· Origin The bony site of attachment at the relatively stationary end
· Insertion The attachment site at its more mobile end
1)Occurs at stimulation freg of 20-40/sec.
2) T- results from 2 stimuli arriving close together.
3) W- results from 1 wave of contraction added to another.
4) piggy back the first wave
Internal Charge between (-60mV and -80mV) around -70mV. More negative than exterior.
White matter: is nerve fibers (axons). White matter forms the bulk of the deep parts of the brain and the superficial parts of the spinal cord.
Gray matter: is cell bodies; located at the cerebral cortex (the outer edge of the brain) and the centre of the spinal cord.
What are the functions of the following lobes of the brain:
• The sympathetic division is the “fight-or-flight” system
• Involves E activities – exercise, excitement, emergency, and embarrassment
• Promotes adjustments during exercise – blood flow to organs is reduced, flow to muscles is increased
• Its activity is illustrated by a person who is threatened
– Heart rate increases, and breathing is rapid and deep
– The skin is cold and sweaty, and the pupils dilate
What are the functions of the parasympathetic N.S.?
• Concerned with keeping body energy use low
• Involves the D activities – digestion, defecation, and diuresis
• Its activity is illustrated in a person who relaxes after a meal
– Blood pressure, heart rate, and respiratory rates are low
– Gastrointestinal tract activity is high
– The skin is warm and the pupils are constricted
Cholinergic fibers – ACh-releasing fibers
•Adrenergic fibers – sympathetic postganglionic axons that release Norepinephrine
• ACh is released by all preganglionic axons and all parasympathetic postganglionic axons.
· In the parasympathetic division, neurons are cholinergic (that is, aceytecholine is the primary neurotransmitter.)
All preganglionic fibers, whether they are in the sympathetic division or in the parasympathetic division are both cholinergic (that is, these fibers use acetylcholine as theirnerotransmitter.)
A thicker connective sheath that wraps muscle fibers together in bundles called fascicles
A fibrous sheath that surround the entire muscle
A sheet of connective tissue that separates neighboring muscles or muscle groups from each other and the subcutaneous tissue