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The proposed explanation for a phenomenon is BEST described as:
A testable prediction
Statistical methods make it possible to:
Reject any hypothesis.
Assume you hear males of a particular species of bird calling in their natural environment and question why they call. You design the follow experiment to try to answer your question. You cage one male individual and record his calling rate in response to four treatments. You vary the sex and species of the birds that your male subject could see. Your treatments are: no birds of the same species; 10 male birds of the same species; 10 female birds of the same species; 5 male and 5 female birds of the same species. The results of the experiment show that the rate at which the male subject called is the same across all four treatments.
Males of your species call when called to.
Males of your species do not call.
Males of your species call more often than do females.
Males of your species call less often than do females.
Males of your species call at a rate that is independent of the sex composition of the audience.
In 1998, the prestigious medical journal, The Lancet, reported that 12 children in England who received the vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) exhibited symptoms of autism soon after the vaccination. Which of the following, if true, would cast doubt on the causal linkage between the vaccine and thedevelopment of autism?
Later studies of hundreds of thousands of children in Denmark found no statistical difference in theincidence of autism among children who were vaccinated and children who were not.
A later study in Japan showed that after the use of the MMR vaccine was stopped, the incidence ofautism continued to increase.
The original English sample was selected rather than randomized.
All of the above cast doubt on the causal linkage between the vaccine and the development of autism.
Only a and c cast doubt on the causal linkage between the vaccine and the development of autism.
Which of the following is NOT true about prokaryotic cells?
They may have flagella but they never have cilia.
Iridology is a medical technique where practitioners can diagnose health problems by studying changes in the irises of a patient's eyes. Which of the following statements, if true, would suggest that iridology is a pseudoscience?
Patients going to both standard doctors and iridologists become measurably healthier.
Doctors of standard medicine generally agree with the diagnoses of iridologists.
Statistically, patients going to iridologists are healthier than those who go to standard doctors.
Iridology is taught as an alternative medical diagnostic procedure in most medical schools.
The purpose of the experimentation phase of the scientific method is to:
Gather preliminary data from which a hypothesis can be made.
Which of the following are not components of animal cells?
Are made from cholesterol.
Are "erased" by the HIV virus.
Are exposed on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane.
Can help the immune system distinguish "self" from "non-self."
All of the above are correct.
To be useful in the scientific method, an observation must be:
By 1796 it had been observed that milk maids who had been exposed to cowpox did not succumb to the deadly plague of smallpox that was ravishing both Europe and Britain. From this observation, Edward Jenner was able to construct the world's first successful vaccine. Which of the following statements best fits Jenner's hypothesis that led him to his creation of the vaccine?
If milkmaids exposed to cowpox are immune to smallpox, then cowpox and smallpox are the same disease.
Exposure to smallpox always gives immunity to cowpox.
If exposure to cowpox gives immunity to smallpox in milkmaids, then exposure to cowpox should give immunity to smallpox in other individuals as well.
If exposure to cowpox gives immunity to smallpox in milkmaids, then milkmaids have a natural immunity and their blood should be used to develop a smallpox vaccine.
Cowpox and smallpox are caused by the same microorganism.
Sperm are able to move largely due to their _____.
During endocytosis, particles are transported ____ the cell within a _____ .
out of, vesicle
out of, vacuole
Plant parts that contain a lot of poisonous materials to protect them from being eaten by animals would have many _____ .
Prokaryotic cells _______ .
Arose more recently in evolutionary history than eukaryotes.
Have a nucleus.
Muscle cells have high energy needs therefore you would expect these cells to contain lots of _____ .
Our livers are responsible for processing particular drugs we take. Therefore we would expect the liver to have lots of _______ . Increasing the amount of this particular cell organelle is what sometimes causes people to build up a tolerance to drugs, requiring them to take ever increasing quantities of the drug to feel the same effect.
Someone brings you an unidentified item that has not been described by scientists yet. According to cell theory, what could you examine to determine if this item was alive?
Whether the item was composed of carbon
You woke up today and read "you are what your grandparents feared!". The news article referred to a single study based on a total of 2 rats, 1 of which received fear stimulation by electrocution. The researchers then followed up till the grandoffspring generation and reported that 3 grandoffspring pups showed the same anxious behavior when touched by the same deactivated electric rod despite never seeing it before. This report:
Did NOT report proper controls
Included very few experimental subjects
Was not replicated
All of the above
The "fingerprint" found on the outsides of cells is the BEST underlying explanation for:
Why beta blockers reduce anxiety.
How can statistics putdata in context to determine if a hypothesis is supported or not?
Function: Energy Storage. This group is better known as the fats (neutral fat). As their name suggests, the triglycerides are composed of one molecule of glycerol and joined via ester bonds with three molecules of fatty acids. What is this lipid?
These fats are solid at room temperature and are contained in food products like butter, shortening, or the fat on meat products. Some types of oils like palm kernel oil and coconut oil, contain saturated fat. Whole dairy foods also contain trans fats.
Trans fat is formed when hydrogen is added to vegetable oils, a process called hydrogenation which increases the shelf life and flavor of food containing these fats. Trans fats can be found in many types of pre-packaged items, like cookies. Saturated fat and trans fat raise blood cholesterol levels, increasing a person's risk of developing heart disease.
These fats are in a liquid form when at room temperature and in the refrigerator, they can be polyunsaturated or monounsaturated. Polyunsaturated fats help your body rid itself of newly formed cholesterol. They keep your blood cholesterol level down and reduce cholesterol deposit build up in your artery walls. Examples of polyunsaturated fats include - fish and fish oil, sunflower oils, corn and soybean. Monounsaturated fat is found in olives, olive and canola oil, most types of nuts and their oils and avocados.
Lower density as a solid than as a liquid.
A transparent color.
The capacity to serve as a solvent to many other molecules.
Strong cohesion among the individual water molecules.
High heat capacity.
Caffeine Is NOT a nutrient that can be converted to ATP to provide energy.
Which of the following is FALSE?
Total cholesterol includes both HDL and LDL
The phosphate groups in ATP:
Represent a significant source of stored energy
All of the above are correct.
In terms of energy storage, _______ is to animals what _______ is to plants.
An inherited disease results from abnormal mitochondria passed from mother to child. Using your knowledge of mitochondria’s function within human cells, which of the following is the most likely description of the symptoms of this disease?
The energy transformation pathways of cellular respiration and photosynthesis are related in which of the following ways?
Photosynthesis produces glucose and oxygen, whereas cellular respiration produces carbon dioxide and water.
Photosynthesis requires carbon dioxide and water, whereas cellular respiration requires oxygen and glucose.
Photosynthesis is the energy-releasing stage, and cellular respiration is the energy-acquiring stage.
Photosynthesis is the energy-acquiring stage, and cellular respiration is the energy-releasing stage.
A, B, and D
Which carbohydrate is of most importance to living organisms?
Fossil fuels are composed largely of:
During C4 photosynthesis:
Plants are able to generate water molecules to cool their leaves.
Which of the following is found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
a) Golgi apparatus
Prokaryotic organisms lack:
a) replicator molecules (DNA or RNA).
b) cell membranes.
e) All of the above.
Which of the following is a cellular characteristic of ALL eukaryotes?
a) a nuclear membrane
b) few to no organelles in the cytoplasm
c) a cell wall
d) a nucleoid
e) few to no proteins associated with the DNA
The four most abundant elements in living organisms are:
carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and calcium.
sodium, nitrogen, carbon, and silicon.
carbon, nitrogen, helium, and oxygen.
hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon.
carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus.
In harvesting the chemical energy of the molecules in food:
all macromolecules must first be converted into glucose.
all macromolecules must first be converted into their hydrocarbon chains.
all macromolecules must first be converted into glucose or another simple sugar.
organisms can utilize sugars, lipids, and proteins.
all macromolecules must first be converted into proteins or free-form amino acids.
Are nutritionally identical, since all are broken down into their constituent amino acids in the digestive system.
Are considered complete only if the contain 12 non-essential amino acids required by humans
Consist of all 20 amino acids required in the human body
Can be obtained from animal but not plant source
Are considered complete only if they contain the 8 essential amino acids required by humans
In animals, exertion without sufficient oxygen (such as in strenuous workouts) leads to the production of:
Which of the following is FALSE about dietary fiber?
It occurs in fruit, vegetables, and whole grains.
It is good for the digestive tract.
Cows can break down dietary fiber to extract nutrition.
We break down and absorb dietary fiber for energy and building blocks in our cells.
Cells in all green plant parts have ___________, the organelles that perform photosynthesis
Photosynthesis says to cellular respiration: “You --------------- me”.
c) Have nothing to do with
An organism either uses only cellular respiration or only fermentation. An organism cannot switch back and forth between the two.
Long-term energy storage and insulation, membrane formation, and creation of sex hormones are characteristics of which of the following?
Saturated fatty acids have _________________ than unsaturated fatty acids, which is why they exist as a ____________ at room temperature.
Fewer double bonds; solid
More glycerol molecules; liquid
Cholesterol is a non-essential molecule that causes diseases and is exclusively gained through ingestion of fatty foods.
Underweight females lose their menstrual cycle likely due to:
Loss of carbohydrates that are precursors for the sex hormones
Loss of proteins that are precursors for the sex hormones
Loss of fat that are precursors for sex hormones
Loss of gene function that is responsible for sex hormone production
You have to drive for 4-6hours straight on a road that lacks food places to meet a client in a rural area. Among the following, which breakfast would best fit the energy and time demands?
Toast with banana slices
An apple, banana, and blueberry smoothie
Oatmeal and an apple
The structure of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins affects their function.
All alcoholic beverages are produced as the result of an alternate of cellular respiration known as ------------------------:
Glycolysis by bacteria occurring in the absence of free electrons.
Biofuels are the perfect ecologically safe substitute for fossil fuels.
Different steps in cellular respiration occur in different locations in the mitochondria. Which of the following does NOT properly match a step of respiration to its proper location?
a) a gradient of hydrogen ions phosphorylates ATP: inner mitochondrial membrane
b) molecule of CO2 released: matrix
c) energy transferred from NADH and FADH2 to ATP: inner mitochondrial membrane d) two carbons manipulated through the Krebs cycle: matrix
e) All of the above are correct matches between function and location.
Which by-product of photosynthesis was important in altering the atmosphere of the earth so that aerobic organisms could evolve?
b) methane gas
d) carbon dioxide
If a thylakoid were punctured so that its interior was no longer separated from the stroma, which of the following processes would be most directly affected?
a) the absorption of energy by chlorophyll
b) the flow of electrons from photosystem I to photosystem II
c) the synthesis of ATP
d) the oxidation of NADPH
e) the splitting of water
During photosynthesis, visible light has enough energy to directly:
a) excite electrons.
b) synthesize NADPH.
c) convert ADP into ATP.
d) reflect light in the red spectrum.
e) split a water molecule into hydrogen and oxygen.
Which of the following sequences accurately represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?
a) NADPH → O2 → CO2
b) NADPH → chlorophyll → Calvin cycle
c) NADPH → electron transport chain → O2
d) H2O → NADPH → Calvin cycle
e) H2O → ATP → Calvin cycle
Where does the Calvin cycle take place?
a) in the stroma of the chloroplast
b) in the thylakoid membrane
c) in the Hobbesian membrane
d) in the cellular cytoplasm
e) around the chlorophyll molecule
a) is not performed in plants, which get their energy solely through photosynthesis.
b) occurs in all cells.
c) is performed solely on the glucose ingested by the organism.
d) is also referred to as the Krebs cycle.
e) completely oxidizes glucose to carbon dioxide.
Which of the following statements about glycolysis is INCORRECT?
a) It occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell.
b) It requires oxygen.
c) It results in the oxidation of glucose.
d) It generates ATP.
e) It leads to the formation of pyruvate.
During the Krebs cycle:
a) the products of glycolysis are further broken down, generating additional ATP and the high-energy electron carrier NADH.
b) cellular respiration can continue even in the absence of oxygen.
c) the products of glycolysis are completely converted into ATP.
d) high-energy electron carriers pass their energy to molecules of sugar which store them as potential energy. e) the products of glycolysis are further broken down, generating additional ATP and the high-energy electron carrier NADPH.
Briefly describe the adaptations of C4 and CAM plants that reduce water loss through stomata.
Where in a chloroplast do the light-harvesting reactions of photosynthesis occur? How about the sugar synthesis reactions?
According to the theory of endosymbiosis, the origin of chloroplasts probably involved:
a) the formation of cell walls around the photosynthetic pigments.
b) the formation of colonies of cyanobacteria.
c) the engulfing of small photosynthetic prokaryotes by larger cells.
d) the accumulation of free oxygen in ocean waters.
e) All of the above are correct.
The lipids within the fluid mosaic of the plasma membranes are held in place by:
a) covalent bonds.
b) hydrophobic interactions.
c) hydrogen bonds.
d) disulfide bridges.
e) ionic bonds.