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7. Which of the following is (are) found in prokaryotic cells?
8. A prokaryotic cell does not have a _______ or _______.
a. nucleus; organelles
may be a distinct entity or a building block of a more complex organism.
68. The type of cell that always lacks a cell wall is the _______ cell.
19. _______ are involved in cytoplasmic streaming, in the “pinching” of a cell that ultimately divides an animal cell into two daughter cells, and in the formation of pseudopodia.
. Darwin noted that all populations have _______ potential to grow, but that in nature most populations _______ over time.
a group of morphologically similar organisms capable of interbreeding.
The nature and diversity of life have changed over time.
. Earth is approximately _______ years old.
It is thought that the process by which some prokaryotes were consumed by, then integrated into, other prokaryotes took place about _______ years ago.
c. all conversions of matter and energy taking place in an organism.
13. The initial accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere was the result of photosynthesis from an organism most like modern
14. A prerequisite for the survival of life on land was the accumulation of
15. The chemical formula for ozone is
16. Ozone is important to life on Earth because it
c. blocks much ultraviolet radiation.c. blocks much ultraviolet radiation.
17. Most _______ must obtain their energy from the sun.
18. Plants are
a. eukaryotic, multicellular photosynthesizers.
19. When biologists organize species into groups, they attempt to do so based on
d. degree of relatedness.
20. Scientists group species on an evolutionary tree based on
the fossil record.
b. physical structures.
c. gene similarities.d. All of the above
21. Domain Eukarya includes
b. Kingdom Plantae.
c. Kingdom Fungi.
d. Kingdom Animalia.
e. All of the above
22. An evolutionary tree
a. shows evolutionary relationships.
b. places the most closely related groups on the same branch of the tree.
c. places the organisms that share a common ancestor on the same branch of the tree.
d. shows the order in which populations split and evolved into new species.
e. All of the above
23. The branching patterns of the evolutionary Tree of Life are based on a rich array of evidence from
b. DNA sequencing.
c. metabolic processes.
d. Both a and c
e. All of the above
24. Heterotrophs cannot obtain their energy directly from
25. Members of the kingdom Animalia obtain their energy directly from
c. other organisms.
26. Heterotrophs obtain their energy from
c. other organisms.
27. Which of the following is not a major step in the hypothetico-deductive method?
a. Controlling an environment
28. After observing that fish live in clean water but not in polluted water, you make the statement, “polluted water kills fish.” Your statement is an example of
d. a hypothesis.
29. The key purpose of any single experiment is to
e. test predictions that are based on hypotheses.
30. Which of the following is not a feature of scientific hypotheses?
a. They are unable to be falsified.
31. Which of the following statements about Pieter Johnson’s experiments on frog limb deformities is correct?
a. In a set of comparative experiments, he had to reject his hypothesis that environmental contaminants were causing limb deformities in the frogs.
32. Which of the following statements about the scientific method is correct?
a. Deductive logic is used to make predictions from a hypothesis.
33. The advantage of controlled experiments is that
a. all variables are held constant except one.
34. Which of the following statements is false?
d. Scientists generally conclude that the differences they measure are true if the statistical tests show that the probability of error is 5 percent or lower.
35. Which of the following questions cannot be answered using the hypothetico-deductive method?
b. Are red roses more beautiful than yellow roses?
1. Most living organisms consist of one or more _______, contain _______ that is used to _______ themselves, are genetically related, have _______, and can regulate their _______.
2. _______ are structural, physiological, or behavioral traits that enhance an organism’s chance of survival and reproduction in its environment.
3. Currently, scientists agree with the estimate that life first appeared approximately _______ years ago.
4. Fatlike molecules were the critical ingredient in the enclosure of biological molecules in _______ because these molecules are _______ in water and tend to form membrane-like _______.
5. About _______ years ago, prokaryotes acquired the ability to photosynthesize.
6. Some organelles in eukaryotes can be described as _______ within a cell.
7. In contrast to eukaryotic cells, prokaryotes lack _______.
8. The total chemical activity of a living organism is its _______.
9. Single-celled organisms that lack discrete intracellular compartments belong to the two kingdoms called _______ and _______.
10. There are three domains used to categorize life forms that have evolved separately for about a billion years: _______, _______, and _______.
11. As many as _______ species inhabit Earth.
12. A Pacific tree frog has the scientific nomenclature of Hyla regilla. This particular tree frog belongs to the genus _______.
13. An _______ shows the evolutionary relationships among species.
14. Multicellular organisms that are photosynthetic belong to the kingdom called _______.
15. Fungi and animals are both _______.
16. Nonphotosynthetic multicellular organisms that ingest their food and absorb the products of digestion belong to the kingdom called _______.
17. All scientific study begins with making observations, asking questions, and forming testable _______.
18. The _______ hypothesis states that no difference exists due to the variable under investigation.
1. The surface area-to-volume ratio of an object can be decreased by
2. What must cells do in order to survive?
a. Obtain and process energy
b. Convert genetic information into proteins
c. Keep certain biochemical reactions separate from one another
3. How does the surface area-to-volume ratio of a 1-mm cube compare to the surface area-to-volume ratio of a 3-mm cube?
d. The ratio decreases as the cube becomes larger.
4. What is the major distinction between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell?
a. A prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus, whereas a eukaryotic cell does.
5. Which of the following is not a characteristic of a prokaryotic cell?
b. A nuclear envelope
6. Members of the domains Bacteria and Archaea
d. are prokaryotes.
9. You would not expect to find RNA in which of the following structures?
10. The DNA of prokaryotic cells is found in the
d. nucleoid region.
11. Ribosomes are not visible under a light microscope, but they can be seen with an electron microscope because
c. electron microscopes have more resolving power than light microscopes.
12. A general function of all cellular membranes is to
a. regulate which materials can cross the membrane.
13. The cytosol
c. is composed largely of water.
14. A specialized structure found in some prokaryotes is the
a. cell wall.
15. Specialized cellular appendages of prokaryotes that help bacteria adhere to one another when they exchange genetic material are called
a. carry on photosynthesis.
17. Some bacteria are able to propel themselves through liquid by means of a structure called the
18. If you removed the pili from a bacterial cell, which of the following would you expect to happen?
b. The bacterium would not adhere to other cells as well.
19. Why are prokaryotic cells generally smaller than eukaryotic cells?
e. Eukaryotes have compartmentalization, which allows for specialization.
20. The membrane surrounding each organelle
b. regulates traffic into and out of the cell.
21. Which statement about the nuclear envelope is true?
a. It contains pores for the passage of large molecules.
b. It is composed of two membranes.
22. The roles of biological membranes in eukaryotic cells include which of the functions listed below?
a. Separating a cell from its environment
b. Selecting what goes into and out of the cell
c. Maintaining a constant internal environment
d. Communicating with adjacent cells
23. A large organelle found in eukaryotic cells that genetically controls the cell’s activities is the
24. Of the following structures of an animal cell, the one with the largest volume is the
25. The membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum are continuous with the membranes of the
26. Plant and animal cells are similar in appearance. One difference is that
b. only animal cells contain centrioles.
27. Ribosomes are made up of
c. RNA and proteins.
28. Ribosomes are the structures in which
c. genetic information is used to make proteins.
29. Ribosomes are not found in
e. the Golgi apparatus.
30. Chromatin is a series of entangled threads composed of
b. DNA and protein.
31. Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?
32. The rough ER is the portion of the ER that
c. has ribosomes attached to it.
33. Cholesterol is synthesized by
c. the SER.
34. An organelle consisting of a series of flattened sacks stacked somewhat like pancakes is the
c. Golgi apparatus.
35. Proteins that are transported in vesicles are made by
d. ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
36. Proteins from the Golgi are transported to the correct location by means of
a. signals found on the packaged proteins.
37. Lysosomes are important to eukaryotic cells because they contain
e. digestive enzymes.
38. Which of the following is true of lysosomes?
a. They are the sites where autophagy occurs.
39. In the mitochondria, “food” molecules are converted to ATP by a process known as
a. cellular respiration.
40. The DNA of mitochondria
b. is used to make proteins needed for cellular respiration.
41. What is the purpose of the folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane?
c. They increase the surface area for the exchange of substances across the membrane.
42. A secondary lysosome is a lysosome that
d. is a primary lysosome that has fused with a phagosome.
43. The DNA of a chloroplast is located in the
44. Components of chloroplasts include
a. grana and thylakoids.
45. Which type of organelle is found in plants but not in animals?
46. What is the difference between “free” and “attached” ribosomes?
a. Free ribosomes are in the cytoplasm, whereas attached ribosomes are anchored to the endoplasmic reticulum.
b. Free ribosomes produce proteins in the cytosol, whereas attached ribosomes produce proteins that are inserted into the ER.
47. The carotenoid pigments that give ripe tomatoes their red color are contained in organelles called
48. Which of the following is a function of a plant cell vacuole?
a. Storage of toxic by-products and wastes
b. Support for the cell
c. Containment of animal-attracting pigments that aid in pollination
d. Hydrolysis of seed proteins into plant embryo food
49. An organelle found only in plant cells is the
50. Chloroplasts are the structures in which
d. sunlight energy is converted into chemical energy.
51. Chloroplasts are a kind of
52. Of the following plant cell structures, which is most likely to have the greatest volume?
53. Starch molecules are stored inside
54. The overall shape of a cell is determined by its
55. Which of the following is not a function of vacuoles?
e. Helping to anchor the cell in place
56. Microtubules are composed of monomers of
a. a- and b-tubulin.
57. Which of the following structures is (are) involved with the movement of organelles within a cell?
58. Hair and intermediate filaments are composed of
59. Microtubules are made of
b. tubulin, and they are essential in chromosome distribution during mitosis.
60. An organelle with an internal cross-section showing a characteristic “9 + 2” morphology is the
a. are shorter and more numerous than flagella.
62. The surface area of the small intestine is greatly increased by
63. Microvilli are created by projections of
64. Which of the following organelles is found at the base of every eukaryotic cilium and flagellum?
b. Basal body
65. The cellular structures that are almost identical to centrioles are
a. basal bodies.
66. Which semirigid structure supports the plant cell and determines its shape?
67. Uniform concentrations of cytoplasmic materials in plants are maintained by
b. membrane-lined channels called plasmodesmata.
69. The extracellular matrix of animal cells
d. helps orient cell movements during embryonic development.
70. Some organelles in eukaryotic cells are thought to have
d. originated from endosymbiotic relationships.
71. Which of the following organelles were once independent prokaryote organisms?
b. Mitochondria and chloroplasts
72. Which of the following is not an argument for the endosymbiotic theory?
b. Mitochondria and chloroplasts cannot be grown in culture, free of a host cell.
1. The fundamental unit of life is the _______.
2. The three principle tenets of biology—that all organisms are composed of cells, that all cells come from preexisting cells, and that cells are the fundamental units of life—make up the unifying principle known as the _______.
3. When you cut an orange in half, you _______ the surface area-to-volume ratio.
4. The light microscope has glass lenses that focus visible light for imaging, whereas the electron microscope has _______ that focus electrons for imaging.
5. The ability of living organisms to maintain a constant internal environment is known as _______.
6. The DNA in a prokaryotic cell can be found in the _______ region.
7. Archaea and Bacteria do not typically have membrane-enclosed internal compartments; therefore they are known as _______.
8. Some bacteria are not detected by the human immune system because they possess an outer layer of slime known as _______.
9. Membrane-bound compartments with distinctive shapes and functions are termed _______.
10. RNA is able to carry information for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm by passing through small perforations in the nuclear membrane called _______.
11. The shape of the nucleus is maintained by a protein meshwork called the _______.
12. The _______ is an organelle that serves as a sort of “post office” where some of the proteins synthesized on ribosomes and rough ER are processed and sent to their destinations.
13. Steroids, fatty acids, and phospholipids are synthesized in the _______.
14. The side of the Golgi facing the ER is the _______ face.
15. The substances that enter the Golgi come from the _______.
16. The organelle with many folds called cristae is the _______.
17. _______ is the process by which light energy is converted into chemical bonds.
18. Toxic peroxides that are formed unavoidably as side products of important cellular reactions are collected and neutralized in _______.
20. Tough ropelike filaments that stabilize cell structure and resist tension are classified as an _______ type of filament.
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