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Which of the following below is NOT a functional process performed by the respiratory system?
a. transport of respiratioy gases
b. external respiration
c. pulmonary ventilation
d. pulmonary respiration
Which of the following does NOT influence hemoglobin saturation?
a. carbon dioxide
d. nitric oxide
Select the correct statement about oxygen transport in blood:
a. 50 % oxygen saturation level of blood returning to the lungs might indicate an activity level higher than normal.
b. Increased BPG levels in the red blood cells enhance oxygen-carrying capacity.
c. During conditions of acidosis, hemoglobin is able to carry oxygen more efficiently.
d. During normal activity, a molecule of hemoglobin returning the lungs carries one moleculeof O2.
Which of the following choices below is NOT a factor that promotes oxygen binding to and dissociation from hemoglobin?
a. partial pressure of carbon dioxide
c. partial pressure of oxygen
d. number of red blood cells
Which of the following below determines the direction of respiratory gas movement?
a. molecular weight and size of the gas molecule
b. solubility in water
c. partial pressure gradient
d. the temperature
Which of the following maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
a. surface tension of water
c. pseudostratified ciliated epithelium
d. cartilage rings
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?
Thyroxine is a peptide hormone, but its mechanism is different from other peptide hormones. Which of the following statements is true concerning the difference?
a. it does not require a second messenger to effect a response
b. it is very specific in the cell type it targets
c. it causes positive feedback
d. it isa stimulant of cellular metabolism and targets all cells
FSH stimulates sperm production in the testes,
Which of the following would be associated with the action of steroid on cells?
a. second-messenger systems
b. extracellular receptors with a specifcity for only a single amino acid sequence on the hormone
c. an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP
d. a hormone-receptor complezthat interacgts directly with the cell's DNA
Which of the following is NOT a steroid-based hormone?
The most important regulator of electrolyte concentrations in extracellular fluids is:
bone and activating osteoclasts so that calcium will be released
One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?
a. catabolic inhibition
Hormones often cause a cell to elicit muliple responses; this is because during:
The dartos and cremaster muscles are important to the integrity of the male reproductive system. Which of the following is true about the role they play?
a. They contract to push sperm aloing the ductus defern
b. They contract to allow ejaculation
c. They are responsible for penile erection
d. They regulate the temperature of the testes.
Which of the following glands are responsible for 60% of the synthesis of semen?
a. the pituitary
b. the bulbourethral glands
c. the seminal vesicles
d. the prostate
Which of the following hormones contols the release of anterior pituitary gonadotropin?
Which of the following phases or processes in the monthly reproductive cycle of the female occur simultaneously?
a. maximal steroid secretion by the corpus luteum and menstruation
b. maximal LH secretion and menstruation
c. regression of the corpus luteum and a decrease in ovarian progesterone secretion
d. early follicular development and the secretory phase in the uterus
Which of the following is a correct statement about uterine tubes?
a. The mesometrium supports the uterine tubes along their entire length.
b. the infundibulum is the funnel-shaped region near the ovary
c. the isthmus is the normal site of fertilixation
d. the ampulla is the narrow constricted region
Which of the following will occur after ovulation?
a. The corpus luteum secretes estrogen only.
b. The corpus luteum prepares to becomea corpus albicans.
c. The endometrium enters its secretory phase.
d. The secretion of anterior pituitary gonadotropins is enhanced.
Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle.
a.the corpus luteum secretes estrogen
b. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone decrease
c. blood levels of estrogen and progesterone increase
d. blood levels of FSH fall off
Which of the choices below is NOT a function of testorone?
a. stimulates the male pattern of development
b. stimulates protein synthesis
c. contributes to male sexual behavior and spermatogenesis
d. stimulates mammary gland development
Select the correct statement abotu male sexual response.
a. Epansion of the penile tissues results in dilation of the venous outflow
b. Sympathetic impulses are responsible for cousing penile arteriolar dilation, resulting in erection.
c. Erection is the result of vascular spaces in the erectile tissue filling with blood
d. Ejaculation is the result of parasympathetic stimulation.
All of the following can be considered male secondary sex hormones EXCEPT the:
a. development of testes as opposed to ovaries
b. lowering of the voice
c. increaing mass of the skeleton
d. development of body hair
Development of male reproductive structures depends on which of the following events?
a. that the female hormones are suppressed during pregnancy
b. the suppression of inhibin
c. that human gonadotropin be synthesized in the first week of the pregnancy
d. secretion of male hormones prenatally and lasting into the first few months after birth
Which of the following is a regulatory function of blood?
a. maintence of normal pH in body tissues
b. delivery of oxygen to body cells
c. prevention of blood loss
d. transport of metabolic wates from cells
Which of the following is a characteristic of all leukocytes?
a. They have cytoplasmic granules
b. They are nucleated.
c. They are the most numerous of the formed elements in the blood.
d. They are phagocytic.
Which of the events below does NOT occur when the semilunar valves are open?
a. Ventricles are in systole
b. Blood enters pulmonary arteries and the aorta
c. Ventricles are in diastole
d. AV valves are closed.
Which statement is true about heart valves:
a. The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur.
b. The mitral valve seperate the right atrium from the right ventricle.
c. The tricuspid valve divides the left atrium from the left ventricle
d. Aortic and pulmonary valves control the flow of blood into the heart.
Which of the following is NOT part of the conduction system of the heart?
a. AV node
b. SA node
c. AV valve
d. bundle of HIS
2)Inspiratory reserve volume.
4)Expiratory reserve volume.
5)Air that does not participate in the exchange of gases.
Which of the following is NOT a factor that helps create the stomach mucosal barrier?
a. thick coating of bicarbonate-rich mucus
c. replacing of damages epithelial mucosa cells
d. tight junctionsof epithelial mucosa cells
Choose the incorrect statement regarding bile.
a. Bile functions to carry bilirubin formed from breakdown of worn-out RBCs
b. Bile is both an excretory product and a digestive secretion
c. Bile functios to emulsify fats
d. Bile contains enzymes for digestion
The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?
a. Brunner's gland
b. the rugae
c. plicae circulares andintestinal villi
d. the vast array of digestive enzymes
Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severly damaged?
Which of the following is NOT characteristic of the large intestine? It:
a. is longer than the small intestine
b. does not contain villi
c. has haustra
d. exhibits external muscular bands called teniae coli
Surgival cutting of the lingual fresnulum would occur in which part of the body?
a. nasal cavity
d. salivary glands
Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?
Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?
a. fungiform, circumvallate, and filiform
b. fungiform and circumvallate
c. circumvallate and filiform
d. palatine and circumvallate
Short-charin triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a specific enzyme in preparation for absoption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?
You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes will help to digest the meal?
Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?
a. serous cells
b. chief cells
c. mucous neck cells
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