and leaves?
A waxy cuticle covers the leaves, but not the roots.
How do plants grow?
They have indeterminate growth, because there is no set mature size, so they can just keep on growing.
Understand how a tree would reach its vertical height.
Apicol meristem tips are what helps the plant to grow vertically.
What are secondary tissues?
Lateral meristems add thickness to woody plants, a process called secondary growth. Tissue produced by a lateral meristem, such as secondary xylem and cork are called secondary tissues.
is formed during primary growth from procambium. It includes protoxylem and metaxylem. distinguished by wider vessels and tracheids.
is the xylem that is formed during secondary growth from vascular cambium. Although secondary xylem is also found in members of the "gymnosperm" groups Gnetophyta and.
originates, and grows outwards from, meristematic cells in the vascular cambium. Secondary phloem is laid down by the vascular cambium to the inside of the established layer(s)
Most of the interior of the leaf between the upper and lower layers of epidermis is a parenchyma (ground tissue) or chlorenchyma tissue called the mesophyll. This assimilation tissue is the primary location of photosynthesis in the plant.
is a lateral meristem in the vascular tissue of plants. The vascular cambium is the source of both the secondary xylem (inwards, towards the pith) and the secondary phloem (outwards), and is located between these
What tissue makes up most of the tree?
What does heart wood and sap would have in common?
Secodary Xylem. As a tree or woody shrub ages, the older layers of secondary xylem in the heartwood, no longer transport water and minerals. The outer layers known as sapwood still transport materials through the xylem. They both have secondary xylem, but it’s no longer functioning in the heart wood.
Know which tissues is NOT part of an older tree’s bark.
Secondary Xylem. Bark consists of all the tissues external to the vascular cambium,
including secondary phloem and periderm. NOT xylem
The waxy casparian strip of the endodermal wall blocks apoplastic transfer of minerals from the cortex to the vascular cylinder and filters material symplastically
The casparian strip ensure that all water and dissolved substances must pass through a cell membrane
Guttation is the appearance of drops of xylem sap on the tips or edges of leaves of some vascular plants, such as grasses. Guttation is not to be confused with dew, which condenses from the atmosphere onto the plant surface.
At night, transpiration usually does not occur because most plants have their stomata closed. When there is a high soil moisture level, water will enter plant roots, because the water potential of the roots is lower than in the soil solution. The water will accumulate in the plant, creating a slight root pressure. The root pressure forces some water to exude through special leaf tip or edge structures, hydathodes, forming drops. Root pressure provides the impetus for this flow, rather than transpirational pull.
So at night the root pressure is high and it forces water out the leaves.
Water potential is the combined pressure and osmotic gradient that determines the potential of water to move. The lower (more negative) the water potential, the more the water has the capacity to move. Water flows from high water potential areas to low water potential areas. (high pressure to low pressure) So the higher structures in the plant needs to have lower water potentials, to draw the water so high.
The leaves of the plant at the top would have the lowest water potential of all.
Vessels have a larger diameter so they can move more water, but it can’t move it very high into the plant.
Tracheids have a smaller diameter, so they carry less water, but it means that they can transport water higher up in the plant than vessels can.
They have evolved closed stomata which prevent water from escaping out of the leaves during CO2/O2 exchange.
They have developed smaller leaves, or lost their leaves altogether.
Dormancy and C4 photosynthesis
- Movement from sugar sources to sugar sinks
A sugar sources is an organ that is a net producer of sugar, such as mature leaves
A sugar sink is an organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar, such as a tuber or bulb, a fruit, a young growing leaf a growing root
A storage organ can be both a sugar sink in summer and sugar source in winter
Be able to account for each event in the mass flow of material in phloem.
- Movement of sugars, amino acids, hormones, etc. through the phloem is as follows:
Leaf produces the sugar
Sugar is transported from cell to cell in the leaf
Solutes are moved (actively transported) into the sieve tubes
Water diffuses into the sieve tubes
Sugar moves to a sink
What are the characteristics of good soil?
Good drainage and increased cation exchange
Extomycorrhyzae are the fungus that live outside the cells
Endomycorrhyzae are the fungus that live inside the cells.
Which choice best describes a reasonable evolutionary mechanism for animal structures becoming better suited to specific functions?
C. Animals with mutations that give rise to effective structures will become more abundant
Similar fusiform body shapes are seen in sharks, penguins and aquatic mammals because
C. The laws of physics constrain the shapes that are possible for aquatic animals that swim very fast.
As body size increases in animals, there is
A. A decrease in the surface-to-volume ratio
Multicelluar organisms must keep their cells awash in an internal pond because
B. Cells need an aqueous medium for the exchange of nutrients, gases and wastes
The body’s automatic tendency to maintain a constant internal environment is termed
B. Involves production of heat through metabolism
A female Burmese python incubation her eggs warms them using
E. Shivering thermogenesis
Hibernation and estivation are both examples of
An ectotherm is more likely to survive an extended period of food deprivation than would an equally-sized endotherm because
C. The ectotherm invests little energy in temperature regulation
Metabolism of specialized brown fat depots in certain animals is substantially increased during
D. Non-shivering thermogenesis
An animal that migrates great distances would obtain the greatest benefit form storing its energy as
Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?
A. Vitamin A
What are the fat-soluble vitamins (yes again)?
A, D, E K
A, D, E K. Fat-soluble. Essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, minerals.
Earthworms, grasshoppers and birds. Used for temporary storage of food, food storage also for nestlings and production of crop milk
In which group of animals would you expect to find a relatively long cecum?
Why are cattle able to survive on a diet consisting almost entirely of plant material?
E. They have cellulose—digesting, symbiotic microorganisms in chambers of their stomachs
In which of the following would you expect to find an enlarged cecum?
a. Rabbits, horses, and herbivorous bears
Muscular stomach chamber that uses ingested pebbles to pulverize food, some food storage which chemical digestion that was begun in the proventriculus continues
Organisms in which a circulating body fluid is distinct from the fluid that directly surrounds the body’s cells are likely to have which of the following?
b. A closed circulatory system
Unique in invertebrates is that circulatory systems in molluscs are open in species of small-sized molluscs and are closed in species of large-sized molluscs
In which animal does blood flow from the pulmocutaneous circulation to the heart before circulating through the rest of the body
Which of the following are the only vertebrates in which blood flows directly from respiratory organs to body tissues without first returning to the heart?
Cellulose to simple sugars
Which of the following is an example of countercurrent exchange?
A. The flow of water across the gills of the fish and that of blood within those gills
Countercurrent exchange in the fish gill helps to maximize which of the following?
Which of the following is a characteristic of both hemoglobin and hemocyanin?
C. Transports oxygen
How does hemocyanin of arthropods and molluscs differ from the hemoglobin of mammals?
C. Hemocyanin has protein couples to copper rather than iron
Marine sea star was mistakenly placed in freshwater and it died. What is the most likely explanation for its death?
B. The sea star is hyperosmotic to the freshwater, and it could not osmoregulate
Marine birds utilize their nasal glands to eliminate excess salt from the body. It is these organisms that make life at sea possible for species such as albatrosses. Similar salt glands provide the identical function in sea turtles and marine iguanas.
Unlike most bony fishes, sharks maintain body fluids that are isosmotic to sea water.. They are therefore considered by many to be osmoconformers because of the unusual way they maintain homeostasis. They osmoregulate by
C. Tolerating high urea concentrations that balance internal salt concentrations to sea water osmolarity.
Where and from what compound(s) is urea produced?
A. Liver from NH3 and CO2
Which of the following is true of urea? It is
b. The primary nitrogenous waste product of humans.
What is the main nitrogenous waste excreted by birds?
D. Uric acid
Which of the following nitrogenous wastes requires hardly any water for its excretion
c. Uric Acid
Which of the following is true of ammonia?
b. It is soluble in water
The advantage of excreting wastes as urea rather than as ammonia is that
B. Urea is less toxic than ammonia
Birds secrete uric acid as their nitrogenous waste because uric acid
a. Requires little water for nitrogenous waste disposal, which is conductive to the function of flight in terms of weight
Which group possess excretory structures known as protonephridia
b. Insects (Malpighian tubule-frog too)
Unlike an earthworm’s metanephridia, a mammalian nephron
D. Receives filtrate from blood instead of coelomic fluid
2 pumping chambers.
African lungfish, which are often found in small stagnant pools of fresh water, produce urea as a nitrogenous waste. What is the advantage of this adaptation?
B. Small stagnant pools do not provide enough water to dilute the toxic ammonia.
The blastopore is a structure that first becomes evident during
c. Spiral and indeterminate cleave, blastopore becomes mouth
Which of the following characteristics generally applies to protostome development?
e. Determinate cleavage
Protostome characteristics generally include which of the following?
d. Absence of a body cavity
Which group consists of deuterostomes?
c. II: Echinoderms, fish, amphibian, reptiles, birds, mammals
e. Both C and D (echinoderms and chordates)
Generally, members of which flatworm classes are nonparasitic.
The members of which class of the phylum Cnidaria occur only as polyps?
Which class of the phylum Cnidaria includes jellies with rounded medusa?
While vacationing in a country that lacks adequate meat inspection, a student ate undercooked ground beef. Sometime later the student became easily fatigued, and lost body weight. At about the same time, whitish, flattened, rectangular objects full of small white spheres started appearing in his feces. Administration of niclosamide cured the problem. The student had probably been infected by a
A lophophore is used by ectoprocts and brachiopods
f. For feeding
Which molluscan class includes members that undergo embryonic torsion
A radula is present in members of which classes?
A unique anastomosing connection between the two aortic arches that aid in high level activity in a systemic circulation, which requires large amounts of oxygen in the blood.
The heartworm that can accumulate within the hearts of dogs and other mammals have a pseudocoelom, an alimentary canal, and an outer covering that is occasionally shed. To which phylum does the heartworm belong?
Mammals, birds and crocodiles
The water vascular system of echinoderms
B. Functions in locomotion, feeding and gas exchange
Which of the following is a shared characteristic of chordates?
E. Dorsal, hollow nerve cord
Which of these are characteristics of all chordates during at least a portion of their development?
In which of these extant classes did jaws occur earliest?
What is a distinctive feature of the chondrichthyans?
E. A mostly cartilaginous endoskeleton
There is evidence that ray-finned fishes originally evolved
f. In freshwater environments
The ray-finned fishes are characterized by
a. A bony endoskeleton, operculum, and usually a swim bladder
The swim bladder of ray-finned fishes
a. Was probably modified from simple lungs of freshwater fishes
All of the following belong to the lobe-fin clade, except
The respiratory pigment of almost all vertebrates and a wide variety of invertebrates is the protein hemoglobin, which is coupled with iron rather than copper.
Most dinosaurs and pterosaurs become extinct at the close of the _____ era.
What groups have nucleated erythrocytes?
Mammalian erythrocytes lack nuclei (unlike those of fishes, amphibians, birds, and reptiles which are nucleated)
Countercurrent flow maximizes 80 – 90% oxygenated blood.
Know which animals use positive pressure in their respiratory system.
Frogs have positive pressure breathing
Know which animals use negative pressure in their respiratory system.
Reptiles have negative pressure breathing. Mammals also have negative pressure breathing but with a diaphragm, lowering the lung pressure
Lungs of birds channel air through very tiny air vessels called parabronchi, where gas exchange actually takes place.
Three major groups: egg-laying, pouched, and placental
May have lungs, or gills and may use skin a respiratory system
Birds have negative pressure breathing, but it differs from that of mammals and is more efficient because of which of the following reasons?
b. The maximum PO2 is significantly higher in bird lungs.
Eating of the feces
With which of the following statements would a biologist be most inclined to agree?
a. Humans and apes represent divergent lines of evolution from a common ancestor.
During a dive, the heart rate slows, and all major blood vessels are constricted except those critical to survival under water. Metabolic rate slows, and tissues switch to glycolytic metabolism
What probably accounts for the switch to NDA-based genetic systems during the evolution of life on Earth?
a. DNA is chemically more stable and replicates with fewer errors (mutations) than RNA.
What is an endospore?
They live in harsh living conditions
The largest seaweeds belong to which group?
b. Brown Algae
This phylum contains the mushrooms, shelf fungi, and puffballs
The symbiotic associations involving roots and soil fungiare considered
What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, carpels and pine cone scales?
c. They are modified leaves
What tissue makes up most of the wood of a tree?
b. Secondary xylem
c. CO2 through stoma
Carnivorous adaptations of plants mainly compensate for soil that has a relatively low content of
Which of the following types of plants would not yet have been evolved in the forests that became coal deposits?
c. Pine trees
Air rushes into the lungs of humans during inhalation because
a. The rib muscles and diaphragm contract, increasing the lung volume
In negative pressure breathing, inhalation results from
b. Contracting the diaphragm
Countercurrent heat exchange, it’s how they limit heat loss
Complete Metamorphosis – The basis don’t resemble the adults at all.
Incomplete Metamorphosis – The babies still resemble the adults.
Pharyngeal slits (pharyngeal pouches or slits)
Dorsal hollow nerve cord
Animalia, Chordata, Mammalia,) Primapes, Anthropoids, Hominoids, Hominids, Homo, Sapiens