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Causes uterine contractions potentially due to prostaglandinsynthesis (uterine receptors for oxytocin increase throughout pregnancy). Isdependent on estrogen, and is antagonized by progesterone.
Is also part of the milk ejection reflex
...GTP binding activates phospholipase; acts on phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, splitting into 2nd messengers: inositol triphosphate & diacylglycerol.
Secreted by mother’s anterior pituitary gland
First secreted by corpus luteum, then by placenta. Softens and loosens connective tissue at symphysis pubis joint in preparation for birth.
Inhibitor of uterine contractibility
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin
penetration of sperm into 'mature' secondary oocyte 2. zona pellucida
What is a morula?
Embryo from the 16 cell stage to its 60-100 cell stage of its “dividing ball” of a self
Implantation occurs on or about the 7th day after ovulation.
1. zona pellucida (around dissolving embryo) dissolves. 2. cells of trophoblast attach to endometrial cells 3. development of the placenta
1. AMION develops from ectoderm
2. YOLK SAC (and allantois) from endoderm
3. CHORION from the surrounding trophoblast
how social context andsocial cues impact the way individuals act.
Ex.) Peoplewho wouldn't exhibit a certain behavior in one social context might do so inanother context.
The degree to which ties are reinforced through indirect paths within a social network.
Material:books, fashion, constructed out of envrmt.
During First Few Weeks of Embryonic Development
At 3-5 Weeks
Embryo is quite human like
Digits have appeared
External eyes are visible
Eyes move anteriorly
Major organ systems are developing
Brain continues to grow
Skeletal muscles begin to contract spontaneously
Cartilaginous model of the future skeleton is laid down, andvery early ossification occurs
External genetalia are in early stage of development
End of First Trimester
Second Trimester (fourth, fifth, and sixth months)
Third Trimester (Seventh Eighth, and Ninth Months)
Rapid growth, eyes open. Fetus born prematurely can surviveat this point.
Kidneys and Urine Cycling in the Fetus
Towards end of first trimester, mother’s kidneys produceurine that’s voided into amniotic cavity. The fluid s drunk by the fetus (about200 ml per day) and is returned to mom’s kidneys. Since the urine is not voidedby he fetus, toxic waste must be removed by blood stream via the placenta
The ______ system is the first to develop in the embryo
Embryo’s Heart development
Blood begins to circulate by end of third week, and tubelike heart begins to contract on day 22. By fifth week, all four chambers arevisible, but not fully divided with valves until week eight.
Embryo’s Circulatory System
Changes at Birth
Formation of Blood Cells
At 3 weeks, they’re made by the yolk sac.
Then, at 6 weeks,by the liver. By 3rd month, spleen and lymphoid tissue take over.
Finally, after 3rd month, red bone marrow takes role, which allowsthe rest to lose this function.
Three Common Birth Defects
Abnormalities that allow blood to bypass the lungs and flowdirectly from the right heart to the left heart. Only happens if the pressurein the right heart exceeds the left.
Tetralogy of Fallot >> blue baby
Tetralogy of Fallot
“Blue baby,” characteristic four cardiac defects:
ACTH and Cortisol
Fetal pituitary starts secreting ACTH, which causes thesecretion of cortisol.
Cortisol stimulates the formation of lung surfactant.
Three parts of Labor
Controlled by a positive feedback loop
Seven functions of blood
Examples of Binding Proteins in the blood
Whole blood consists of…
Red and white blood cells, and platelets suspended in fluid called plasma
What is hematocrit?
If no anticoagulant is added before centrifuging, when the clot forms, the fluid above is considered “serum.” It isn’t composed of the protein fibrinogen, prothrombin, and other factors involved in clotting. Plasma does contain these factors, and so the centrifuge separates out only the cells.
Plasma consists of___% water and ___% other constituents, the major one _____
91, 9, protein
100 ml of plasma contains:
______, ______, and________ are considered the formed elements of blood
Three types of white blood cells
T- (cytotoxic, helper, regulatory)
Natural Killer cells
The process of blood cell production is called _____
Hematopoiesis, or Hemopoiesis
How are Lymphocytes different in terms of formation?
Regulation of Hematopoeisis: red blood cell formation
Erythropoietin is released more by tissue hypoxia = anemia, high altitudes, or impaired oxygenation of hemoglobin
Regulation of Hematopoeisis: white blood cell formation
Are controlled under growth factors (ex. Colony Stimulating Factor = include subgroup, interleukins)
Regulation of Hematopoeisis: platelet formation
Committed lymphoid progenitor cells give rise to
Lymphocytes, which differentiate to T-, B-, and natural killer cells
Committed myeloid progenitor cells give rise to
Monocytes, Megakaryocytes, Erythorcytes, Granulocytes ( = basophils, eosinophils, neutrophils)
Anemia, 6 types
Dietary Factors needed in normal differentiation of bone marrow cells
RBCs – Numbers
RBCs – physical characteristics
Contents of RBC
It’s a cell membrane enclosing a solution of proteins,salts, and the enzymatic components of the glycolytic pathway for metabolizingglucose to pyruvate or lactate.
Contain carbonic anhydrase, but no ability to create newenzymes
RBCs – Flexibility
Very flexible to squeeze through capillaries half their diameter
RBCs -- Hemoglobin
RBCs look red because they contain a high conc. of the red (containing iron) protein hemoglobin.
Binds O2 very well = bright red. No O2= blueish
Lifetime and Breakdown of RBCs
A person expecting to undergo surgery will bank his or her blood ahead of time
The _________ determines blood type.
Agglutinogens; these are antigens present on RBC membranes that are involved in cell agglutination.
Blood type A, B, AB, and O have ___, ____, ____, ____ agglutinogens
A, B, AB, neither A or B
_________ are considered the antibodies in an individual’s plasma that are against those ________ absent from their own RBCs
Blood Type A, B, AB, and O have which agglutinins?
A = anti-B agglutinins
B = anti-A agglutinins
AB = no agglutinins
O = anti-A and anti-B agglutinins
Blood type _____ is considered the universal donor and blood type ____ is considered the universal receiver
Anti-Rh antibodies can cross the placenta because they belong to a group of antibodies called
Immunoglobin G, or IgG
Because these types of antibodies belong to the group IgM, which don’t as readily cross the placenta
If an individual is Rh-positive, then they…
Have agglutinogen D
What happens if an Rh-negative mother has an Rh-positive baby?
An Rh-poisitve baby has agglutinogen D, whereas the mother does not. After the first exposure (first child), the mother will produce anti-D IgG (because the mother senses these antigens as foreign and therefore potentially hazardous). After second exposure (second child), the anti-D IgG will attack the baby, and can lead to serious problems = hemolytic disease of the newborn, or erythroblastosis fetalis.
How sperm move through female reproductive tract?
What happens when the sperm reaches the mature oocyte?
Sperm penetrates mass of cumulus cells around mature oocyte by way of hyaluronidase enzyme.
Sperm binds to zona pellucida
Acrosome Reaction >> acromal cap breakdown, release enzymes inside.
Proteolytic digestion allows sperm to wriggle through zona pellucida
Fusion of both membranes triggers cortical reaction >> change in zona pellucida preventing other sperm from binding (“polyspermy”)
Sperm enters cytoplasm.
Where do we derive our mitochondrial DNA?
All from our mothers. Once sperm enters mature oocyte’s cytoplasm, all its own mitochondrial DNA is destroyed.
What ignites completion of meiosis II?
What is a dikaryon zygote?
When the sperm has entered the oocyte’s cytoplasm, its previously highly condensed DNA decondenses to form a “male pronucleus.” At this point, the zygote has two nuclei, hence the name.
First Stages of Mitotic Division
1. First mitotic cleavage
2. Cleavage to form a morula
What is a blastocyst?
At 60 to 100 cell stage, fluid enters to form a blastocoel within. The entire structure is called the blastocyst.
Inner cell mass = embryo proper
Trophoblast = cells forming a sphere around blastocoel (some part of trophoblast becomes placenta)
At blastocyst stage, trophoblast secrets human chorionic gonadotropin; the presence of this hormone in the blood signals that a woman is pregnant.
The ______ continues to surround the developing embryo like a protective “shell” until the blastocyst “hatches” just before implantation
Initial process of Implantation (getting to the uterus)
The presence of_______ from the ___________ is essential for the process of initial implantation and sustenance of the embryo
Progesterone, corpus luteum
Process of implantation in uterus
1. Blastocyst “hatches” from zona pellucida
2. Exposed cells of trophoblast attach to endometrial walls by releasing proteolytic enzymes that digest & liquefy the walls. It burrows, and uses these broken down products as nutrition. Then, the trophoblast multiplies rapidly, ultimately forming an inner trophoblast and outer syncytiotrophoblast layer. At this point >> Fully enclosed in cells of endometrium. For first 8 weeks, gets all its nutrients in there.
3. Development of the placenta forms from both the trophoblast and endometrium
What is the purpose of the placenta?
To supply nutrients, and remove waste products and carbon dioxide, in addition to endocrine functions
Three primary germ layers, briefly described
At second week, inner cell mass develops 3 layers = embryonic disk >> start of gastrulation.
Cells of embryonic disk differentiate and organize to form embryo proper. Others form other membranes and placenta.
Ectoderm gives rise to:
Nervous system, portions of most sensory organs, lens of eye, adrenal medulla, posterior pituitary gland, epidermis and its derivatives, epithelial lining of the anus and nasal and oral cavities
Mesoderm gives rise to:
All muscle tissue, skeletal tissue, connective tissues, blood vessels, dermis, bone marrow, lymphatic tissue, kidneys & ureters, gonads, adrenal cortex, endothelial lining of blood and lymph vessels
Endoderm gives rise to:
Epithelial lining of the digestive, urinary, respiratory tracts, and vagina; liver, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, anterior pituitary
Three major membranes develop:
Amnion from the ectoderm
Yolk sac from the endoderm
Chorion from surrounding trophoblast
Development of the Placenta
Embryonic component starts with chorion, with blood capillaries growing into chorionic villi, and blood flowing by day 16.
Maternal component includes blood sinuses with mother blood enclosing villi.
Blood doesn’t mix!
Portion of the endometrial lining that has thickened during placenta development
Movement of substances across placenta
The signal that pregnancy has begun is the secretion of ______ by the trophoblast, and can be detected in the mother’s plasma within ____ days of conception
Human chorionic gonadotropin, 9
Human Placental Lactogen
Formation of identical (monozygotic) twins
The division of early conceptus into two masses that develops into separate individuals.
Sometimes happens at blastocyte stage, so twins shares ame placenta but separate umbilical cords
Formation of Fraternal (dizygotic) twins
Contain numerous lysosomes and secretory vesicles
Process of neutrophils squeezing themselves through capillary walls, and proceeding towards inflamed area by amedoid movements
Involve in specific immune responses
Cancerous mutations of the cells in the bone marrow that produce white blood cells.
Content of Platelets
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
Hemostasis, definition and mechanisms
Prevention of blood loss.
Formation of Platelet Plug
Blood Clotting(Coagulation) Three Fundamental Processes
Two pathways initiateblood clotting: Intrinsic Pathway
Two pathways initiateblood clotting: Extrinsic Pathway
Tissue factor on fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells binds to and activates factor VII (which was synthesized by the use of Vit. K), which then activates Stuart factor.
Blood Clotting once Stuart factor is activated
Vit. K (among others) allows for the synthesis of prothrombin, which uses Ca++ to form enzyme thrombin, which converts soluble fibrinogen to insoluble fibrin, and activates Factor XII to stabilize and cross link fibrin.
X-linked hereditary bleeding disease caused by absence of a clotting factor (usually factor VIII, less commonly factor IX)
Anticlotting and Clot-Dissolving Mechanisms in the Body
1. Endothelial cells release substances that inhibit blood clotting or dissolve existing clots.
2. Plasma contains factors that inhibit clotting in normal, circulating blood
Acute Inflammation; body’s innate immune system
Macrophages and dendritic cells, mast cells, neutrophils, natural killer cells, complement
Acute Inflammation; body’s specific immune system
________ mediate the acute inflammatory response. These include…
cytokines; interleukins (IL-#), hematopoietic cytokines, colony-stimulating factors, growth factors, interferons, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).
____ and ____ cause fever through alternation of the body temperature set-point in the hypothalamus
IL-1 and TNF
_______ stimulate the inflammatory responses of neutrophils, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection by secreting _____ and _____
Macrophages; IL-1 and TNF
______ are a subgroup of cytokines. They are chemoattractants for dendritic cells and leukocytes. They include _______, which attracts neutrophils to the site of infection
__________ cytokinesstimulate the bone marrow to produce more white blood cells. They include_______ and _____ and are produced mainly by _______
hematopoietic cytokines; interleukins and colony stimulating factors; tissue macrophages
A type of dendritic cells found in skin; may migrate to lymph nodes, where they’re called interdigitating dendritic cells
Connective Tissue area invaded by pathogen causes activation of: