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naming, describing, and classifying organisms
International code of zoological nomenclature
creates stability and universality in scientific names. first name is capital and second name is not. both ate italicized.
first name is the genus . second name is the species
classification and what are they
branch of taxonomy that groups things together . domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species
identification of evolutionary relationships among species through time
pattern and history of evolutionary descent of all taxa in a classification of organisms.
2 populations of species are separated by geographical isolation. they are then exposed to different conditions so their genes diverge and if they are complete separate they can become 2 different species.
nee speciew formed within range of parent population.
anagenesis or phyletic evolution
transformation of one species to totally different species.
cladogenesis or branching evolution or divergent evolution
budding off of one or more new species from parental species that coexists for a time
monophyletic group or clade
single common ancestor and all species that descended from it
2 or more ancestors . some descendants and common ancestor are left out
had common ancestor but some descendants are left out
same structure but different function.
different structure but same function . based on convergent evolution
homoplasy and what causes it
similarity in appearance bw 2 groups due to independent evolutionary change. due to convergent evolution and evolutionary reversal
derived or specialized trait
primitive or ancestral trait
derived trait unique to one group in a clade
derived trait that is shared with 2 or more groups
primitive trait shared with groups in other glades as well
biological species concept
population(s) that can breed with each other.
Whittaker's 5 kingdoms and what's it each
king Monera = prokaryote(bacteria)
k. protista = primary unicel eukaryotes
k. plantae = multicellular eukaryotes that can photosynthesis
k. fungi = multi cell eukary with saprozoic nutrition
k. animalia = multi cell eukary with holozoic nutrition
worse 3 domains and what's in them
bacteria (eubacteria) = prokaryotic from k. monera
archaea = also prokaryotic
eukarya = eukaryotic kingdoms (protists , plantar,fungi, animalia)
how do prokaryotes reproduce
only asexually by binary fission
"clone" cell divides into 2 equal parts
4 groups prokaryotes can be grouped in based on how they obtain energy and carbon
phototrophs, chemotrophs, autotrophs, heterotrophs
use light for energy
use chemical in environment for energy
on CO2 as carbon source
needs at least 1 organic nutrient as carbin source
what are the 4 supergroups for protista (k.
excavata, SAR (stramenopila, alveolata, rhizaria) ,archaeplastida, unikonta
have excaviated groove on side of body.
diplomonadida = Guardia . have mitosomes
parabasalids = trich vaginalis . have hydrogenosomes
euglenozoans-flagellates = tryp sleeping sickness . have kinetoplast
supergroup SAR (Stramenopila)
"hairy flagella". have 2 flag.
1. bacillariophyta (diatoms) . shaped like a Petri dish and have silicon dioxide in cell wall.
2. golden algae (chrysophyta).
3. brown algae (phaeophyta)
4. h2o molds. oomycota. mildew and white rust
1. dinoflagellates. cause red tides. "whirling flag"
2. apiocomplexans. parasite . malaria . apical complex to help in ade host.
3. ciliates. "cilia bearers". conjugation to reproduce.
refered to as amoebas.
1. foraminiferan. "little hole bearers". shells of ca carbonate.
2. radiolarians. skeleton made of silica
C.A engulfed cyanobacterium.
1. rhodophyla. red algae.
2. chlorophyta. green algae.
have single posterior flagellum in module cells
use LG lobe shaped pseudo podia or lobopodia for Movt.
1. mycetozoa. "fungi animals". slime moldsmolds
2. gymnamoebas. naked amoebas in soil and h2o.
consume whole organisms
osmotrophs. feeding on food in fluid form.
union of 2 gametes. combines genes from 2 individual into offspring.
asexual proccess of spores forming
when gametes are same size
when gametes are different sizes
bacteria transfer DNA to another bacteria
3 life cycles of eukaryotic organisms
what 8 things distinguishes land plants from charophytes
apocal meristems, embryophytes, alternation of generation, sporangia produce spores, gametangia produce by gametes, can aquire trans and conserve h2o, h2o and nutrient trans, 2ndary compounds
cell division at tips of roots that allow roots to grow
parent provides nutrients, sugars, amino acids for embryo
what life cycle do land plants show
sporic life cycle with alternations in generations.
reproductive cell that can develop into new organism without another cell
on sporophyte . they produce spores.
layered over spores to make them tough and resistant to environment
where gametes are produced
female is archegonium. produce 1 egg cell
male is antheridia. produce many sperm to environment.
sperm fuses with egg making making embryo which become a sporophyte
protects plant from microbule attack and is waterproof to prevent h2o loss
pores in leaves that exchange of co2 and o bw outside air and air in leaf . also allows h2o to exit via evaporation.
help with uh protection and can be used for medicine
5 extant groups of land plants
1. bryophytes. moss, liverworts, hornworts
2. lycophytes. club mosses and cousins
3. pterophytes . ferns and kin
4. gymnosperms. naked seed plants
5. angiosperms. flowering plants
refers to bryophytes bc they don't have tracheids
tracheophytes or vascular plants
ferns, angiosperms, gymnosperms
what is the dominant generation of bryophytes
what are the vascular tissues in plants
xylem and phloem
which plant group is seedless
pteroohytes (ferns )
what are the 2 groups that are seedless vascular plants
lycophyta and pterophyta
includes hydras, sea anemones, corals etc.
1. Platyhelminthes [Plat·ē·hell·men·th·ē·s](flatworms)
2. Mollusca (clams, snails, squids)
3. Annelida (segmented worms)
No- the clade is primarily defined by DNA not morphological similarities
Some have crown ciliated tenticles that function in feeding called lophophores, while others go through a distinctive developmental phase known as trochophore larvae, many others in the clade don't have either of these features.
1. Nemotoda (round worms)
2. Arthropoda (insects and crustaceans)
1.Echinodermata (sea stars/ sea urchins etc)
2. Chordata (lancelets, hagfish etc)
1. marine/ some freshwater (2. sessil (3. no tissues, organ systems, nervous systems (4. internal skeleton made of either spicules or a network of sponging (5. most are hermaphrodites (6. reproduce asexually by fragmenting and budding
amoeboid cells that are involved in digestion and food transport (they can obtain food
vacuoles from choanocytes). they move through the mesophyll of sponges.
Amebocytes also are involved in spicule and spongin production,
reproduction, and localized contraction of the sponge body.
spicules and what are they made of?
Many sponge cells are what we call ___: each cell can potentially
give rise to any other cell type.
The cardiac cells are connected by _____, and the cells are arranged in branching
networks. These structures help to coordinate contraction of adjacent cells.
Trick question! None
Calcarea and Silicea
Pinacocytes are thin plate-like cells lining the outside of the sponge, as well as lining the spongocoel and canals. They
act as a outer covering or barrier.
Some sponges reproduce by
producing clusters of amebocytes inside a hard shell, called a ___ which can
survive harsh environmental conditions.
The Cnidarians are one of the ____ phyla (not Eumetazoans- something else not mentioned in the book); they are the oldest eumetazoans found in the fossil record.
1. Class Hydrozoa
2. Class Scyphoza
3. Class Anthozoa
They usually have both polyp and medusa
stages, but the polyp stage is usually dominant.
polyp & medusa
[BOTH have (1. tentacles (2. gastrovascular cavities (3. gastrodermis (4. Mesoglea (5. Epidermis (6. Mouth/anus]
BUT the polyp is sessil and has a body stalk while the Medusa is free swimming and looks like jelly fish
The epidermis of Cnidarians (especially on the tentacles) contains stinging cells called
Inside a cnidocyte is an spiked,
harpoon-like organelle called the ___, which can be discharged rapidly and pierce, entangle, and/or paralyze prey. They can also be used in defense.
Cnidarians have a simple ___ ___, but they have no distinct brain (thus no cephalization).
have a ____ ____
Platyhelminthes have clusters of nerve cells, called ___, in the anterior end,
with nerve cords running posteriorly.
Do Platyhelminthes have:
1. muscular and nervous tissues?
2. respiratory and circulatory systems?
3. distinct digestive, nervous and reproductive organs?
Flatworms move by the use of ___ along their ventral surface, gliding through a thick __ they
Flatworms are either free-living carnivores that occasionally are parasitic (class ____), or are
obligate parasites living inside the digestive respiratory, or circulatory systems of other animals (class ___ and class ____).
Cestoda and Trematoda
How do Platyhelminthes
1. Class Turbellaria (free living planaria)
2. Class Trematoda (the flukes)
3. Class Cestoida (the tapeworms)
What does Cephalochordata
the Subphylum [From the phylum Chordata] that consists of the lancelets. "head cord"
The most basal group of extant chordates.
the cilia on tentacles of lancelets mouth used for filter feeding
the sea squirts! AKA Tunicates.
Sister taxon to the Cephalochordata.
filter feeders. lose notochord as adults. sessile. marine. expanded pharynx. incurrent (oral) and outcurrent (atrial) siphons. hard outer body covering- the tunic. Monoecious- form colonies by asexual budding. open circulatory system.
the subphylum after Urochordata. the Hagfish. Marine.
No jaws and vertebrae but retain notochord. one pair of semicircular canals.
they have a rudimentary one- lacking a heart and capillary beds.
blood lacks blood cells and hemoglobin.
Describe the lancelet and name the chordate subphylum they are located in
retain all four chordate hallmarks through life. segmented in cheveron-like muscle blocks called somites. filter feeder. motile. marine- moving via movements of a caudal fin. dioecious.
segmented muscle blocks as seen on lancelets
Chordates are ____, ____, _____ symmetrical ___stomes.
Chordates are triploblastic, eucoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical deuterostomes.
List the 8 major 'groups' of Caniates covered in class.
(casual/ scientific name)
1. Hagfishes / Myxini
2. Lampreys / Petromyzontida
3. Cartilaginous fish / Chondrichthyes
4. Boney fish / Osteichthyes
5. Amphibians / Amphibia
6. Reptiles / Reptilia
7. Birds / Aves
8. Mammals / Mammalia
oldest of major 'groups' of Craniates that also lack paired fins and scales.
Includes Hagfish and Lampreys
Myxini have 1 pair of semicircular canals
While Petromyzontida have 2
a parasite that lives on the outside of its host rather than within the hosts body. Petromyzontida or Lampreys are an example.
Another ex would be fleas and lice
Petromyzontida body fluids are _____ and _____ regulated
osmotically and ionically regulated
they are all Craniate taxa [except for hagfish and lampreys]
1. Jaws and teeth
2. paired limbs
3. 3 pairs of semicircular canals
4. well developed brains
lay eggs that hatch externally.
lay eggs that hatch in the female’s reproductive system.
bear live young; there are no ‘eggs’ laid initially.
The fish are unable to synthesize the ____ _____ _____ in their metabolic pathways,
so they must be supplied in their food.
Talk to meh about Chondrichthyes! (7)
(sharks, skates, rays and relatives)
1. cartilaginous endoskeleton (derived character)
2. use gills for respiration, most must swim to respire
3. 3 modes of reproduction Ovi. Vivi. Ovovivi.
4. hearts- 2 chamber
6. sharks tail provide propulsion, fins stabilizers
7. high levels of Urea and TMAO in blood
the boney fish.
Most abundant vertebrate group. Marine / freshwater. swim bladders. Operculum. Efficient gills w/ counter current flow. tails/fins for mobility. scales. excellent osmoregulators.
Some older textbooks refer to the bony fish as a single class (‘Class Osteichthyes’), but in reality,
what we call ‘bony fish’ is composed of two (or three, depending on the authority) distinct classes.
2. the lobe-finned fishes (Class Sarcopterygii)
3. the lungfishes (Class Dipnoi)
Sarcopterygii the lobe fin fish?
They have long, fleshy muscular lobes to their fins, the lobes contain articulated bones that are extensions of the pectoral
and pelvic areas. The bony rays are on the ends of the lobes, and the fin rays can be moved
independently by muscles inside the lobe.
Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals
key general characteristic of all tetrapods?
they all have two pairs of limbs. They are thought
to have evolved from lobe-finned fishes from the Devonian period.
1. air provides little support against gravity (strong limbs are needed)
2. Temperatures change rapidly/ dramatically compared to water
3. eggs would rapidly dry out on land
How did tetrapods arise?
In the Devonian, the freshwater environments dried out periodically/ were often hypoxic (low oxygen levels). Lungfishes & lobe-finned fishes had a type of lung that developed as an outgrowth of the pharynx. This lung-like cavity became vascularized & increased the oxygen uptake of these animals.
double circulation pattern arose- pulmonary circulation (deoxy blood from heart - lungs - heart -body)
General amphibian characteristics:
2. must return 2 water to lay eggs (which lack shells)
3. [most] skin is smooth & moist w/ many glands (bc they respire through their skin)
4. good ecological indicators of ecosystem health
5. show metamorphosis
6. have closed circulatory system/ 3 chamber hearts/ double circulation.
important adaptation in the higher vertebrates.
egg is shelled to prevent desiccation, and has a series of extraembryonic membranes
that help the embryo develop totally inside a terrestrial egg. The egg is still ‘porous’ however, to
allow gas exchange through the shell.
On amniotic eggs- allows a place to store wastes (other than ammonia) allows for water conservation. The
allantois is also involved in gas exchange.
On amniotic eggs- The chorion is involved in gas exchange from the embryo and the outside, through the shell. Cuts
down on water loss. The outermost membrane.
The yolk sac surround the yolk. The yolk and albumin provide nutrients.
Amniotic egg- The amnion is the fourth membrane that immediately surrounds the embryo and the amniotic fluid
(the embryos are bathed in fluid, similar to the ocean). It is the innermost membrane around the embryo. prevents dehydration and cushions the embryo.
Reptiles, Birds and Mammals
General amniote characteristics (6)
1. 4 extraembryonic membranes (amniotic egg)/ internal fertilization
2. advanced excretory systems
3. tough leathery skin (protects against desiccation/ physical injury)
4. strong jaw muscles
5. more efficient circulatory system
6. efficient respiratory systems
negative pressure -breathing system. pulls in air like a suction pump. For example, mammals expand the thoracic cavity via the actions of the diaphragm and the rib cage muscles (negative pressure breathing), whereas the amphibians (frogs, for example) use positive pressure breathing – ‘gulping’ in air by the action of the oral cavity muscles.
•Oviparous / dioecious
•Scales made of keratin
•3- or 4-chambered hearts and double circulation
•Lung for gas exchange
•Ectothermic (some can show regional endothermy)
•Eggs have calcareous or leathery covers, no larval stages
•Endothermic, oviparous, dioecious, uricotelic
•Four-chambered heart with double circulation
•Nucleated red blood cells (like reptiles)
•Beaks, no teeth
•Unique respiratory system (air sacs, gas exchange on inhalation and exhalation)
(other than heart/circulation/brain)
•Leathery skin with hair (modified scales)Sweat glands / Mammary glands and milk
•Specialized teeth (heterodonts)
•Three inner ear bones
•Secondary palate, separates trachea from esophagus / Muscular diaphragm
•Non-nucleated, biconcave red blood cells
•Dioecious and internal fertilization
•The placenta / Ureotelic
Like reptiles they have one opening (cloaca), and they lay shelled eggs), other anatomical details are reptilian-like – ribs, vertebrae, skull, limb girdles)
pouched mammals. They are
mammals are viviparous species that nourish their developing embryos using the mother's
blood supply, allowing longer gestation times. The young, when born, stay with the mother and
nurse off of her milk, produced by mammary glands.
Mammals use urea for
1. they cover all of the free body surfaces and form many important glands
2. it is anchored by connective tissue by a basement membrane
Epithelia function in protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensory reception.
Of the four tissue types, the (name tissue) cells are the most mitotically active.
1. Simple squamous epithelium
2. Simple cuboidal epithelium
3. Simple columnar epithelium
4. Stratified squamous epithelium
Simple squamous epithelium consists of a single layer of flattened cells. Functions in gas exchange
(lungs) and other organs
Simple cuboidal epithelium consists of a single layer of cube shaped cells. It carries on secretion and
adsorption in the kidneys and various glands.
Simple columnar epithelium consists of elongated cells whose nuclei are located near the basement
membrane. It lines the uterus and the digestive tract (in the digestive tract, they secrete the
enzymes and also absorb the digested nutrients).
Connective tissue connects, supports and protects other tissues. provide a framework for other tissues, fills space, stores fat, produces blood cells, provides protection against infection, help repair damaged tissues. Cells are separated from each other, found in single cells or a small # of cells in clusters, have a matrix between them, many come from the mesochymal stem cells
a) a ground substance that can vary from fluid to solid, and
b) proteinaceous fibers of several types. Collagen is one prevalent fiber type.
this tissue is composed mostly of strong
collagenous fibers and relatively few cells (fibroblasts). Fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons
(connects muscle to bone), ligaments (connects bones to bones at joints), the whites of the eyes, and in
the deep layers of the skin.
cartilage provides support and a framework for various parts (nose, ears, ends of bone,
windpipe, vertebral discs)
Cartilage does not have a direct blood supply, so it heals more
slowly than bone, which has a blood supply.
Chondrocytes are the only cells found in cartilage.
The cells (chondrocytes) are
embedded in lacunae (little ‘island’-like spaces).
the intercellular matrix of bone consists of mineral salts (Ca and P) and some collagen fibers.
Bone is the strongest connective tissue.
The living cells in bone are called
Bone cells arefound in small pockets called _____, (= “islands”). The material of bone is often arranged in concentric
circles (___) around ______ ______ (containing the blood and nervous supply) and the cells are
connected to the blood supply via _____ (little canals)
Blood is composed of red blood cells (_____), white blood cells (____) of various types, and _____, suspended in plasma.
a) These muscles are controlled by conscious effort. Skeletal muscles typically are attached to bones
b) The skeletal muscle cells (fibers) are large cylindrical cells and they are multinucleated. Prominent
striations are observed.
c) The skeletal muscle fibers contract immediately when stimulated and relax immediately. Skeletal muscles fatigue most rapidly, compared to the other types
a) This tissue is found in the walls of hollow internal organs (gut, bladder, blood vessels). It is not
striated and each cell has one nucleus. Smooth muscle fibers are thin and spindle shaped
(tapered at both ends).
b) Smooth muscles are controlled by involuntary activity. They contract relatively slowly when
stimulated, but they do not fatigue as quickly as skeletal muscle.
a) This tissue is found only in the heart. Cardiac muscle is under involuntary control. The cells are
striated and often branched, and they have only one nucleus per cell.
b) The cardiac cells are connected by intercalated disks, and the cells are arranged in branching
networks. These structures help to coordinate contraction of adjacent cells.
c) Cardiac cells are intermediate in contraction speed and the time to fatigue.
Muscle tissues are contractile tissues that moves parts of the body.
Nervous tissues are found in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves. Nerves emanate from the brain and spinal cord to the other parts of the body.
Nervous tissue coordinates, regulates and integrates body activities.
Neurons are nerve cells and the primary signaling units of the nervous system. They are very sensitive to changes (they are very irritable) and respond by transmitting nerve impulses to other neurons or to other cells such as muscles
Glial cells (= neuroglia)
are regulatory, supporting, and protective cells that outnumber the neurons in
the nervous system. Neurons cannot process information without glial cells.
Riboflavin- cofactor in oxidation and reduction (FADH2, which makes 2 ATP), component of coenzymes FAD and FMN;
DEFICIENCY: cheilosis (chapped lips and fissures at sides of mouth, inflammation of lips)
Component of coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+
Deficiency- skin and gastrointestinal lesions, delusions, confusion
Function - Essential component for Coenzyme A and fatty acid synthase
Pyridoxine - coenzyme used in amino acid metabolism
Deficiency: irritability, convulsions, muscular, twitching, anemia
Biotin- coenzyme in synthesis of fat, glycogen, and amino acids
deficiency- scaly skin inflammation, neuromuscular disorders
Folic acid- coenzyme in nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism
deficiency- anemia, birth defects
Cobalamin- coenzyme- production of nucleic acids and red blood cells
deficiency- anemia, numbness, loss of balance
Ascorbic acid- Used in collagen synthesis; antioxidant
deficiency- scurvy (degeneration of skin and teeth), delayed wound healing
Retinol- component of visual pigments; maintenance of epithelial tissues
deficiency- blindness, skin disorders, impaired immunity
no name- Aids in absorbtion and use of calcium and phosphorous- antioxidant
deficiency rickets (bone deformities) in children, softening of bones in adults
Tocopherol- antioxidant, helps prevent damage to cell membranes
deficiency- nervous system degeneration
phylloquinone- important in blood clotting
deficiency- defective blood clotting
coenzymes involved in metabolism or antioxidants
(which can be involved in collagen synthesis for teeth, skin and gums)
Chemical digestion starts extracellularly first, with _____ cells subsequently absorbing food
particles (via ___).
Digestive tube w/ mouth & anus.
The digestive tube that consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, and anus.
pepsinogen (chief cells),
hydrochloric acid (pariental cells),
mucus (goblet cells),
hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharides and disaccharides in the oral cavity at the onset of ingestion