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The calyces are drainage areas. As the urine is
formed it will flow out of the papilla and into the
minor calyx. The minor calyces will merge to form
the major calyx which in turn will open into the
the smaller of the cup-like
the larger of the cuplike extensions.
A renal papilla is the region where the renal pyramids
come to a point. The papilla will drain the urine from
the collecting ducts into a minor calyx.
Renal: related to kidney.
The superficial layer of the kidney tissue. The renal cortex
is the location where the nephrons can be found.
The renal pelvis is the large, centrally located space in the
kidney that serves as the collection site for the urine.
The renal pyramids are a collection of many nephron loops
and collecting ducts. They are wider at their superficial
aspect and narrow to the renal papilla at their tip. The
urine formed in the nephrons flows through the pyramids,
through the papilla, and into the minor calyx.
next to the
glomerulus. This structure houses tissues that are
sensitive to pressure and chemicals and therefore
control the rate of filtrate formation and blood
pressure. There are macula densa cells in the
nephron loop (loop of Henle) that are pressed up
against the afferent or efferent arteriole associated
with the glomerulus.
This structure houses tissues that are sensitive to pressure and chemicals and therefore control the rate of filtrate formation and blood pressure.
There are macula densa cells in the nephron loop (loop of Henle) that are pressed up against the afferent or efferent arteriole associated with the glomerulus. These cells act as chemoreceptors. There are also juxtaglomerular cells that are the smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole. These cells are sensitive to pressure and can trigger the release of renin.
These cells act as
chemoreceptors. There are also juxtaglomerular cells
that are the smooth muscle cells in the afferent
arteriole. These cells are sensitive to pressure and can
trigger the release of renin.
Juxta: nearby. Juxtamedullary: nephron near the
medulla. The juxtamedullary nephrons sit in the cortex,
but their nephron loops descend deep into the medulla.
nephron that is housed within the cortical region of the
kidney. These have shorter nephron loops when
compared to the juxtamedullary variety.
“triangle” A fixed region in the urinary bladder composed
of the opening of the left ureter, the opening of the right
ureter, and the internal urethral orifice.
The drainage pathway from the kidney to the urinary
bladder. The renal pelvis transitions into the ureter as it
leaves the kidney.
The peritubular capillaries are the capillaries that are
closely associated with the renal tubules. It is between
these two regions that the movement of waste products
and other materials will take place.
-major cation in extracellular fluid
-critical electrolyte in the reguolation of body fluids
-helps maintain proper water distribution (fluid balance) and blood pressure
-helps control body's acidity
-nerve impulse transmission
-hypernatremia: abnormally high blood Na due to increased kidney retention of Na or rapid ingestion of large amounts
-hypertension: high dietary sodium
unprocessed foods: fruits, vegetables, grains (potatoes, spinach, melons, and bananas)
(fresh meat, milk, coffee, and tea)
-nerve impuse transmission
-milk and ddairy products
-green vegetables (spinach)
-calcium-processed tofu, fortifid foods (0J, cereal, yogurt)
-canned fish with bones (sardines, slamon, mackerel)
-nerve impulse transmission
-hypercalcemia: abnormally high concentrations of calcium in the blood. can result in fatigue, confusion, loss of appetite, and constipation.
-bone structure (85%)
-component of (ATP, DNA, RNA, phospholipids (cell membrane))
-helps activate/deactivate enzymes in phosphorylation
-enzyme mediated reactions
-DNA and protein synthesis
-reactions involving ATP
-heart and never function
hypomagnesemia: abnormally low concentration of magnesium in the blood (kidney disease, alcoholism, etc)
iron overload (toxicity from excess iron).
ex: hereditary hemochromatosis
-categories: catalytic, structural, and regulatory
-nucleic acid metabolism
-increased needs, poor intake, poor absorption, delayed development, diarrhea, etc
rare because of conrol by intestinal uptake
-high doses can cause nausea, vomiting, and cramping
-may help prevent cancer?
-part of antioxidant enzymes
-iodine & thyroid hormone metabolism
-important in the immune system and response to infections
-thyroid hormone production
-linked to goiter
-during pregnancy causes cretinism
-melanin, collagen, and elastin production
-production of red blood cells
-aid in absorption and transport of iron
-immune and cardiovascular function
rare (premature infants)
-most commonly causes anemia, hypercholesterolemia, and bone abnormalities
-bone development (formation of cartilage in bone and skin)
-key component of several important enzymes
a greater threat than deficiency
symptoms: irritability, hallucinations, severe lack of coordination
-supports the mineralization of bones and teeth by promoting the deposition of calcium and phosphorus
-inhibits bacterial acitiviy in plaque
-hemodialysis: too much fluoride can suffer acute fuoride toxicity with symptoms that include headaches, nausea, abnormal hearth rhythms
-bones more brittle and susceptible to fracture
-proper CHO and lipid metabolism
-metabolism of nucleic acids and in immune function and growth
-enhances effects of insulin
decreased insulin-mediated glucose uptake by cells
-decreased insulin sensitivity
-elevated blood glucose and insulin levels, and blood lipid abnormalities
-used to treat wilson's disease
-functions as a cofactor for several enzymes that induce oxidation
does not occur in people who eat a normal diet.
(people on parenteral nutrition: suffer weakness, mental confusion, and night blindness)
molybdenum salts are considered relatively nontoxic.
UL is 2000 mg per day
can by synthesized in skin when exposed to UV light
fresh salmon, sardines, milk
green vegetables (spinach, turnip greens, broccoli, etc)
liver, egg yolks, vegetable oils (soy, canola, olive, etc)
maintina healthy cells
fomation of bone
supports 100 different enzymes that support:
protein metabolism, blood cell sytheses, carbohydrate metabolism, and neurotransmitter synthesis
acts as a reducing agent and participates in many reactions by donating electrons or hydrogen ions
-sythesis of collagen and vital compounds
hard, scaly skin
halts production of sperm
rare in healthy people (adults)
reduced bone density in women, increased fracture risk.
fat melabsorption or use of intestinal antibiotics
increase risk of hemorrhage
rare but can lead to:
microcytic hypochromic anemia,
and neurological symptoms
symptoms of deficiency may not appear for up to 12 years.
vegetariens are at risk (pernicious anemia)
occurs infrequently: children more vulnerable and can be fatal
(symptoms include: fatigue, vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, blurred or double vision...)
result in bone loss and kidney stones.
excessive urination and thrist
toxicity is rare
stored in liver and bones
overdose= hemolytic anemia
nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and nosebleeds
regulate blood calcium levels
rickets & osteomalacia
alcoholics at risk of deficiency
milke and dairy products
whole and enriched grains
conenzymes in energy metabolism
participates in many oxidation-reduction reactions
rare (aribroflavinosis), may interfere with vitamin b-6 metabolism
little severe toxicity: high doses used to treat high blood cholesterol
side effects: skin flushing, itching, and tingling.
liver toxicity has been reported
conenzyme A (CoA)
acts as conezyme:
-amino acid metabolism
fatty acid sythesis.
adds co2 in reactions
catalyze carboxylation reactions
eating raw egg whites over a long period (months or years)
infants born with biotinidase
crucial to DNA sythesis and cell division
amino acid metabolism and the maturation of red blood cells and other cells
development of anemia,
neural tube defects,
can mask vitamin B-12 deficiency
development of neural tube defects during pregnancy
hydrochloric acid (stomach acid)
chloride shift: movement of CL in and out of RBCs to sustain neutral charge in cell
hypochloremia: due to extended vomiting can cause a deficiency of CL
causes metabolic alkalosis (increased PH)
-loss of acid and increased bicarbonate
-can affect heart and brain
What is the cervix?
The cervix is the neck of the uterus. It is the muscular gateway between the uterus and the vaginal canal.
Minor calyx: the smaller of the cup-like extensions. Major calyx: the larger of the cuplike extensions.
A renal papilla is the region where the renal pyramids come to a point. The papilla will drain the urine from the collecting ducts into a minor calyx.
The peritubular capillaries are the capillaries that are closely associated with the renal tubules. It is between these two regions that the movement of waste products and other materials will take place
Where are the sperm manufactured?
Sperm are created within the seminiferous tubules. The seminiferous tubules are located within the testes
Where are the sperm stored/matured?
The sperm are manufactured within the testis at the seminiferous tubules, but they will move to the epididymis for storage and maturation.
What is the pathway for the release of the sperm?
Sperm is created in the seminiferous tubules, travels and is stored in the epididymis, moves through the vas deferens. The vas deferens opens into the ejaculatory duct where the first secretion is added from the seminal vesicle. The ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland, which also adds secretions. The duct becomes the prostatic urethra and then the membranous urethra, where the bulbourethral gland secretions are added. The sperm plus the glandular secretions are now considered semen, and it travels through the penile urethra and exits the penis.
What is the acrosome and its function?
The acrosome is a region at the tip of the head of the sperm that contains enzymes. These enzymes will wear away at the “shell” of the egg in order to penetrate and fertilize it.
Describe the secretion of the seminal vesicle:
secretes an alkaline fluid that contains fructose, prostaglandins, and coagulating enzymes. The seminal fluid is designed to enhance sperm motility and fertilization. This fluid composes about 70% of the semen.
Describe the secretion of the prostate gland:
a milky, slightly acidic secretion designed to activate sperm.
Describe the secretion of the bulbourethral gland:
the secretions of the bulbourethral gland are designed for lubrication and neutralization. The mucus content lubricates the glans penis. The secretion is slightly alkaline which helps to neutralize the slightly acidic environment of the urethra (from the urine.)
Where in the ovary do the follicles develop?
Follicles develop in the cortex.
Which hormone causes the follicles to develop?
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) will trigger the maturation of the follicles following puberty.
What is the mons pubis?
Translated: “mountain on the pubis” Mons pubis is the fatty rounded area superficial to the pubic symphysis. This region is covered with pubic hair.
“Os” is opening. The external os is the opening of the cervix that leads from the vaginal canal into the cervix. The internal os is the opening of the cervix that leads into the uterus.
What are polar bodies? When do they form?
A polar body is formed during meiosis. Unlike male meiosis where each division results in an equally sized cell that eventually becomes sperm, the female oocyte division yields unequal cell sizes. After the first division, there is one large cell created, and one small cell. The small cell is the polar body. Most of the content of the polar body has been donated to the oocyte to ensure its survival.
What event has to take place before the final stage of meiosis is completed for the oocyte?
The only way to complete meiosis in the oocyte is for the egg to be fertilized.
What structure in the lining of the fallopian tube allows for the transportation of the oocyte?
The cilia line the fallopian tube, creating a current that moves the oocyte towards the uterus.
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