protist that absorb nutrients from dead organic matter
closest living relatives to plants
Digesting externally then absorbing it
fungi only obtain food by...
Penicillin was derived from what
a fruit is a...
_____ form beneficial symbiotic relationships with plant roots.
chintin and cellulose
fungal walls contain...
plant roots and a fungus
mycorrhizae are symbiotic associations between
Cyads are classified as...
keeping bacteria alive under harsh conditions
bacterial endosperms are used for
which lives in fresh water, enters through your nose, and causes brain inflammation
mad cow disease is caused by...
dry land enviornments
evolution of pollen and seeds is an advantage for..
trichomonas and giardia are parasitic protists in...
flowers or cones
what characteristic shows the difference between gymnosperms and angiosperms can one see with the naked eye?
any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus
which describes protists in a group?
which protozoan group consist entirely of parasites
in plants, the diploid, multicellular organism is the...
silicia shell and thread like pseudopods is a...
protist that lack mitochondria are...
reproductive structures of a sac fungi
Dental plaque is...
paralytic shellfish poisoning occurs when _____ are eaten by humans.
symbiotic association of algae and fungi
what are lichens
what is eukaryotic?
which protist group includes the water molds, diatoms, and brown algae?
AIDS is caused by...
Herpes is caused by?
The most ancient group of fungus is?
strep throat is caused by Streptococcus, a type of what?
what differentiates gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria?
group of land plants restricted to moist enviornments?
fungal group that provides swimming spores
a gameophyte is a what?
a virus consist of what?
chalky shells and thread-like pseudopods are characteristics of what?
Waxy coat on leaves
Which fungal phylum usually reproduces sexually?
A biologist who investigates how organisms interact with one another with their nonliving enviornment is studying?
sunlight that filters the canopy
In a deciduous oak forest in the northeastern U.S. one example of a nonliving component of an ecosystem is what?
a complex, interrelated network of organisms and the surrounding nonlinving enviornment is a defined area as a...
limits imposed on population growth by living and nonliving
enviornmental resistance is defined as...
population growth by a fixed by a fixed percentage of its size each year
exponential growth occurs when...
boom and bust cycles
an insect population grows exponentially until an early winter freeze kills almost all the insects. the next spring, the population grows exponentially again, this pattern is what?
which of the following is an important density-independent factor of limiting population size?
herd animals typically live in a _____ distribution pattern.
at present, earths human population is doing what?
the carrying capacity has been reached
when a population has inhabited an area for a long time and the population size has stabilized because of space and food limitations
a fungus that produces thousands of reproductive spores everyday
which species has the highest biotic potential
the different species within an ecosystem that interact in various ways make up a what?
all members of a species that reside within an ecosystem make up a what?
distance traveled by migrants
which factor does not influence the size of a population reaches over time
birth and death rates are equal, and immigration and emmigrants
a population will remain stable if what happens?
some predators feed preferentially on the most abundunt prey. this is _______ predation
The majority of the energy on earth origanates from what?
reflected or absorbed by the atmospheres clouds, earths surface
what happens to 99% of the energy that reaches earth's atmosphere?
if a bird eats an insect that ate a plant, the bird is considered a what?
The photosynthetic bacteria that forms the basis of the food chain in Great Salt Lake are classified as what?
net primary productivity of the community
if the plants in a community produce 500 grams of organic matter per square meter per year that is available for animals in the community to eat, this amount of energy is what?
number of producers and their efficiency
the amount of life that an ecosystem can support is determined primarily by the what?
The amount of energy lost as it passes from one trophic level to another
tertiary consumer and producers
a carnivorous plant, such as a sun dew, may be considered both a _________ when it eats a predacious spider
which nutrient cycle lacks an atmosphere reservior>
Acid precipitation is the result of interference with the _________ cycle?
sulfer and nitrogen release of CO2 from burning wood, coal, or oil
a major ecological concern, the greenhouse effect is caused by...
oceans, the atmosphere, and fossil furls are large reserviors of what?
have nearly been on earth throughout history
the atoms that make up the molecules of our bodies
a deer that gets its energy from eating plants is a what?
organisms that must rely on complex, high-energy molecules produced by other organisms for survival are what?
which level of the energy pyramid has the greatest biomass?
in the process________, species act as agents of natural selection on one another
predation is similar to _____ in that both types of relationship benefit on of the interacting species while harming the other.
partitioning their resources
if similar species each occupy a smaller niche when they live together then they would if they lived alone, they are ____________.
competitive exclusion principle
the concept that 2 species connot occupy the same ecological niche simultaneously and continuously is called what?
if an insect eats the lettuce seedlings in your yard it is a what?
a caterpillar develops toxic spikes to deter the bird that preys on it. over time the bird develops a digestive enzyme that neutralizes the toxin. this is called what?
predators would attack and eat the king snakes
harmless king snakes mimiic the color patterns of venemous coral snakes, which serve as models. If avoidance were solely based on prior predation experience with the models what would you predict to happen in areas where coral snakes were never present?
tapeworms in the human gut are considered what?
fleas feed on the blood of dogs, cats, and people. what is this called?
clownfish lieve within the tentacles of sea anemones, the anemone protects the fish from predators and the clown fish cleans the anemone. this is called ...
a species that plays a major role in determining the structure of its ecological community is a what?
succession that begins on bare rock after glaciers have passed or newly formed volcanic islands is called what?
After a forested area such as a national forest is cleared out, what type of succession occurs
birds follow animal herds to catch insects that are disturbed as large herbivores like water buffalo walk through the grass. the birds fly through the air and make warning calls when large predators like lions are near. what is this relationship?
many plants are mycorrhizal, Their roots are infected with a fungus. the plant supplies carbon to the fungus and the fungus supplies nutrience to the plants. this is called?
humans contract bacterial infections such as tuberculosis, what is this called?
Mosquitoes are what?
the only animals that lack tissues
concentration of sensory structures in head
in the animal kingdom, cephalization is what?
one trend in evolution of animals is that the increasing number of tissue layers during embryonic development. Flatworms and more complex animals have what?
organisms that are radially symmetrical have how many layers?
between the organs and the body wall, complex animals have a body cavity called what?
_______ are characterized by having a pseudocoelom/
insect group that is described as having true coelom.
Groups characterized by the lack of symmetry (nor radial or bilaterial)
the great squid is in what animal group
hydra, anemones, jellyfish; phylum.
phylum nematoda include which of the following common organisms, some are parasitic and most found in soil
invertebrate animal group characterized with a closed circulatory system
provides support and protection to arthropoda
an exoskeleton does what?
Insects are what?
which animal is arachnids?
____ use radulas to scrape food into its mouth
closed circulatory system
within the mollusks, only the cephalapods have a what?
Snail is a what?
Clam is a what?
spiders belong to the what?
crayfish belong to what phylum?
oysters are in what phylum
sea urchin is in which phylum?
animals that reproduce asexually belong to which phylum?
parasitic tapeworm belong to which phylum?
arthropod exoskeleton is composed of what?
Members of the taxonomic group _______have large, well developed brains, excellent vision and are marine carnivores
of all the invertabrite phyla, only member of the phylum ________ can fly
Leeches used by doctors to prevent blood clotting and stimulate growth at the blood vessels in patient recovory from contructive surgury, phylum?
thought to be extinct
discovery of celocanthe in south africa in 1938 surprised biologist, why?
present in all chordates
pharyngeal gill slits
at some stage in the life cycle of a chordate, they have what?
notochords are what?
absent in lancelets
tunicate is a ______
in vertebrates, notochord is replaced by ____
a lamprey is a ___
skeletons of rays and skates are made of ______
fins composed of a web of skin covering a thin, boney spines is a characteristic of ______
tadpole is in what phylum
reproduction requires water to allow fertilization and keep eggs moist
why cant amphibians be terrestrial?
Marsupial is a _______
birds belong to a related group of vertebrates that include all of the?
how do monotremes differ from other animals?
_____ are animals with the greatest number of species
Platypus belong to which group?
Humans belong to which group?
a man who routinely shaves the hair off his head will have sons who will become bald
which illustrates lamarck's theory on the mechanism of evolution?
experienced natural selection that has allowed the resistant Streptococcus to survive and multiply
An antibiotic is given repeatedly to treat a recurrent ear infection, what will happen to the bacteria?
inheritable mutations in the genes of an individual arise due to what?
The most well adapted individuals in their enviornments survive and reproduce, contributing most of the genes to the next generation
The theory of natural selection states what?
boa constrictors have tiny pelvic girdles and leg bones inside there bodies. "evolutionary baggage" proper term for the term for snakes not using their legs anymoreq
the human arm is structurally similar the the upper wing bone of a back. whats the term that connects the two
ancestrial whales had legs
the fact that whales have pelvic legs bones indicates what?
all living things are derived from a single common ancestor
of all the possible amino acids, all living organisms make use of only some amino acids, what does this indicate?
bobono monkeys are more closely related to humans than wolves are
the amino acid senquences of human and bobono monkeys hemoglobin are almost identical, comparing to wolves what does this mean?
the controlled breeding of domesticplants and animals by humans in order to produce certian physical traits is what/
cockroaches now avoid poisen bait that used to be very effective in killing them
which of the following situation situations has occured in insect pest in flordia due to natural selection concerning poison bait
evolved shorter legs adapted for smaller plants
anolis lizards with long legs adapted for climbing have been transplanted
use it only when you need to be free of bacterial contamination, so bacteria will be less likely to evolve resistance
bases on the way natural selection works, what is the BEST way to make use of antibacterial soap
embryos, biochemistry, fossils, and artificial selection
evidence that supports the theory of evolution is found in studies of what?
those pest were born with mutations that provided immunity will survive and reproduce
most commercial pesticides are effective for only a few years because why?
which of the following can evolve?
a change in the genetic makeup of a population overtime
Evolution can be defined as what?
no evolution will occur
within a large population, if no mutations occur, no migration occurs, all matings are random, and each individual has an equal chance of reproducing then what will happen?
which of the following can cause an evolutionary chance in a small population?
from an evolutionary point of view, what important process occurs when a young male baboon leave the troop that he was born into to join another troop/
habitat loss, natural catastrophes, and or excessive harvesting of species will cause what?
on that increases the frequency of successful reproduction
which of the following mutations would increase evolutionary fitness?
can be helpful, neutral or harmful to individuals
muations can have what effect to idividuals?
imagine a population of monkeys in south america whose habitat has been reduced to the point where there were only twenty left. what is this called?
the founder effect
the Pennsylvania amish have a very high frequency of an unusual allele that results in short arms and extra fingers
is beneficial to the cell in the presence of streptomycin
the bacterial allele that provides resistance to antibiotic streptomycin
if the tallest and shortest individuals of a population of humans do not survive and reproduce as well as the individualsof "average". what is this called?
in a certain species of salmon, some adult males are extemely large whereas others are not. what is the name for this disruption concerning natural selection?
the change in one population due to a change in another population is called what?
when a species lives in consistant environment for a long time, the "average type" of individual may have the best chance of surving and producing. what is this called?
suppose a population of mostly sand colored crabs move from a sand colored beach to a peddle beach. whats this called
population bottle neck
the extreme loss of genetic diversity that has occured in cheetah populations due to overhunting. what is this called
similarities in appearance
before the modern era of science, organisms were assigned to species on the basis of what?
if they mate successfully and their offspring are fertile, they are the same species
fruit fly species all look similar to one another. if you have a male and a female fruit fly, how can you prove that they are the same species?
two different species of pine release their pollen at different times. what does this cause?
in many species of fireflies, males flash light from there abdomens to attract females, whats this called?"
one method of protecting the genetic isolation of a population is the inability of sperm to fertalize eggs of a different species. whats this calles
horses and donkeys can mate successfully to produce mules, which are always sterile. whats the offspring called
a postmating isolating mechanism
two species of squirells live on either side of the grand canyon. it is believed that a long time ago, before being seperated
the parasitic Rhagoletis Flies that show a preference for either hawthorn or apple trees and are no longer interbreeding
a single species of finch from south america was displaced to a new habitat in the galapagos island and evolved into several new species, whats this called?
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