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1 Where do you find microorganisms?
1 How many microorganisms are estimated to be on Earth?
1 How long have microorganisms been on Earth?
1 Are the majority of microorganisms beneficial or harmful?
1 Do good or bad microorganisms get the most publicity? Why?
1 What are microorganisms made of?
1 How do microorganisms impact our lives through the following:
1 How do microorganisms impact our lives through the following: Agriculture
1 How do microorganisms impact our lives through the following: Food
1 How do microorganisms impact our lives through the following: Enery
1 How do microorganisms impact our lives through the following: Bioremediation
1 How do microorganisms impact our lives through the following: Biotechnology
1 Name 6 characteristics of living cells.
1 Who was the first to use a microscope to see microorganisms? What did he see? What type of microscopy did he use?
1 Who was the first to use a microscope to see bacteria? How do we know he saw bacteria?
1 What type of microscopy did Antoni van Leuwerisk use?
1 What are the four types of light microscopy?
1 What must be done to a microorganism to be able to see it with brightfield light microscopy?
1 Which types of light microscopy allow you to view a live sample?
1 What is the maximum resolution of a compound light microscope? Describe what that value means in practical terms when viewing a specimen.
1 What are the two types of electron microscopy? When would you use one type instead of the other?
1 What is the maximum resolution of an electron microscope?
1 What is the smallest microbial cell size discovered thus far? Would this cell have a high or low surface area-to-volume ratio compared to an average eukaryotic cell?
1 What is the significance of a cell having a high surface area-to-volume ratio?
1 Discuss the problems a cell might have it were less than 0.2microns.
1 Compare and contrast a prokaryotic microbial cell and eukaryotic microbial cell.
1 What microorganisms have a phospholipid bilayer form their cytoplasmic membrane?
1 What microorganisms have a lipid monolayer form their cytoplasmic membrane?
1 Contrast the phospholipid bilayer with the lipid monolayer? What molecules make up each? What are the different linkages characteristic of each?
1 What advantage would microorganisms with a lipid monolayer have over those with a lipid bilayer?
1 What are the functions of the cytoplasmic membrane?
1 Where is the cell wall located relative to the cytoplasmic membrane?
1 What Bacteria lack a cell wall?
1 What are most Bacteria cell walls made of?
1 The amount of peptidoglycan in the cell walls of Bacteria distinguishes what types of Bacteria?
1 Describe the peptidoglycan structure.
1 The glycosidic bond between the two N-acetyl-glucose sugars in peptidoglycan can be cleaved by what enzyme? What is the significance of using that enzyme to cleave that bond?
1 Describe what would happen if a bacterial cell were put in a solution with lysozyme added?
1 Describe the Gram-positive cell wall.
1 What is function of teichoic acids and lipoteichoic acids?
1 Describe the Gram-negative cell wall.
1 What is the lipopolysaccharide layer?
1 What part of the LPS is toxic? When is it toxic?
1 Compare and contrast Archaea pseudomurein and Bacteria peptidoglycan.
1 What types of cell walls are found in Archaea species?
1 What types of cell walls are found in Eukarya species?
1 What are the functions of the cell wall? How does the structure of a cell wall suit the functions?
1 What are fimbriae? What does a prokaryotic cell do with fimbriae?
1 What is a pilus? What does a prokaryotic cell do with a pilus?
1 Where would an S-layer be found? What purpose does it serve?
1 Can all Bacteria form a capsule?
1 What is a capsule made of? How does a capsule’s composition suit its function?
1 Slime is made for what purpose?
1 What type of microorganisms make slime?
1 Movement using slime secretion is called what?
1 What are the 3 main parts of the prokaryotic flagellum? What is the purpose of each?
1 Compare and contrast a prokaryotic and eukaryotic flagellum.
1 Would you expect a Bacteria and Archaea flagellum to be the same or different?
1 Identify the two types of flagellation.
1 Describe the movement of a polar flagellated prokaryotic cell.
1 Describe the movement of a peritrichous flagellated prokaryotic cell.
1 What are taxes? Give 3 examples of taxes.
1 Describe an experiment to demonstrate chemotaxis.
1 Describe an experiment to demonstrate phototaxis.
1 Describe an experiment to demonstrate aerotaxis.
1 What does a cell use to sense the environment?
1 What are 2 other ways that a cell can move other than gliding and flagella?
1 Describe how a cyanobacterium could move to obtain optimum wavelengths of light for photosynthesis.
1 Where do Gram-negative purple sulfur bacteria store sulfur?
1 What does the carboxysome store for some bacteria and cyanobacteria?
1 Describe the process of sporulation.
1 How does the structure of an endospore help it to be a survival structure?
1 Where is an endospore formed? Does this vary depending on the microorganism?
1 Describe the process of germination.
1 What age is the oldest known endospore to have germinated? Where was the endospore found?
1 What are the organelles of a eukaryotic cell? What is the purpose of each organelle?
1 Describe the flow of information within the cell for a digestive enzyme starting with the DNA in the nucleus.
1 Are viruses living cells?
1 What is virus made of?
1 What are the two forms of a virus? In which form does the virus do harm?
1 Describe the genome of a virus. How do viral genomes differ from the genomes of living cells known today?
1 What part of a virus gives the nucleocapsid its helical or icosahedral symmetry?
1 What is a viral envelope? What cell structure is the viral envelope similar too?
1 What does it mean for a virus to have complex structure?
1 Distinguish between a viroid and a prion. Are they living? Are they viruses?
1 Describe the possible mechanism by which a prion causes disease.
1 In what form (single or double stranded, linear or circular) are most prokaryotic genomes?
1 In what form (single or double stranded, linear or circular) are most eukaryotic genomes?
ii proton motive force drives the flagellum motor to rotate the flagellum filament
iii 60 cell length/second can be achieved