the scientific study of interactions betweeen organisms and the environment
the most significant influence on the distribution of oganisms and in the oceans
the photic zone and aphotic zone.
the entire portion of earth inhabited by life: the sum of all the planets ecosystem
examines how the regional exchange of energy and materials influences the functioning and distribution or organisms across the biosphere
a mosaic of connected ecosystems
focuses on the facotrs controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems
the community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which those organisms interact
emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and thw environment
made up of population of different species in an area
examines how interactions between species such as predation and competition affect community structure and organization
a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why is changes through time
includes subdisciplines of pbysiological evolutionary and behavioral ecology
organisms structure physiology and behavior meet the challenges posed by its environment
or fertility schedule is an age-specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population
What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
a. Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations are unchanging.
b. Earth is a few thousand years old, and populations gradually change.
c. Earth is millions of years old, and populations rapidly change.
d. Earth is millions of years old, and populations are unchanging.
e. Earth is millions of years old, and populations gradually change.
Which of the events described below agrees with the idea of catastrophism?
a. The gradual uplift of the Himalayas by the collision of the Australian crustal plate with the Eurasian crustal plate
b. The formation of the Grand Canyon by the Colorado River over millions of years
c. The gradual deposition of sediments many kilometers thick on the floors of seas and oceans
d. The sudden demise of the dinosaurs, and various other groups, by the impact of a large extraterrestrial body with Earth
e. The development of the Galapagos Islands from underwater seamounts over millions of years
Which group is composed entirely of individuals who maintained that species are unchanging?
a. Aristotle, Cuvier, and Lamarck
b. Linnaeus, Cuvier, and Lamarck
c. Lyell, Linnaeus, and Lamarck
d. Aristotle, Linnaeus, and Cuviere. Hutton, Lyell, and Darwin
In the mid-1900s, the Soviet geneticist Lysenko believed that his winter wheat plants, exposed to ever-colder temperatures, would eventually give rise to ever more cold-tolerant winter wheat. Lysenko's attempts in this regard were most in agreement with the ideas of
Natural selection is based on all of the following except
a. genetic variation exists within populations.
b. the best-adapted individuals tend to leave the most offspring.
c. individuals who survive longer tend to leave more offspring than those who die young.
d. populations tend to produce more individuals than the environment can support.e. individuals adapt to their environments and, thereby, evolve.
Darwin left England as a creationist, but returned 5 years later from his voyage on the HMS Beagle as an evolutionist. Which of the following influenced him the most while he was sailing around the world?
Who based his research on studying the anatomy and morphology of living creatures?
The difference between the two sexes in secondary sexual characteristics, including differences in size, color, ornamentation, and behavior.
character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon
Those found in different species and their divergence traces back to the speciation events that produced the species.
multiple copies of these duplicated genes have diverged from one another within a species
Horizontal gene transfer
A process in which genes are transfered from one genome to another through mechanisms such as exchange or transposable elements and plasmids, viral infection, and fusion of other organisms
Way to measure absolute time of evolutionary change based on:
observation that some genes and other genomes evolve at constant rates
Idea that many of the evolutionary changes have no effect on fitness so organism is not influenced by natural selection
Production of offspring with the fusion of gametes. Resultsin offspring that are different then parents and siblings (genetic variation)
either of the 2 times of the year when the sun is at its greatest distance from the equator
June 21, December 21