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motile by flagella
The idea is that layers of rock closer to the surface are younger, while those further below the surface are older
measuring the time since molten rock cooled sufficiently (solidified) to prevent loss of the “daughter isotope”/ Typically carried out in igneous or metamorphic rocks
The history and relationships of groups of organisms
Blue-green bacteria before finding prokaryotic cell structures
- includes land plants as well as several lineages of protists (e.g., green algae and red algae)
- Genus of Colonial Green Algae:Volvox
Skippers, butterflies and moths
grasshoppers, crickets, locusts
phylum arthopoda/sub-phylum chelicerata
mouthpart, spiders, that are used to stab and paralyze pray
tube-like structures inside a spider that they use to make silk thread
organs that horseshoe crabs respire
thick-wall muscular pouch below the crop in many reptiles for grinding food
abdominal flexor muscles
muscles in the abdomen of arthropoda, crustacean on lobsters, crabs/help escape predators
organs that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide in water.
lower part of the jawbone in vertebrates
first pair of swimmerets/thick and lie against the abdomen; helps transfer sperm to females
filter suspended food particles from water currents and pass the food to the mouth
lead hoppers, aphids, cicadas, scale insects
ants, bees, wasp
Starfish, sea urchins, and sea cucumbers
Sea squirts and Salps
also called tunicates
any gland that secretes substance to help transform food into substances the body can use
what are three functions of tube feet?
Is the water vascular system equivalent of the cardiovascular system in mammals?
found in phylum chordate
sub-phylum cephalochordate and urochordata
a flexible rod-like structure that forms the supporting axis of the body
dorsal nerve cord
a neural tube dorsal to the notochord
fresh water and marine
motile by flagella
-motile by cilia
motile by cilia
Arrangement- grape like clusters
counteracts effects of gravity (vertical plane)
1.) To be an efficient swimmer, the organism must also counteract _____ and reduce ____ (resistance).
Explain how aquatic vertebrates provide lift.
Low density body structures
Fish regulate amount of air inside bodyIncrease or decrease buoyancy
Low density body structures
o Density of organs less than water due to oil storage (e.g. liver, flesh)
o Provides buoyancy
o Heterocercal caudal fin particularly good at generating lift in addition to thrust
Undulations are ______ of the vertebrate body where as _____ are the back and forth movement.
Instability during swimming can be caused by three factors. Name and describe each factor then provide the name of the fin(s) that counteract that form of instability.
· Roll: tendency to move side to side
o Controlled by dorsal and anal fins
· Pitch: tendency to move up and down, especially at front of body
o Controlled by pectoral and pelvic fins (in advanced fish)
· Yaw: tendency to go right or left
o Controlled by caudal fin
turbulence as fish moves and displaces water (create waves/turbulence behind you that pull you back)
How do aquatic vertebrates reduce drag?
· Body covering
o Smooth skin (reduces viscous drag)—no scales or many small ones
o Mucous/slime over scales (reduces viscous drag)
· Body shape
o Streamlined body reduces inertial drag
o Thin body = more viscous drag, but less turbulence
____Anguilliform_____: Most of body used to produce thrust
____Carangiform__: Front half rigid, back half produces waves
___Ostraciiform_____: Only caudal fin involved in thrust
______ locomotion is the use of appendages for swimming.
· Undulatory- use fin undulations
o E.g. bowfin, knife-fish (dorsal & anal fins); rays, skates, pufferfish (pectoral fins)
· Oscillatory- use back and forth movements of appendages
o E.g. frog, duck, otter (limbs like oars)
o E.g. turtle, penguin, seal (limbs like wings)
1.) Explain the two types hermaphroditism and provide an example for each.
3 types of embryo development & state who uses which type.
Oviparous: embryo develops in structure outside of female body(egg)—contains all nutrients to nourish embryo---E.g. common in fish, amphibians, some reptiles, all birds, monotremes
Viviparous: embryo retained within female’s body (pregnancy); Female provides nourishment through placenta; offspring is said to be born “alive”----- E.g. All mammals except monotremes, some amphibians
Ovoviparous: female produces egg, but retains it within reproductive tract; female doesn’t provide further nourishment; egg hatches inside female, young exit body “alive”-----E.g. some snakes and sharks
1) Monogamy--- 1 male + 1 female pair-bond at least through breeding season; actually uncommon
2) Polygamy---- multiple pair-bonds formed at one time, or sequentially
o Polyandry—1 female, many males (very rare in vertebrates)
o Polygyny—1 male, many females (much more common in vertebrates)
3) Promiscuity---- no real pair-bonds formed; multiple partners; come together only to shed gametes; many fish, reptiles, mammals
List some factors, which allow vertebrates to know when breeding season is approaching.
· Proximate factors
o Photoperiod (number of daylight hours in 24 hr period)
o Temperature (especially of water)
o Tidal cycles and Rainfall
· Ultimate factors
o Food (availability when offspring are born)
o Nesting/breeding sites
Give some examples of this type of behavior that occurs in reptiles and birds, and mammals.
· Reptiles- stereo-typed behaviors such as head-bobs, dewlap (skin under chin) extensions, etc.
· Birds- species-specific songs, postural displays, and some elaborate dances
· Mammals- calls, male-male competition, other displays
Name some reasons that indicate why the senses are important.
· Help detect heat, light, pressure, other organisms (predators, prey)
· Define and limit known world (if can’t smell it/detect it, don’t know its there)
· Sense organs enable vertebrates to monitor the environment and permits evolution of complex behaviors
The more _____ environment, the greater _____ of sense organs to survive.
a. _____ is constrained by limits of the sensory systems.
Name the 3 types of sense organs and examples of each.
1)Chemoreceptors- smell and taste
2) Mechanoreceptors- touch & pain; hearing/lateral line; equilibrium
3) Electromagentic- light (vision); heat; electrical/magnetic (animal navigation)
What are the 5 basic tastes?
a. Which of the 5 is an important warning sign of toxicity?
Chemical scents have a variety of important functions. List a few.
Recognition- species, ex, individuals, predators, prey, etc.
Emotional states- e.g. fear, readiness to mate
Advertisement- e.g. territorial, mating
Orientation- e.g. scent tracks
Touch/Pain is sensed by ______ nerve tissue and sends information off to the CNS. If the touch/pressure is sustained, the nerve tissue _______.
Explain what a lateral line is and who uses it. What behavior is it important in?
Lateral line- distant pressure receptor for detecting wave vibrations and currents in water (helps detect nearby movements of prey, predators, mates, or just position of static objects)
o Found in fish, frogs, and adult salamanders
o Important in fish schooling behavior
· When water displaced, moves hair cells in the cupula, which are connected to neuromast cells: sends nerve signal to brain
How does the transmission of sound differ in water than in air?
· In water:
o More difficult to initiate (water is more dense than air)
o Once initiated, transmission (speed) more rapid (5x)
o Speed slows down in colder and deeper waters
Frequency determines the ____ (high or low) while amplitude determines _____ (volume).
Hearing in mammals begins in the middle ear with 3 subdivisions. Name each of these, their function, and their components.
Outer ear- collects sound waves and take to tympanic membrane (eardrum)—vibrates
Middle ear- air-filled chamber with 3 bones (malleus, incus, stapes = middle ear ossicles)
o Ossicles amplify vibrations (sound) coming from eardrum
Inner ear- contains the cochlea ( = organ of hearing; filled with liquid and uses hair cells to detect movement)
The eye has three main layers, which include the ___ (outermost), _____ (middle), and ______ (innermost).
Give the function for the following:
a. Cornea- transparent and bends light (brings into eye)—covers iris & pupil
b. Iris- regulates light opening (pupil)
c. Lens- helps focus
Cornea- transparent and bends light (brings into eye)—covers iris & pupil
Iris- regulates light opening (pupil)
Lens- helps focus
Explain how light is detected in rods and cones. What pigments are used?
Rods- contain photosensitive pigment (= rhodopsin)
o Light (photon) strikes rodà rhodopsin activatedà enzymatic activity of opsinà amplifies light à generates & propagates a nerve impulseàinfo sent to CNS
Cones- similar process, but have different photo pigments that respond mainly to blue, green, or red wavelengths
Red pigments have a _____ wavelength in comparison to violet pigments with a much _______ wavelength.
Color vision is most commonly seen in ______ animals.
The light sensitive spot on top of the head called the ______ ______ is found in many fish, some reptiles, and some birds.
What are some eye adaptations that amphibious fish and diving birds possess?
o = 4-eyed fish (only 2 eyes but 2 pupils per eye)
Diving birds (many)
o Dual focus
Describe the 4 types of pupil shapes and their function.
Rod- only nocturnal or diurnal (e.g. owl)
Vertical- nocturnal, sometimes active in day (allows more complete closure)—(e.g. frog)
Horizontal- allows wide-range scanning; good in wide open habitats –(e.g. sheep)
Vertical pin-holed- several images, yield great depth of field despite monocular vision (e.g. gecko)
transparent, prevents drying out and helps cleanse the eye.
Many deep-water fish species are capable of ______ meaning they can produce light for foraging, predator avoidance, and/or communication.
1.) Pit vipers use a pair of ___ organs to detect _____ given off by small mammals when hunting at night.
Some fish can ______ electric signals, while others can both _____ & receive these signals.
Fish and birds can use ______ _____ for orientation & navigation.
There are three main classes of neurons, what are they and their functions?
Sensory (afferent) neurons- sense the environment and take sensory information to the CNS
Interneurons (99% of all neurons)- connect neurons together in CNS (integrate info)
Motor (efferent) neurons- receive info from the CNS and takes it to effector organs (e.g. muscles, glands) to elicit/trigger a response
· Occur in response to a stimulus
· Produced by changes in membrane electrical potential
· All-or-none responses
· Stimulus intensity signaled by frequency of impulse (large stimulus = high frequency—number of impulses increases, not 1 bigger action potential; small stimulus = low frequency)
· Resting potential- net positive charge outside and negative charge inside the cell
o Membrane maintains high K+ inside axon and high Na+ outside axon
o At rest, membrane is more permeable to K+, less to Na+
o A Na+/K+ pump helps maintain membrane potential (2 K+ in, 3 Na+ out)
· Action potential- rapid perturbation of the resting potential caused by a stimulus
o Impulse started by opening Na+ permeable channels
o Na+ rushes into axon reversing polarity (depolarization)—now + inside, - outside à then K+ moves out reestablishing the resting potential
The bigger the axon, the _____ the response.
Vertebrates increase the speed of impulse conduction by ________ axons. In this way, charge propagates by _____ movement/conduction.
· 1) Electrical- charge flows across “gap-junctions” (between axon and dendrite)
o No time lag (very fast)—good for escape reaction
· 2) Chemical- use neurotransmitters that diffuse from one membrane to the other to propagate signal
Describe the sequence of signal transmission used in a chemical synapse.
1) Action potential arrives at synapse
2) Ca+ channels open and Ca+ rushes into cell
o Causes release of neurotransmitters into synaptic cleft
3) Neurotransmitter binds to receptor in post-synaptic membrane (excites it)
4) Postsynaptic action potential produced and propagated
5) Neurotransmitter inactivated
6) Resynthesized, returned, stored
Although brain size tends to __ with body size, proportionally larger animals tend to have relatively ___ brains.
______ ____ are critical for fast responses and use neurological feedback loops to function. These involve only 2-3 neurons and by-pass the ____ for an even faster result.
Wing is curved and teardrop shaped (thick at leading edge, thin at trailing edge)
· Air traveling over the wing moves faster than air under wing because it has to travel farther/longer distance (due to the teardrop shape of the wing) in order to “keep up” with the air moving below the wingThis leads to reduced pressure on top of wing compared to below the wing
o = Results in lift!
· Flight speed:
o Increase speed = increased lift
· Angle of attack
o Increased angle (to a certain limit: <15 degrees) = increased lift
o Alula and notches between primary feathers smooth out air flow
· 3 wing motions coordinated during flight stroke
o Flap: up and down (down flap to go up; flap up to go down)
o Twist: tilt up or down to adjust angle of wings
o Fold: stretched out or pulled more in (scrunch into body)
· Wingtips describe a figure-8 pattern
· Reduce drag, makes flight stroke more efficient and powerful
· Frictional drag- friction between body and air
· Pressure drag- air hitting front of wing
· Induced drag- air vortices (turbulence) on wingtip
o 1) Increase angle of attack; 2) Increase surface area; or 3) Flap harder with wing on rolling side
· Pitch:o Wings move forward to create upward pitch and backward for downward pitch
o Increase drag on wing that is advancing more rapidly (increase angle of attack while decreasing area)
· **Also use these same behaviors to induce roll, pitch, and yaw
· Formation where 1 bird is a leader in a group and the rest follow behind
o Useful because ones following leader encounter less turbulence and therefore spend less energyIndividuals will switch with leader (since it takes more energy